Food poisoning: Types, Symptoms, Treatment- NotesMed (2022)

Spread the love

Contents

  • 1 What is food poisoning?
  • 2 Types of food poisoning
    • 2.1 Non-bacterial food poisoning
    • 2.2 Bacterial food poisoning
      • 2.2.1 Infective type
      • 2.2.2 Toxic type
      • 2.2.3 Infective-toxic type
      • 2.2.4 Salmonella food poisoning
        • 2.2.4.1 Mechanism of food poisoning
      • 2.2.5 Botulism
      • 2.2.6 Cl. perfringens food poisoning
      • 2.2.7 V. cereus food poisoning
  • 3 Symptoms
  • 4 When to consult a Doctor for Food Poisoning
  • 5 Diagnosis
  • 6 Treatment of food poisoning
  • 7 Prevention of food poisoning
    • 7.1 Food hygiene
    • 7.2 Sanitary improvements
    • 7.3 Health education
    • 7.4 Refrigeration
  • 8 Surveillance
  • 9 People frequently asked questions
    • 9.1 Share this:
    • 9.2 Like this:

What is food poisoning?

Food poisoning is acute gastroenteritis caused by ingestion of food or drink that is contaminated with either living bacteria that are in large numbers or their toxins or inorganic chemical substances and poisons derived from various plants and animals.

The condition is characterized by the following manifestation:

  • History of ingestion of contaminated food products
  • Attack of many persons at the same time
  • The similarity of signs and symptoms seen in the majority of cases

Food poisoning: Types, Symptoms, Treatment- NotesMed (1)

Types of food poisoning

The types of poisoning depending on the germ you swallowed. It is mainly categorized into two types:

Non-bacterial food poisoning

In this case, signs and symptoms are caused by chemicals substances like arsenic, certain plants, and kinds of seafood.

Nowadays contamination of food in the majority of cases is by chemicals. Example: fertilizers, pesticides, cadmium, mercury, etc.

(Video) Clostridium botulinum | Microbiology | Handwritten notes

Bacterial food poisoning

In this case manifestation of signs and symptoms is caused by the ingestion of foods that are contaminated by living bacteria or their toxins.

It can be further classified into different types on the basis of the nature of bacteria-contaminated, includes:

Infective type

In this type, the multiplication of bacteria occurs in vivo when infective doses of microorganisms are ingested along with food.

The incubation period of an infective type bacterial food poisoning generally ranges from 8 to 24 hours. The typical example of this type of food poisoning is Salmonellae.

Toxic type

In this type, the disease occurs due to ingestion of food contaminated with the preformed toxin. The incubation period is short i.e. 2 to 6 hours. An example is staphylococcal food poisoning.

Infective-toxic type

In this type, bacteria release the toxin after it reaches the bowel. The incubation period is 6 to 12 hours. The typical example is C. perfringens food poisoning.

On the basis of etiological agents, bacterial food poisoning can be classified as:

Salmonella food poisoning

This is a common form of food poisoning. Recently its incidence has been increasing due to some reasons like an increase in community feeding, increased international trade in human food, a higher incidence of salmonellosis in farm animals, use of household detergents interfering with sewage treatment, and wide distribution of “prepared foods“.

Salmonellosis occurs in Man from farm animals and poultry (contaminated meat, milk, and milk products, sausages, custards, egg and egg products) also food contaminated with urine and feces of rats & mice.

Mechanism of food poisoning

The causative agent on ingestion multiplies in the intestine and gives rise to acute enteritis and colitis. Signs & symptoms are chills, fever, nausea, vomiting, and profuse watery diarrhea for 2-3 days.

(Video) Clostridium botulinum | Microbiology | Handwritten notes

Staphylococcal food poisoning

This poisoning is also as common as salmonella food poisoning. Enterotoxins of certain strains of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus is the main factor. Heat stable toxins can be formed at a temperature of 35 deg. to 37 deg

Staphylococci are found on the skin, nose, and throat of men and animals. Cows suffering from mastitis are responsible for outbreaks of food poisoning due to milk and milk products. The short incubation period is due to the “preformed” toxin.

Mechanism of food poisoning

The poisoning is due to the ingestion of toxins performed in the food. Since the toxin is heat-resistant, it can remain in food after the death of organisms.

In general, the toxins act directly on the intestine and Central nervous system (CNS). Signs & symptoms are sudden onsets of vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea ( blood and mucus severe cases). Rarely causes fever & Death is uncommon.

Botulism

Most serious and caused by exotoxin of Clostridium botulinum (Type A, B, or E). The foods responsible for botulism are preserved foods like home-canned vegetables, smoked or pickled fish, homemade cheese, and similar low acid foods.

The incubation period is 18 to 36 hours. The toxin is formed under anaerobic conditions & acts on the parasympathetic nervous system. In botulism gastrointestinal symptoms are very slight.

The symptoms include dysphagia, diplopia, ptosis, dysarthria, blurring of vision, muscle weakness, and even quadriplegia. Fever generally absent, and consciousness retained.

Death may occur 4-8 days later due to respiratory or cardiac failure. Patients who survive do not develop antitoxin in the blood. The toxin is thermolabile so the heating of food to 100 deg. C for a few minutes will make it quite safe.

(Video) Campylobacter | Microbiology | Handwritten notes

Infant botulism is due to infection of the digestive tract by Cl. botulinum with subsequent production of toxin in infants.

Cl. perfringens food poisoning

Due to Clostridium perfringens (welchii). The majority of outbreaks are associated with the ingestion of meat, meat dishes, and poultry. The spores are able to survive cooking, and if the cooked meat is not cooled enough, they will germinate.

The organisms multiply and produce a variety of toxins like alpha-toxin, theta toxin, etc. The common symptoms are diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and little or no fever, occurring 8 to 24 hours after consumption of the food.

Nausea and vomiting are rare. This poisoning recovery is rapid and fast and no deaths have been reported worldwide.

V. cereus food poisoning

Bacillus cereus is an aerobic, spore-bearing, motile, gram-positive rod. The spores can survive cooking and germinate and multiply at favorable temperatures.

Cereus produces at least 2 distinct enterotoxins. One, the emetic form with a short incubation period (1-6 hours) characterized by predominantly upper GI symptoms.

Another is diarrhoeal form, with a longer incubation period (12-24 hours) characterized by predominantly lower intestinal tract symptoms The toxins are pre-formed and stable.Diagnosis confirmed by isolation of 105 or more organisms per gram of contaminated food.

Symptoms

The symptoms of food poisoning depend on the germ you swallowed. The most common symptoms are;

  • Upset stomach
  • Stomach cramps
  • Abdominal pain

Food poisoning: Types, Symptoms, Treatment- NotesMed (2)

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Bloody diarrhea
  • Weakness and fatigue

When to consult a Doctor for Food Poisoning

Consult your doctor if you have symptoms that are severe, such as:

(Video) Shigellosis - Bacillary dysentery | Microbiology | Handwritten notes

  • Bloody diarrhea
  • High-grade of fever (temperature over 102°F, measured in mouth)
  • Frequent vomiting (can lead to dehydration)
  • Signs of dehydration, such as small volume or no urination, a very dry mouth, and throat, or feeling dizzy when standing up.
  • Diarrhea for at least three days or more.

Diagnosis

First, Your doctor or consultant will ask about your food history before food poisoning and what types of food you have taken during the previous 2 days, place of consumption, time of onset of symptoms, symptoms of illness (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, abdominal pain. fever, etc).

The doctor or consultant will give you a physical examination to look for signs of dehydration or severe belly pain. Laboratory investigations were also done to determine causative agents, the total number of causative agents, etc. Other tests are:

    • Animal experiments
    • Blood for antibodies
    • Environmental study

Treatment of food poisoning

  • Take a rest: which is the best medication for poisoning.
  • Take a sufficient amount of fluids to main lost fluids and electrolytes.
  • If diarrhea is severe, drink oral rehydration solutions (ORS) such as Ceralyte*, Pedialyte* or Oralyte* to replace the fluid losses and prevent dehydration.
  • Using some specific medications such as bismuth subsalicylate (e.g., Pepto-Bismol*) can reduce the duration and severity of simple diarrhea.
  • Some antidiarrheal medications may be used to relieve symptoms (diarrhea and cramps) of the patients, but these medications should be avoided if the patients have a high fever or blood in the stools due to the fact that they may make the illness worse.

Food poisoning: Types, Symptoms, Treatment- NotesMed (3)

Prevention of food poisoning

Food hygiene

The food animals must be free from infection. A high standard of personal hygiene needed in-person involved in the handling, preparation, and cooking of food.

The medical inspection of food handlers is required. The time between preparation and consumption of food should be kept as short as possible.

Sanitary improvements

Sanitization of work surfaces, utensils, and types of equipment must be ensured. Food premises should be kept free from mice, rats, flies, dust, etc.

Health education

Normal food handlers should be educated in matters of clean habits and personal hygiene, such as frequent and thorough hand washing, the effect of consumption of contaminated food, etc.

Refrigeration

Food is refrigerated at a proper temperature between 10 to 49 degrees celsius.

Surveillance

Food samples must be collected periodically and subjected to laboratory analysis if they are unsatisfactory. Surveillance is continuing to be necessary to avoid outbreaks of food-borne diseases.

People frequently asked questions

  • How long does food poisoning last?
  • What does food poisoning feel like when it starts?
  • How do I know if it’s food poisoning or a stomach virus?
  • How do you deal with food poisoning?
  • How do you confirm food poisonings?
  • What are the 4 types of food poisonings?
  • Do you always vomit with food poisonings?
  • How do you self-treat food poisoning?
  • Should I go to the hospital for food poisoning?

FAQs

What are the 4 types of food poisoning? ›

What is the best medicine to treat food poisoning? ›

In some cases, adults can take over-the-counter medicines such as loperamide link (Imodium) and bismuth subsalicylate link (Pepto-Bismol, Kaopectate) to treat diarrhea caused by food poisoning.

What are treatments for food poisoning? ›

Treatment of food poisoning may include: Replacement of lost fluids. Fluids and electrolytes — minerals such as sodium, potassium and calcium that maintain the balance of fluids in your body — lost to persistent diarrhea need to be replaced.

How long can food poisoning last? ›

How long does food poisoning last? Most of the time, food poisoning passes within 12 to 48 hours. That's how long it takes for a healthy body to purge the infection. It may last longer if you have a weakened immune system, or if you have a parasite that needs to be treated with antibiotics.

What are the 5 causes of food poisoning? ›

The top seven causes of food poisoning are Salmonella, Listeria, Staphylococcus, Trichinosis, E. coli, Campylobacter, Clostridium.

What antibiotic treats food poisoning? ›

Prescription. Your doctor might prescribe antibiotics if your foodborne illness is caused by bacteria or a parasite. For serious cases of food poisoning as a result of E. Coli (Escherichia coli) exposure, azithromycin (Zithromax) or the rifaximin (Xifaxan) may be prescribed.

Does food poisoning require antibiotics? ›

For some types of bacterial food poisoning, your healthcare provider may give you a medicine that fights bacteria (an antibiotic). Antibiotics don't work on infections caused by a virus. In severe cases, you may need to be hospitalized. Call your healthcare provider if you can't keep fluids down.

Does lemon juice help food poisoning? ›

Since lemon juice is a rich source of antioxidants, it is beneficial for the body's overall health. Lemon juice also aids in digestion. You can treat food poisoning by adding ½ lemons to a glass of water.

Which foods are high risk? ›

Examples of high-risk foods include : Dairy products (milk, cream, cheese, yogurt, and products containing them such as cream pies and quiches) Eggs. Meat or meat products.
...
Examples of low risk foods include :
  • Fresh fruits and vegetables.
  • Bread.
  • Most baked goods.
  • Candies.
  • Pickles.
  • Honey.
  • Jam and preserves.
  • Syrups.
24 Dec 2015

What is the name of food poison? ›

At least 250 different kinds of food poisoning have been documented, but the most common ones are e. coli, listeria, salmonella, and norovirus, which is commonly called "stomach flu." Other less common illnesses that can be transferred from food or food handling are botulism, campylobacter, vibrio, and shigella.

What are the 3 main types of bacterial food poisoning? ›

The 3 Most Common Types of Food Poisoning
  • E. Coli. E. ...
  • Salmonella. Salmonella is another bacterium that lives in the digestive tract of animals and humans. ...
  • Listeria. Listeria monocytogenes is a bacteria commonly found in soil and water contaminated with animal feces.
10 Apr 2015

What to eat after vomiting? ›

Try foods such as bananas, rice, applesauce, dry toast, soda crackers (these foods are called BRAT diet). For 24-48 hours after the last episode of vomiting, avoid foods that can irritate or may be difficult to digest such alcohol, caffeine, fats/oils, spicy food, milk or cheese.

What to do after vomiting? ›

Care and Treatment
  1. Drink clear or ice-cold drinks.
  2. Eat light, bland foods (such as saltine crackers or plain bread).
  3. Avoid fried, greasy, or sweet foods.
  4. Eat slowly and eat smaller, more frequent meals.
  5. Do not mix hot and cold foods.
  6. Drink beverages slowly.
  7. Avoid activity after eating.
23 Jul 2019

How can you avoid food poisoning? ›

4 Steps to Prevent Food Poisoning
  1. Clean. Wash your hands and work surfaces before, during, and after preparing food. ...
  2. Separate. Separate raw meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs from ready-to-eat foods. ...
  3. Cook. Cook food to the right internal temperature to kill harmful bacteria. ...
  4. Chill. Keep your refrigerator 40°F or below.
22 Feb 2022

Does food poisoning give you a fever? ›

While different types of pathogenic bacteria can cause different symptoms, food poisoning generally presents itself with symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramping, and fever.

What are the symptoms of E. coli? ›

Signs and symptoms of E. coli O157:H7 infection usually begin three or four days after exposure to the bacteria.
...
Symptoms
  • Diarrhea, which may range from mild and watery to severe and bloody.
  • Stomach cramping, pain or tenderness.
  • Nausea and vomiting, in some people.

How does food poisoning affect the body? ›

These toxins are poisons (the reason for the name "food poisoning"), and can cause diarrhea and vomiting. Usually, doctors use "food poisoning" to describe an illness that comes on quickly after eating contaminated food. People often get diarrhea or start throwing up within a few hours after being infected.

Are antacids good for food poisoning? ›

Once you can eat again, consume only bland foods (like crackers, toast, and rice) and avoid dairy, caffeine, alcohol, and fatty or spicy foods. Certain medications can also help in managing your infection. Antidiarrheal agents and antacids can help calm your stomach and slow down your symptoms.

Is yogurt good for BRAT diet? ›

That diet should include a mix of fruits, vegetables, meat, yogurt, and complex carbohydrates. Both children and adults who are ill need to drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration. Water is good, but adding broth, a sports drink, or a rehydration solution can help replace lost electrolytes.

What is metronidazole used for? ›

Metronidazole is an antibiotic. It's used to treat skin infections, rosacea and mouth infections, including infected gums and dental abscesses. It's also used to treat conditions such as bacterial vaginosis and pelvic inflammatory disease.

Which antibiotic is best for salmonella? ›

Common first-line oral antibiotics for susceptible Salmonella infections are fluoroquinolones (for adults) and azithromycin (for children). Ceftriaxone is an alternative first-line treatment agent.

What's the best anti nausea medicine? ›

Nausea medication
Best anti-nausea medications
Dramamine (dimenhydrinate)Rx & OTCGet coupon
Bonine (meclizine)Rx & OTCGet coupon
Atarax (hydroxyzine)RxGet coupon
Emetrol (phosphorated carbohydrate)OTCGet coupon
10 more rows
5 Aug 2022

Can apple cider treat food poisoning? ›

Apple cider vinegar, which is made by fermenting apple juice, has natural antibacterial and antifungal properties. For this reason, it's often recommended as a natural remedy for many ailments. Unfortunately, there's no evidence to suggest that drinking apple cider vinegar will help to soothe or treat food poisoning.

How can you tell if you got food poisoning? ›

Bloody diarrhea. High fever (temperature over 102°F, measured in your mouth) Frequent vomiting that prevents keeping liquids down (which can lead to dehydration) Signs of dehydration, including little or no urination, a very dry mouth and throat, or feeling dizzy when standing up.

How do I know what kind of food poisoning I have? ›

A doctor may be able to diagnose the type of food poisoning based on your symptoms. In severe cases, blood tests, stool tests, and tests on food that you've eaten may be conducted to determine what's responsible for the food poisoning.

What are the 3 main types of bacterial food poisoning? ›

The 3 Most Common Types of Food Poisoning
  • E. Coli. E. ...
  • Salmonella. Salmonella is another bacterium that lives in the digestive tract of animals and humans. ...
  • Listeria. Listeria monocytogenes is a bacteria commonly found in soil and water contaminated with animal feces.
10 Apr 2015

What is the fastest acting food poisoning? ›

Bacteria like Staph and Bacillus cereus can make you sick quickly, within 1 to 7 hours. These bacteria produce fast-acting toxins in foods (such as meat or dairy for Staph, and starchy foods like rice for B. cereus).

Can antibiotics cure food poisoning? ›

For some types of bacterial food poisoning, your healthcare provider may give you a medicine that fights bacteria (an antibiotic). Antibiotics don't work on infections caused by a virus. In severe cases, you may need to be hospitalized. Call your healthcare provider if you can't keep fluids down.

What to eat after vomiting? ›

Try foods such as bananas, rice, applesauce, dry toast, soda crackers (these foods are called BRAT diet). For 24-48 hours after the last episode of vomiting, avoid foods that can irritate or may be difficult to digest such alcohol, caffeine, fats/oils, spicy food, milk or cheese.

What to do after vomiting? ›

Care and Treatment
  1. Drink clear or ice-cold drinks.
  2. Eat light, bland foods (such as saltine crackers or plain bread).
  3. Avoid fried, greasy, or sweet foods.
  4. Eat slowly and eat smaller, more frequent meals.
  5. Do not mix hot and cold foods.
  6. Drink beverages slowly.
  7. Avoid activity after eating.
23 Jul 2019

How long does salmonella last for? ›

Most people with Salmonella infection have diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps. Symptoms usually begin six hours to six days after infection and last four to seven days. However, some people do not develop symptoms for several weeks after infection and others experience symptoms for several weeks.

How long does a stomach virus last? ›

Depending on the cause, viral gastroenteritis symptoms may appear within 1-3 days after you're infected and can range from mild to severe. Symptoms usually last just a day or two, but occasionally they may last up to 14 days.

How long does E. coli last? ›

How long does it last? Symptoms usually last 5 to 10 days. People with mild symptoms usually recover on their own without treatment.

What are 5 examples of bacteria? ›

Examples include Listeria monocytogenes, Pesudomonas maltophilia, Thiobacillus novellus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyrogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium kluyveri.

What is a high risk food? ›

High-risk foods can be defines as “any ready-to-eat food that will support the growth of pathogenic bacteria easily and does not require any further heat treatment or cooking”. These types of foods are more likely to be implicated as vehicles of food poisoning organisms consumed in food poisoning incidents.

What organs are affected by food poisoning? ›

In cases of food poisoning, harmful organisms can produce toxins that irritate the lining of your stomach and intestines. This can result in painful inflammation in your stomach, which may cause pain in your abdomen.

Can food poisoning damage organs? ›

Serious cases of food poisoning can lead to organ damage and life-threatening dehydration.

What happens to your body after food poisoning? ›

The most common serious complication of food poisoning is dehydration — a severe loss of water and essential salts and minerals. If you're a healthy adult and drink enough to replace fluids you lose from vomiting and diarrhea, dehydration shouldn't be a problem.

Videos

1. Salmonella ( Part 1 ) | Microbiology | Handwritten notes
(MeD TecH 29)
2. HOW I STUDY AT MEDICAL SCHOOL | how to take notes effectively as a med student
(Tash Binnie)
3. Listeria monocytogenes | Microbiology | Handwritten notes
(MeD TecH 29)
4. How I Take 0 Notes in Medical School (don't waste your time)
(Doctor Kenji)
5. Point Click Care Training: Orders Portal in eMAR
(Benjamin M A)
6. Salmonella (part 2) | Enteric fever | Microbiology | Handwritten notes
(MeD TecH 29)

Top Articles

Latest Posts

Article information

Author: Kelle Weber

Last Updated: 08/21/2022

Views: 6641

Rating: 4.2 / 5 (53 voted)

Reviews: 92% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Kelle Weber

Birthday: 2000-08-05

Address: 6796 Juan Square, Markfort, MN 58988

Phone: +8215934114615

Job: Hospitality Director

Hobby: tabletop games, Foreign language learning, Leather crafting, Horseback riding, Swimming, Knapping, Handball

Introduction: My name is Kelle Weber, I am a magnificent, enchanting, fair, joyous, light, determined, joyous person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.