Food and Beverage Service - docshare.tips (2022)

Food and
Beverage
Service

eighth edition
Dennis Lillicrap • John Cousins
The Food and Beverage Training Company, London
Consultant editor for this edition: Suzanne Weekes

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British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library
ISBN: 978 1444 11250 4
First edition published 1971
Second edition published 1983
Third edition published 1990
Fourth edition published 1994
Fifth edition published 1998
Sixth edition published 2002
Seventh edition published 2006
This edition published 2010
Impression number 10  9  8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1
Year
2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010
Copyright © 2010 Dennis Lillicrap and John Cousins
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or
mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing
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Printed and bound in Italy for Hodder Education, an Hachette UK Company, 338 Euston Road, London NW1 3BH.

contents
Acknowledgements
How to use this book and master reference chart
Master reference chart
Introduction to the eighth edition

vi
vii
viii
xi

C h a p t e r 1   The foodservice industry

1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6

Sectors of the foodservice industry
Foodservice operations
The meal experience
Food production methods
Food and beverage service methods
Food and beverage service personnel

2
6
10
14
15
21

C h a p t e r 2   Staff attributes, skills and knowledge

2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6

Success in food and beverage service
Attributes of food and beverage service personnel
Service conventions
Basic technical skills
Interpersonal skills
Health, safety and security

28
28
30
34
41
48

C h a p t e r 3   Food and beverage service areas and equipment
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13

Design and purchasing factors
Stillroom
Hotplate
Wash-up
Colour and lighting considerations
Bar
Furniture
Linen
Crockery
Tableware (flatware, cutlery and hollow-ware)
Glassware
Disposables
Automatic vending

55
56
57
59
61
63
67
70
71
74
79
83
85

C h a p t e r 4   The menu, menu knowledge and accompaniments
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13

Origin of the menu
Classic menu sequence
Classes of menu
Influences on the menu
Menu and service knowledge
Hors-d’oeuvre and other appetisers
Soups
Egg dishes
Pasta and rice dishes
Fish dishes
Meats, poultry and game
Potatoes, vegetables and salads
Cheese

90
90
92
97
99
100
104
105
106
106
107
109
110

4.14 Sweets
4.15 Savouries
4.16 Dessert (fresh fruit and nuts)

116
117
118

C h a p t e r 5   Beverages – non-alcoholic and alcoholic
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
5.14
5.15

Tea
Coffee
Other stillroom beverages
Non-alcoholic bar beverages
Wine and drinks lists
Cocktails and mixed drinks
Bitters
Wine
Spirits
Liqueurs
Beer
Cider and perry
Tasting techniques
Matching food with wine and other drinks
Safe, sensible drinking

121
124
134
134
137
141
144
144
158
161
161
165
166
170
175

C h a p t e r 6   The service sequence (table service)

6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9

Taking bookings
Preparation for service
The order of service (table service)
Taking customer food and beverage orders
Service of food
Service of alcoholic beverages
Service of non-alcoholic beverages
Clearing during service
Clearing following service

178
179
201
204
211
215
224
228
235

C h a p t e r 7   The service sequence (self service, assisted service
and single point service)

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5

Service methods
Preparation for service
The order of service
Clearing during service
Clearing following service

238
239
247
251
252

C h a p t e r 8   The service of breakfast and afternoon tea
8.1 Breakfast service
8.2 Afternoon tea service

256
260

C h a p t e r 9   Specialised forms of service

9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7

Service in situ
Floor/room service
Lounge service
Hospital tray service
Home delivery
Airline tray service
Rail service

267
267
273
276
277
279
281

C h a p t e r 1 0   Enhanced service techniques
10.1 Guéridon service
10.2 Introduction to carving, jointing and filleting
10.3 Flambé lamps, Suzette pans and hotplates
10.4 Hors d’oeuvre and other starters
10.5 Salads and dressings
10.6 Soups
10.7 Hot fish dishes
10.8 Steaks and meat dishes
10.9 Meat joints
10.10 Poultry and game
10.11 Sweet dishes
10.12 Fresh fruit

283
286
290
295
300
304
305
309
315
318
323
328

C h a p t e r 1 1   Events
11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6

Types of events
Event service staff roles
Event administration
Event organisation
Weddings
Outdoor catering (off-premises catering)

334
335
336
339
353
358

C h a p t e r 1 2   Supervisory aspects of food and beverage service
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8

Legal considerations
Sales promotion
Customer relations
Staffing levels, staff organisation and training
Food and beverage pricing
Food and beverage revenue control
Beverage control
Performance measures

361
363
366
368
376
380
391
399

Annex A
Glossary of cuisine and service terms

402

Annex B
Cocktail and mixed drink listing and recipes

432

Annex C
Cigars

440

Index 

443

vi

●●Acknowledgements
The preparation of the eighth edition of this book has drawn upon a variety of experience
and literature. We especially want to thank Suzanne Weekes of Thames Valley University,
who was the editing consultant for this new edition. We would also like to express our
sincere thanks to all the organisations and individuals who gave assistance and support in
the revision of this text. In particular we would like to thank:
Academy of Culinary Arts, UK; Academy of Food and Wine Service, UK; Mathew
Alexander, Lecturer, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow; Belfast Hilton Hotel, Northern
Ireland; British Airways plc; Burgess Furniture Ltd, London; City and Guilds of London
Institute; Croners Catering, Croners Publications; Anne Dubberley and Julie Bromfield,
Petals of Piccadilly, Birmingham; Dunk Ink; Andrew Durkan, author and consultant,
formerly of Ealing College, London; Elia International Ltd, Middlesex; Euroservice UK,
Welford, Northants; Foodservice Consultants Society International, UK&I; Professor
David Foskett, author, consultant and Dean at the London School of Hospitality and
Tourism, Thames Valley University, Ealing and also the Operations Team at the School;
German Wine Information Service, London; Simon Girling, Restaurant Manager,
The Ritz Hotel, London; The Glasgow Hilton Hotel, Scotland; Gleneagles Hotel,
Auchterarder, Scotland; Great Western Trains Company Limited; Hunters and Frankau,
cigar importers and distributors; IFS Publications; The International Coffee Organisation;
International Standards Organisation; The Langham Hotel, London; Le Columbier
Restaurant, London; Louvet Turner Coombe Marketing; Meiko UK Ltd; National
Checking Co UK; Kevin O’Gorman, Lecturer, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow;
Maidaid – Halcyon: PalmTEQ Limited UK; The Restaurant Association of Great Britain;
Joachim Schafheitle, Senior Lecturer, Bournemouth University; Ashley Shaw, House
Manager, The Westbury Hotel, London; Six Continents Hotels, London; Louise Smith,
Flowers by Louise, Birmingham; Snap-Drape Europe Limited; Sodexo UK and Ireland;
Steelite International; The Tea Council; Uniwell Systems (UK) Ltd; Katie Watson, Chef
de Rang at Gleneagles Hotel, Auchterarder, Scotland; Ian Whitaker, Chief Executive,
Cairngorm Mountain Limited, Scotland; Linden Wilkie, Managing Director, The Fine
Wine Experience Ltd, London; John Williams, Executive Chef, The Ritz Hotel, London,
and Williams Refrigeration.
Figures 3.1, 3.2, 3.9, 3.10, 6.4, 6.5, 6.39, 7.3 and 8.6 were photographed by Andrew
Callaghan. Figures 2.1–2.6, 3.4, 3.11, 5.1, 5.5, 6.3, 6.13–6.15, 6.18, 6.31, 6.32, 6.34, 6.37,
6.38, 6.40–6.42, 8.2, 8.5, 8.7, 9.4 and 12.6 were photographed by Carl Drury. Figures
3.7, 3.13, 4.4, 5.7, 5.8, 6.3, 6.6–6.10, 6.20, 6.35, 7.1, 10.3–10.6 and 10.8–19 were drawn
by Mike Humphries, Clifton Graphics. Figures 3.12, 6.11, 6.12 and 7.3 were drawn by
Oxford Designers and Illustrators.
Photo on p.1 © foodfolio/Alamy; p.27 © Russell Underwood/Getty Images; p.54 ©
Lucky Dragon/Fotolia; p.89 © Jack Hollingsworth/Getty Images; p.120 © Laszlo Selly/
Getty Images; p.177 © Steve Baccon/Getty Images; p.237 © Tracey Kusiewicz/Getty
Images; p.255 © Comstock Images/Getty Images; p.266 © Chad McDermott/Fotolia;
p.282 © Anthony Blake/Photolibrary; p.333 © Ron Levine/Getty Images; p.360 ©
Kristjan Maack/Getty Images.

vii

●●How to use this book and master reference
chart

The information in the book can be accessed in three ways:
1 Using the contents list at the front of the book (pp.iii–v)
2 Finding information through the index at the back of the book (p.443)
3 Using the master reference chart (pp.viii–x).
The master reference chart takes account of the various examining and awarding
body recommendations and assessment requirements, especially National Vocational
Qualifications. The chart identifies aspects of food and beverage service and identifies the
chapter or section where that information is detailed.
Because of the wide variety of hospitality operations, the chart indicates the broad range
of knowledge and skills that will be relevant to a range of food service operations. The
chart can be used as a checklist when identifying the relevance of a particular aspect to a
particular foodservice operation, job or qualification requirement, as well as a means of
finding information.
To use the chart, first select the aspect you are interested in from the tasks and duties
column. Then note the chapter and/or section identified and go to the identified page
number.

viii

●●Master reference chart
Task and duties

Industry knowledge
• Define food and beverages
• Identify the sectors of the foodservice industry
• Identify variables between different sectors
• Explain the stages of the foodservice cycle
• Describe examples of foodservice operations
• Identify variables in different foodservice operations
• Identify factors contributing to the meal experience
• Define customer service
• Differentiate between levels and standards of service
• Describe food production methods
• Distinguish between the service sequence and the customer process
• Outline the relationship between the different operating systems in a
foodservice operation
• Describe food and beverage service methods
• Identify the main job titles and roles within food and beverage service
Personal skills
• Identify factors for success in food and beverage service
• Develop attributes necessary for food and beverage service
• Comply with service conventions and know the reasons for them
• Work within legal requirements
• Develop competence in basic technical skills
• Develop good interpersonal skills

Chapters/
sections and
page numbers
1.1, p.2
1.1, p.2
1.1, p.2
1.2, p.6
1.2, p.6
1.2, p.6
1.3, p.10
1.3, p.10
1.3, p.10
1.4, p.14
1.5, p.15
1.5, p.15
1.5, p.15
1.6, p.21
2.1, p.28
2.2, p.28
2.3, p.30
12.1, p.361
2.4, p.34
2.5, p.41 and
12.3, p.366

• Be able to deal with:
– adults
– children
– those with mobility difficulties
– those with communication difficulties
– customer complaints
– customer incidents

2.5, p.41
2.5, p.41
2.5, p.41
2.5, p.41
2.5, p.41
2.5, p.41

Health, safety and security
• Maintain personal health and hygiene
• Maintain a safe environment
• Avoid hazards
• Deal with accidents
• Carry out procedures in the event of a fire
• Contribute to cleaning programmes
• Maintain a secure environment
• Deal with suspicious items
• Deal with bomb threats

2.2, p.28
2.6, p.48
2.6, p.48
2.6, p.48
2.6, p.48
2.6, p.48
2.6, p.48
2.6, p.48
2.6, p.48

Master reference chart

Task and duties

Service areas, equipment and product knowledge
• Know and apply knowledge of:
– service areas and equipment
– menus
– menu knowledge and accompaniments
– cuisine and service terms
– wine and drink lists
– non-alcoholic drinks, including hot drinks
– wine
– other alcoholic beverages

• Develop wine tasting techniques
• Develop skills in matching food and wine/drinks
• Know and apply the guidelines for safe, sensible drinking
Service sequence
• Take bookings for table service
• Prepare service areas:
– table service
– self service, assisted service and single point service
• Take orders for food and beverages and determine customer requirements
• Serve food:
– table service
– self-service, assisted service and single point service
• Serve beverages:
– wine
– other alcoholic beverages
– non-alcoholic beverages
• Clear during service
– table service
– self service, assisted service and single point service
• Deal with payments
• Clear service areas after service:
– table service
– self service, assisted service and single point service

Chapters/
sections and
page numbers

hapter 3,
C
p.55
4.1, p.90 to
4.4, p.97
4.5, p.99 to
4.16, p.118
Annex A, p.402
5.5, p.137
5.1, p.121 to
5.4, p.134
5.8, p.144
5.6, p.141 to
5.7, p.144 and
5.9, p.158 to
5.12, p.165
5.13, p.166
5.14, p.170
5.15, p.175
6.1, p.178
6.2, p.179
7.1, p.238, 7.2,
p.239
6.4, p.204
.3, p.201, 6.5,
6
p.211
7.3, p.247
6.6, p.215
6.6, p.215
6.7, p.224
6.8, p.228
7.4, p.251
12.6, p.380
6.9, p.235
7.5, p.252

ix

x


Master reference chart

Task and duties

Additional service skills
• Provide other meal services:
– breakfast
– afternoon teas
• Describe the different service in situ methods
• Provide service in situ:
– room service
– lounge service
• Provide enhanced levels of service
– guéridon service
– carving, filleting and jointing
– prepare, cook and serve food in a food service area
Events
• Contribute to event administration

• Contribute to event organisation
• Prepare for and serve at events
• Provide service at weddings
Supervisory responsibilities
• Supervise within legal requirements
• Implement sales development activities
• Improve customer relations
• Maintain staffing levels
• Contribute to the development of teams and individuals
• Contribute to pricing for food and beverages
• Maintain practices and procedures for handling payments
• Receive, store and return wines and drinks
• Maintain cellars
• Contribute to the control of food and beverage operations

• Maintain cleaning programme in own area
• Maintain vending machine service
• Supervise the running of an event

Chapters/
sections and
page numbers

8.1, p.256
8.2, p.260
9.1, p.267
9.2, p.267
9.3, p.273
10.1, p.283
10.2, p.286
10.3, p.290 to
10.12, p.328
1.1, p.334,
1
11.2, p.335,
11.3, p.336,
11.6, p.358
11.4, p.339
11.4, p.339
11.5, p.353
12.1, p.361
12.2, p.363
2.5, p.41 and
12.3, p.366
12.4, p.368
12.4, p.368
12.5, p.376
12.6, p.380
12.7, p.391
12.7, p.391
12.6, p.380,
12.7, p.391 and
12.8, p.399
2.6, p.48
3.13, p.85
Chapter 11,
p.334

xi

●●Introduction to the eighth edition
The aim of the book
Food and Beverage Service covers the knowledge
and skills necessary for those studying and/
or working at a variety of levels in food and
beverage service. The book also provides a
framework on which to build further studies
and to relate further acquired knowledge and
experience.
An explanation of how information can be
found in the book is given in the section How to
use this book. This section also contains a master
reference chart, which summarises the tasks and
duties for staff working in food and beverage
service. The chart also identifies where to find
information within the book.
In revising this eighth edition we have taken
into account recent developments in examining
and awarding body recommendations and
specifications, in education and training, as
well as in the industry at large. The book has
been prepared to support the studies of those
wishing to be assessed at NVQ/SVQ Levels
1 to 3 in Food and Beverage Service, and
for a range of other qualifications including
those of the City and Guilds Certificate and
Diploma in Food and Beverage Service. In
addition, the book is intended to support the
broader-based study requirements in food and
beverage service for programmes leading to the
award of the National Diploma, the General
National Vocational Qualification, the Higher
National Diploma, Foundation Degree and
undergraduate degree programmes, as well as
programmes of the Institute of Hospitality. It is
also of value supporting in-company training
programmes.

Trends in the foodservice industry
Foodservice operations are continuing to
improve and develop, together with advances
in quality. The demand for food and beverages
away from the home has increased and, with a
broader spectrum of the population eating out,
customer needs are continuing to diversify.
Food and restaurant styles are also
continuing to diversify to meet the challenges
of the demands being made by increasingly
knowledgeable and value-conscious customers.
Menu and beverage list contents are constantly

being influenced by trends, fads and fashions,
the relationship between health and eating,
dietary requirements, cultural and religious
influences, the advance of vegetarianism,
and customer acceptance, or otherwise, of
irradiation and genetically modified foods.
The development of a diverse range
of foodservice operations has necessitated
developments in the approaches to food and
beverage service. The traditional view of
food and beverage service was as a delivery
process, with the customer being considered
a passive recipient of the service. Only the
requirements of the operation itself would
determine how the service was designed,
planned and controlled. More recently this
view has changed significantly, and for the
better. The customer is now seen as central to
the process and as an active participant within
it. Increasing competition has meant that both
the quality of the service and the perceived
value of the experience by customers are
the main differentiators between operations
who are seeking to attract similar customers.
Consequently, understanding the customers’
involvement in the process, and identifying the
experience they are likely to have, and should
expect, have become critical to the business
success of foodservice operations.
Expansion of the industry has generally
meant greater choice. This, together with
potential skill shortages and drives for
efficiency, has seen a streamlining of foodservice
operations. There is now less emphasis on
sophisticated service techniques in some sectors,
but more emphasis throughout the industry
on sound product knowledge, well-developed
interpersonal skills, technical competence and
the ability to work as part of a team.
However, service, both in level and standards,
still varies greatly throughout the whole range
of foodservice operations. While there are many
examples of operations that are working with
the highest levels of competence, there are also,
unfortunately, operations that believe that food
and beverage service is something that anyone
can do. This is obvious nonsense. Only where
there are well-developed operating systems, and
where the members of staff are trained to work

xii


Introduction to the eighth edition
within them, can a foodservice operation work
efficiently and effectively. The enjoyment of the
meal by the customer is also greatly enhanced,
as the members of the service staff have the
confidence and the time to be genuinely
welcoming.
Any successful foodservice operation requires
all elements to work as a whole: service
personnel working together with chefs and the
wine and drink lists being in harmony with
the food. The essential contribution by food
and beverage service professionals cannot be
underestimated. Michelin Stars or AA Rosettes,
for instance, are awarded to restaurants as a
whole, not to individuals. Service managers and
service staff, and their skills and professionalism,
should therefore have the same focus of
attention as any other industry professionals.
However, food and beverage service also
represents the ultimate paradox: the better it is,
the less it is noticed.
Good food and beverage service, in any
sector, is achieved where customers’ needs are
being met and where management consistently
reinforce and support service staff in the
maintenance of clearly identified technical
standards and service goals. It is against this
background that the revisions for this eighth
edition have taken place.

The eighth edition
The content of the book has been structured
to follow a logical progression from the
underpinning knowledge of food and beverage
operations, service areas and equipment, menus
and beverages, through to interpersonal and
technical service skills, advanced technical skills
and then on to key supervisory aspects.
An overview of the foodservice industry is
given in Chapter 1. This chapter also provides
an identification of the types of operation,
sectors, the reasons for eating out, service
methods and service staff roles.
Chapter 2 outlines the attributes, skills
and knowledge needed by service personnel
and especially the need for contributing to
the maintenance of a healthy, safe and secure
environment.
The next three chapters provide a base of
underpinning knowledge about service areas

and equipment (Chapter 3); the menu, its
construction, example dishes and accompaniments
(Chapter 4); and all types of non-alcoholic and
alcoholic beverages (Chapter 5).
Chapter 6 and Chapter 7 detail basic
skills, both interpersonal and technical, and
indicate how these are applied to the service
sequence for table service (Chapter 6) and self
service, assisted service and single point service
(Chapter 7). The application of skills is then
further developed for a variety of other service
settings: breakfast and afternoon tea (Chapter
8); specialised forms of service (Chapter 9);
enhanced service skills (Chapter 10); and
events (Chapter 11).
Finally, consideration is given to a number
of supervisory aspects (Chapter 12), including
legal considerations, sales promotion, customer
relations, staffing levels, staff organisation and
training, food and beverage pricing and revenue
control, beverage control and performance
measures.
There are also three annexes which
cover: a glossary of cuisine and service terms
(Annex A); a cocktail and mixed drink listing
giving recipes and methods (Annex B); and
information about cigars (Annex C).
Throughout the book we have referred to
job titles and job categories such as waiter,
supervisor, floor service staff, room attendants,
servers and stewards. In all cases these terms,
in line with general trends within the industry,
refer to both male and female personnel.
The content of the book, while having
its origins in classic cuisine and service (the
context and the body of knowledge on which
modern foodservice operations are based), is
also intended to reflect current practice within
the industry. Therefore, while the book gives
information and describes various aspects of
food and beverage service, it should not be
seen as a prescriptive book. Clearly the actual
operation of the service will be substantially
affected by the style and the business needs of
the individual operation.
Dennis Lillicrap and John Cousins
April 2010

Chapter 1

The foodservice industry

1.1 Sectors of the foodservice
industry

2

1.2 Foodservice operations

6

1.3 The meal experience

10

1.4 Food production
methods

14

1.5 Food and beverage
service methods

15

1.6 Food and beverage
service personnel

21

2

Chapter 1
The foodservice industry

●●1.1 Sectors of the foodservice industry
The international foodservice industry provides millions of meals a day in a wide variety of
types of foodservice operation.
◗◗ Food can include a wide range of styles and cuisine types. These can be classified by
country, for example, traditional British or Italian; by type of cuisine, for example,
oriental; or a particular speciality such as fish, vegetarian or health food.
◗◗ Beverages include all alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks. Alcoholic beverages include
wines and all other types of alcoholic drink such as cocktails, beers and cider, spirits and
liqueurs. Non-alcoholic beverages include bar beverages such as mineral waters, juices,
squashes and aerated waters, as well as tea, coffee, chocolate, milk and milk drinks and
also proprietary drinks such as Bovril.

Figure 1.1 Multiple food
outlets at the Trafford Centre,
Manchester. (Image courtesy of
FCSI, UK)

Within the foodservice industry there are a number of different industrial sectors. These
are categorised according to the type of customer demand being met. To help identify the
nature of demand being met within each sector, Table 1.1 (pp.4–5) provides a list of industry
sectors and identifies the prime purpose of the foodservice operations within them. An
historical summary is also given together with an identification of both UK and international
terminology. This identification of sectors also provides a framework for those studying the
food and beverage service industry to which further studies and experience may be related.
In order to be seen in more detail, each sector may be further analysed by reference to
a set of variables that exist in the different sectors (Table 1.2). These variables represent
elements that vary in particular sectors and thus provide a basis for examining the
operation of different types of foodservice operation within specific sectors. They enable
a comprehensive picture of industrial sectors to be compiled, and also provide the basis for
the comparison of the different sectors.
There are many different industry sectors such as hotels, independent and chain
restaurants, popular catering, pubs and wine bars, fast food, leisure attractions and
banqueting. There are also sectors where food and beverages are provided as part of
another business. These include transport catering, welfare, clubs, education, industrial
feeding and the armed forces.

Sectors of the foodservice industry
Table 1.2 Variables in foodservice sectors
• Historical background
• Reasons for customer demand
• Size of sector:
– in terms of outlets
– in terms of turnover
• Policies:
– financial
– marketing
– catering

• Interpretation of demand/catering concept
• Technological development
• Influences
• State of sector development
• Primary/secondary activity
• Types of outlets
• Profit orientation/cost provision
• Public/private ownership

Some sectors are providing food and beverages for profit, whereas others are working
within the constraints of a given budget, often called cost provision (for example, welfare and
industrial). In addition, some sectors provide services to the general public whereas others
provide them for restricted groups of people.
It is useful to define these different types of market as follows:
◗◗ General market
– Non-captive: customers have a full choice.
◗◗ Restricted market
– Captive: customers have no choice, for example, welfare.
– Semi-captive: customers have a choice before entering, for example, marine, airline,
trains, some hotels and some leisure activities. The customers could have chosen
alternatives to these but, once chosen, have little choice of food and drink other
than that on offer.
Taking these definitions into account, a general summary of sectors may be drawn up as
shown in Table 1.3. Defining the nature of the market in this way helps us to understand
why different methods of organisation may be in operation. For example, in captive
markets customers might be asked to clear their own tables, whereas in non-captive
markets this is unlikely to be successful.
Table 1.3 Summary of sectors in the foodservice industry
Profit orientated
(public or private ownership)
(foodservice as main or secondary activity)

Restricted market
Transport catering
Clubs
Industrial (contract)
Private welfare

General market
Hotels/restaurants
Popular catering
Fast food/take away
Retail stores
Events/conferences/exhibitions
Leisure attractions
Motorway service stations
Pubs and wine bars
ODC (off-premises catering)

Cost provision

Restricted market
Institutional catering
Schools
Universities and colleges
Hospitals
Armed forces
Prisons
Industrial (in-house)

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Table 1.1 Sectors of the foodservice industry
Industry sector –
UK terminology

Purpose of the
foodservice operation

Historical summary

Industry sector –
international
terminology

Hotels and
other tourist
accommodation

Provision of food and
drink together with
accommodation
services

Supported by
developments in transport
and increases in business
and leisure-related tourism

Hotel, motel
and other tourist
accommodation
Often now
referred to as the
lodging industry

Restaurants
including
conventional
and specialist
operations

Provision of food and
drink, generally at a
high price with high
levels of service

Grew out of hotel
restaurants (which were
originally highly formal)
through chefs wishing to
start their own businesses

Popular catering
including cafés,
pizza, grills,
specialist coffee
shops, roadside
restaurants and
steak houses

Provision of food and
drink, generally at
low/medium price
with limited levels of
service and often high
customer throughput

Has gone through various
phases. More recently
highly influenced by the
USA

Fast food
including
McDonalds and
Burger King

Provision of food
and drink in
highly specialised
environment,
characterised by
high investment, high
labour costs and vast
customer throughput

Grew from combination
of popular catering
and takeaway, heavily
influenced by USA
concepts; highly
sophisticated meal
packaging and marketing

Takeaway
including ethnic,
spuds, KFC,
snacks, fish and
chips, sandwich
bars, kiosks

Fast provision of food
and drink

Developed from a variety
of concepts. More recently,
influenced by USA and
trends in food tastes

Retail stores

Provision of food and
drink as an adjunct to
retail provision

Developed originally from
prestigious stores wishing
to provide food and drink
as part of the retailing
experience

Retail market

Events/
banqueting/
conferencing/
exhibitions

Provision of large
scale food and drink
for events

Originally associated
with hotels but has now
become major sector in its
own right

Event market

Leisure
attractions
such as theme
parks, museums,
galleries, cinemas
and theatres

Provision of food
and drink to people
engaged in another
pursuit

Increases in leisure have
made profit from food and
drink attractive to leisure
and amenity providers

Leisure market




































Separate
eating and
drinking
places
Categories
usually
defined by
reference to
three criteria:
• level of
service,
e.g. quick
service to
full service or
fine dining
• extent of
menu, e.g.
limited to full
• price range,
e.g. low to
high

Sectors of the foodservice industry

Industry sector –
UK terminology

Purpose of the
foodservice operation

Historical summary

Industry sector –
international
terminology

Motorway
service stations

Provision of food
and drink, together
with petrol and other
retail services, often in
isolated locations

Developed in the 1960s with
the advent of motorway
building. Influenced by USA
and became specialised
because of government
regulations on provision of
foodservice operations,
retails and fuel as well as
location

Highway
(interstate)
market

Industrial
catering either inhouse operations
or through
catering/
foodservice
contractors

Provision of food and
drink to people at
work

Developed out or
recognition that better fed
workers work better. Given
substantial boost during
First and Second World
Wars. Further developed
by worker unions wanting
to preserve conditions
and the emergence of
professional contract
caterers/foodservice
operators

Business / industry
markets

Welfare catering

Provision of food and
drink to people in
colleges, universities,
the armed forces and
to people through
established social
need

Highly regulated and
maintained now through
public social conscience

Social caterer /
foodservice
(student,
healthcare,
institutional and
military)

Licensed trade
including public
houses, wine
bars, licensed
clubs and
members’ clubs

Provision of food
and drink in an
environment
dominated by
licensing requirements

Developed from bars
and other drinking places
with increased regulation
and liquor licensing
requirements

Separate drinking
places
But also some
units included in
separate eating
and drinking
places shown
above

Transport
catering
including
railways, airlines
and marine

Provision of food and
drink to people on the
move

Grew out of the need
to meet the demands
of the travelling public.
Originally services were of
high levels, reflecting the
type of traveller. Eventually
changed to meet the needs
of a wide range of travellers

Transportation
market

Outdoor catering
(ODC)
(or ‘off-premises
catering’ or
‘event catering’)

Provision of food and
drink away from home
base; suppliers usually
associated with a
major event

Developed through the
need to provide services
at special events. The term
ODC is misleading as little
of this catering actually
takes place outside

Catering market

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●●1.2 Foodservice operations
Food and beverage (or foodservice) operations in the hospitality industry are concerned
with the provision of food and drink ready for immediate consumption (but excluding
retailing and food manufacturing).
Foodservice operations are concerned with:
a)The consumer needs and market potential in the various sectors of the foodservice industry.
b)The formulation of policy and business objectives that will guide the choice of operational
methods that will be used.
c)The interpretation of demand in order to make decisions on the range and type of food and
beverages to be provided, as well as other services, and the service levels and prices to be
charged.
d)The planning and design of facilities required for the food and beverage operations and the
plant and equipment required.
e)The organisation of provisioning for food and beverages and other purchasing requirements
to meet the needs of the food production, beverage provision and the service methods
being used.
f)Knowledge of the operational and management requirements for the food production,
beverage provision and service processes and methods, and decision making on the
(a) Consumer
and market

(h) Monitoring
of consumer
satisfaction

(b) Formulation
of policy

(g) Control of
costs and
revenues

(c) Interpretation
of demand

(d) Planning and
design of facilities

(f) Production
and services

(e) Provisioning
Figure 1.2 The foodservice cycle

Foodservice operations

appropriateness of the various processes and methods, together with the management
and staffing needs in order to meet the requirements of the operation.
g)Control of costs of materials and other costs, such as labour and overheads, associated with
the operation of food production, beverage provision and other services, and the control
of revenue.
h)The monitoring of customer satisfaction to continually check on the extent to which the
operation is meeting customer needs and achieving customer satisfaction.
The eight elements of this sequence may be referred to as the foodservice cycle as represented
in Figure 1.2. This summarises what food and beverage (or foodservice) operations are
concerned with and illustrates that it is not simply about food production, beverage
provision or food and beverage service.
The foodservice cycle can be used as a basis to analyse and compare how different
foodservice operations work. It provides a standard template, or checklist, so that
information about a specific operation can be collected and organised in a specific way.
This can then be compared with the same information having been collected on other
foodservice operations.
The foodservice cycle is also a dynamic model in that it can be used to help understand
how an individual operation works. Difficulties in one element of the cycle will cause
difficulties in the elements of the cycle that follow. For example, difficulties with
purchasing will have effects on food production and service, and control. Similarly,
difficulties experienced under one element of the cycle will have their causes in preceding
elements. For example, difficulties experienced in food and beverage service are often
caused by factors such as poor purchasing, inadequate stock control, equipment shortages,
poor room layouts or staffing problems.

Types of foodservice operations
Food and beverage (or foodservice) operations include, for example, various types of
restaurants (bistros, brasseries, coffee-shops, first class/fine dining, ethnic, themed), cafés,
cafeterias, takeaways, canteens, function rooms, tray service operations, lounge service
operations, home delivery operations and room service operations for hotel guests.
Examples of the types of operation are given in Table 1.4.
Table 1.4 Examples of types of food and beverage operations
Type of
operation

Description

Bistro

Often a smaller establishment, with traditional tables and chairs, cluttered
decor and friendly informal staff. Tends to offer honest, basic and robust
cooking

Brasserie

This is generally a fairly large, styled room with a long bar, normally serving
one-plate items rather than formal meals (though some offer both). Often
it is possible just to have a drink, coffee or snack. Service provided by
waiters, often in traditional style of long aprons and black waistcoats

New wave
brasserie
(gastrodome)

Slick modern interior design, coupled with similar approaches to
contemporary cuisine and service. Busy and bustling and often large and
multileveled

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Type of
operation

Description

Coffee shop

Similar to brasserie-style operations, often themed. May be open all day
and serve all meal types from breakfast through to supper

First class
restaurant

Usually formal fine dining restaurants with classical preparation and
presentation of food and offering a high level of table (silver, guéridon
and/or plated) service. Often associated with classic/haute cuisine

Restaurant

Term used to cover a wide variety of operations. Price, level and type of
service, décor, styles, cuisines and degree of choice varies enormously
across the range of types of operation. Service ranges from full table
service to assisted service such as carvery-style operations

International
restaurant

Indian, Oriental, Asian, Spanish, Greek, Italian, Creole and Cajun are just
some of the many types of cuisine available, with establishments tending
to reflect specific ethnic origins. Many of the standard dishes are now
appearing within a range of other menu types

Themed
restaurant

Often international in orientation, for example, Icelandic hot rock with
food prepared and cooked at the table, ‘Beni-hana’ oriental theme,
again with food prepared and cooked at table. Also includes themes
such as jungle, rainforest or music/opera, where waiting staff perform as
well as serve

International
destination
restaurant

Often Michelin-starred fine dining restaurants, offering a distinctive
personality, cuisine, ambience, beverages and service. Usually table
service at various levels but mostly personal and highly attentive.
Generally considered as the home of gastronomy. Expensive but also
value laden

Health food
and vegetarian
restaurants

Increasing specialisation of operations into vegetarianism and/or health
foods (though vegetarian food is not necessarily healthy), to meet
lifestyle needs as well as dietary requirements

Caféteria

Primarily self-service with customer choosing selection from a counter
or counters in varying designs and layouts. Originally developed for the
industrial feeding market but now seen in a variety of sectors

Popular catering
and fast-food
outlets

Developed from table service teashops and cafés through to
steakhouses, and now incorporating snack bars, kiosks, diners, takeaways
and caféterias, with modern-day burger, chicken and fish concepts, and
with ethnic foods also being incorporated. Meeting the needs of allday meal taking (grazing) and also the need for ‘grab and go’ service,
especially for the leisure, industrial and travelling markets

Public houses

Licensed environment primarily for drinking alcoholic beverages. May be
simply a serving bar with standing room for customers or may have more
plush surroundings incorporating the offer of a variety of foods. These can
range from simple plated dishes through to establishments offering full
restaurant service (sometimes called gastropubs)

Wine bars

Often a mixture of bar and brasserie-style operation, commonly wine
themed, serving a variety of foods

Foodservice operations

The list of operations given in Table 1.4 identifies types of operations but not necessarily
the type of customer demand being met. For example, cafeterias may be found in
motorway service stations, in airline terminals, at railway stations, in retail catering and in
industrial or welfare catering. Therefore, throughout the foodservice industry similar types
of operation are found in different types of industry sector.

Variables in foodservice operations
The list of types of operations in Table 1.4 by itself indicates very little in terms of methods
of organisation adopted and the management of them. In a similar way to the identifying
variables for sectors described in Table 1.2 (p.3), variables can also be identified for different
foodservice operations. These variables have been identified from a variety of published
sources as well as from experience. They can be separated into three groups:
1 Organisational
2 Customer experience
3 Performance measures.
These different groups of variables enable the systematic examination and comparison
of types of food and beverage operations. Profiles of differing types of operations can be
Table 1.5 Variables in foodservice operations
Organisational variables
• nature of market being met
• legislative controls
• scale of operation
• marketing/merchandising
• style of menu and drinks list
• range of choice
• opening times/service period
• production methods
• type and capability of equipment
• service methods
• dining arrangements
• seating time
• number of covers available

• capacity
• staff working hours
• staff organisation
• staff capability
• number of staff
• specialised service requirements
• provisioning and storage methods
• billing methods
• checking (order taking) methods
• clearing methods
• dishwashing methods
• control method costs/revenue.

Customer experience variables
• food and drink available
• level of service and other services
• price range/value for money
• cleanliness and hygiene

• atmosphere (including decor, lighting,
air-conditioning, acoustics, noise, size and
shape of room, other customers, attitude
of staff).

Performance measure variables
• seat turnover/customer throughput
• customer spend/average check
• revenue per member of staff
• productivity index
• ratio of food and beverage sales to total
sales

• sales/profit per sq m (or ft)/per seat
• sales analysis
• departmental profit
• stock turnover
• stock holding
• complaint levels
• level of repeat business.

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drawn, based upon the examples of variables identified in Table 1.5. The foodservice
cycle also provides a useful framework or checklist when gathering information about a
foodservice operation. It helps to organise the information as it is collected and also helps
to identify where there are gaps in the information being collected.
Performance measures are further dealt with in Section 12.8, p.399. Customer
experience variables are discussed in Section 1.3. The remainder of this book presents
further information on a variety of organisational variables.

●●1.3 The meal experience
There are many different kinds of food and beverage (or foodservice) operation, designed
to meet a wide range of demand. These different types of operation are designed for the
needs people have at a particular time, rather than for the type of people they are. For
example, a person may be a business customer during the week, but a member of a family
at the weekend; they may want a quick lunch on one occasion, a snack while travelling
on another and a meal with the family on another occasion. Additionally, the same person
may wish to book a wedding or organise some other special occasion.
The main aim of food and beverage operations is to achieve customer satisfaction. In
other words, to meet the customers’ needs. The needs that customers might be seeking to
satisfy include:
◗◗ Physiological: for example, the need to sate one’s appetite or quench one’s thirst, or the
need for special foods such as diabetic or vegetarian.
◗◗ Economic: for example, the need for good value; rapid, fast service; a convenient location.
◗◗ Social: for example, going out with friends or business colleagues; attending a function in
order to meet others.
◗◗ Psychological: for example, the need for enhancement of self-esteem; fulfilling life-style
needs; the need for variety; as a result of advertising and promotion.
◗◗ Convenience: for example, as a result of being unable to get home (shoppers, workers)
or attending some other event (cinema, theatre); the desire for someone else to do
the work; the physical impossibility of catering at home (weddings and other special
events).
Customers may want to satisfy some or all of these needs.
As the reasons for eating out vary, then so do the types of operation that may be
appropriate at the time. Differing establishments offer different service, in both the extent
of the menu and the price, as well as varying service levels. The choice offered may be
restricted or wide.
It is important to recognise that the specific reasons behind a customer’s choice will
often determine the customer’s satisfaction (or dissatisfaction), rather than the food and
beverage service by itself. One example is the social need to go out with friends: if
one person fails to turn up or behaves in a disagreeable way, then the customer may be
dissatisfied with the meal.
The customer who is not able to satisfy his or her needs will be a dissatisfied customer.
The customer may, for instance, be dissatisfied with unhelpful staff, cramped conditions or
the lack of choice available. These aspects are the responsibility of the food and beverage
operation. However, sometimes the reasons for the customer being dissatisfied might be

The meal experience

beyond the operation’s control, for example, location, the weather, other customers or
transport problems.
In non-captive markets the customer has a choice of eating out opportunities both in
terms of the food and drink to be consumed and the type of operation they may wish to
patronise. While it is true that certain types of catering operations might attract certain
types of customer, this is by no means true all the time. The same customers may patronise
a variety of different operations depending on the needs they have at a given time, for
example, a romantic night out, a quick office lunch or a wedding function.
In semi-captive markets this availability of choice is also important. Customers may choose,
for example, a certain airline or ship or hotel based upon the identification of certain needs
they wish to satisfy.
In captive markets where the customer does not have a choice of operation, there is still
a need for satisfaction. For instance, it is generally recognised that better fed workers work
Table 1.6 Meal experience factors
Factor

Description

The food and
beverages on offer

Includes the range of foods and beverages, choice, availability,
flexibility for special orders and the quality of the food and beverages

Level of service

The level of service sought will depend on the needs people have at a
particular time. For example, a romantic night out may call for a quiet
table in a top-class restaurant, whereas a group of young friends might
be seeking more informal service. This factor also takes into account
the importance to the customer of other services such as booking and
account facilities, acceptance of credit cards and the reliability of the
operation’s product

Level of cleanliness
and hygiene

This factor relates to the premises, equipment and staff. Over the last
few years this factor has increased in importance in customers’ minds.
The recent media focus on food production and the risks involved
in buying food have heightened awareness of health and hygiene
aspects

Perceived value for
money and price

Customers have perceptions of the amount they are prepared
to spend and relate this to differing types of establishments and
operations. Value is the personal estimate of a product’s capacity to
satisfy a set of goals and also a perception of the balance between
worth and cost. Good value for a food and beverage operation is
where the worth (the perception of the desirability of a particular
product over another in order to satisfy a set of established goals) is
perceived as greater than the total cost. (As well as cash price, total
cost includes, for instance, the cost of not going somewhere else, the
cost of transport and time, the cost of potential embarrassment, the
cost of having to look and behave in a required manner and the cost
in terms of effort at work to earn the money to pay the required price.)
Poor value is where the costs involved are perceived as greater than
the worth

Atmosphere of the
establishment

This factor takes account of issues such as design, décor, lighting,
heating, furnishings, acoustics and noise levels, other customers, the
smartness of the staff and the attitude of the staff

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better and that better fed patients recover quicker. ‘Better fed’ here, though, does not just
refer to the food and drink provided but the whole experience of the meal.
From the food and beverage operator’s point of view it is important to recognise that the
customer’s needs may vary and that food and beverage operators should be aware of factors
that might affect the customer’s meal experience. Much research has been carried out in
recent years identifying these factors. They range from location to the acceptance of credit
cards, and from attitudes of staff to the behaviour of other customers. These factors are
summarised in Table 1.6.

Customer service
In order the meet the customers’ expectations and to enhance their meal experience,
a foodservice operation will determine the level of customer service that the customer
should expect within that operation.
Customer service in foodservice operations can be defined as being a combination of
five characteristics. These are:
1 Service level: the intensity of or limitations in, the individual personal attention given to
customers.
2 Service availability: for example, the opening times and variations in the menu and
beverage list on offer.
3 Level of standards: for example, the food and beverage quality, décor, standard of
equipment being used and level of staffing professionalism.
4 Service reliability: the extent to which the product is intended to be consistent and its
consistency in practice.
5 Service flexibility: the extent to which alternatives are available, and to which there can be
variations in the standard products that are offered.
A foodservice operation will determine the customer service specification of the operation by
taking account of these five customer service factors.

Figure 1.3 A formal restaurant (Strathern
Restaurant, image courtesy of Gleneagles
Hotel, Scotland)

Use of resources

Although a foodservice operation is designed to provide customer service, it must also be
efficient in its use of resources. The three resources used in foodservice operations are:
1 Materials: food, beverages and short use equipment (such as paper napkins)

The meal experience

2 Labour: staffing costs
3 Facilities: premises and plant and equipment.
The management team must always take into account the effect that the level of business
has on the ability of the operation, in order to maintain the customer service requirements,
while at the same time ensuring productivity in all of the resources being used.
Level of customer service

Within foodservice operations the level of service in a specific operation may be defined as
follows:
1 Technical specification: refers to the food and beverage items on offer, the portion size or
measure, the cooking method, the degree of cooking, the method of presentation, the
cover, accompaniments and the cleanliness of items, etc.
2 Service specification: refers to two aspects: first, the procedures for service and second, the
way in which the procedures are carried out. Procedures include meeting and greeting,
order taking, seeking customer comment, dealing with complaints, payment and the
special needs of customers. The method in which the service is carried out includes
paying attention to the level of staff attentiveness, their tone of voice and body language,
etc.
Operations will usually have written statements of both technical and service specification
(often called a customer service specification). These may also be detailed in staff manuals
that outline expected standards of performance.
Level of service and standards of service

There can be confusion when referring to the levels of service and the standards of service:
◗◗ The level of service in foodservice operations can range from being very limited to
complex, with high levels of personal attention.
◗◗ The standards of service are a measure of the ability of the operation to deliver the service
level it is offering.
Thus an operation might be offering low levels of service, such as a fast food operation,
but may be doing this at a very high standard. Equally, an operation may be offering a high
level of service, such as a full service restaurant, but may be doing so with low standards.

Figure 1.4 Informal restaurant (Dormy House,
image courtesy of Gleneagles Hotel, Scotland)

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●●1.4 Food production methods
For a foodservice operation, the production system has to be organised to produce the
right quantity of food at the correct standard, for the required number of people, on time,
using the resources of staff, equipment and materials effectively and efficiently.
As costs of space, equipment, fuel, maintenance and labour continue to rise, more
thought and time have to be given to the planning of a production system and to kitchen
design. The requirements of the production system have to be clearly matched to the type
of food that is to be prepared, cooked and served, to the required market at the correct
price. All allocation of space and the purchase of the different types of equipment have to
be justified, and the organisation of the kitchen personnel also has to be planned at the
same time.
Many modern food production operations are based on the process approach, as
opposed to the ‘partie’ (product approach) system. The process approach concentrates on
the specific techniques and processes of food production. This system places importance
on the identification of these common techniques and processes across the full range of
required dishes. In developing the production system, groupings are not then based on
the types of dishes or foods, which is the basis of the ‘partie’ system, but on the clustering
of similar production techniques and processes which apply a range of common skills and
encourage flexible open-endedness.
Food production is an operating system and can be managed through the application of
the systems approach. A whole range of different cuisines are able to fit more neatly into
Table 1.7 Food production methods
Method

Description

Conventional

Term used to describe production utilising mainly fresh foods and
traditional cooking methods

Convenience

Method of production utilising mainly convenience foods

Call order

Method where food is cooked to order either from customer (as in
cafeterias) or from waiter. Production area is often open to customer area

Continuous flow

Method involving production line approach where different parts of the
production process may be separated (e.g. fast food)

Centralised

Production not directly linked to service. Foods are ‘held’ and distributed
to separate service areas

Cook-chill

Food production storage and regeneration method utilising principle of
low temperature control to preserve qualities of processed foods

Cook-freeze

Production, storage and regeneration method utilising principle of
freezing to control and preserve qualities of processed foods. Requires
special processes to assist freezing

Sous-vide

Method of production, storage and regeneration utilising principle of
sealed vacuum to control and preserve the quality of processed foods

Assembly
kitchen

A system based on accepting and incorporating the latest technological
developments in manufacturing and conservation of food products

Food and beverage service methods

this approach, because the key elements focus on the process, the way the food is prepared,
processed (cooked), stored and served. Using this approach, food production systems may
be identified using the input/process/output model of systems. Developing this approach
further, nine standard production methods can be identified and these are shown in
Table 1.7.
In reality, many foodservice operations combine a number of these food production
methods to meet the needs of the operation.

●●1.5 Food and beverage service methods
The service of food and beverages may be carried out in many ways depending on the
following factors:
◗◗ type of establishment
◗◗ time available for the meal
◗◗ type of menu presented
◗◗ site of the establishment

◗◗ type of customer to be served
◗◗ turnover of custom expected
◗◗ cost of the meal served.

A foodservice operation was traditionally only seen as comprising the three operating
systems of:
◗◗ food production
◗◗ beverage provision
◗◗ food and beverage service
Within this view, food and beverage service was primarily designed and managed as a
delivery process, with the customer being considered a passive recipient of the service.
Only the requirements of the operation itself would determine how the service was
designed, planned and controlled. This view has now changed, with the customer
being seen as being central to the process and also as an active participant within it.
Consequently, understanding the customers’ involvement in the process, and identifying
the experience they are likely to have and should expect, have become critical to the
business success of foodservice operations.
It is also now recognised that food and beverage service itself actually consists of two
separate sub-systems, operating at the same time. These are:
1 The service sequence – which is primarily concerned with the delivery of the food and
beverages to the customer.
2 The customer process – which is concerned with the experience the customer undertakes
to be able to order, be served, consume and have the area cleared.
This modern view of a foodservice operation can be summarised in a simple model as
shown in Figure 1.5.

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Chapter 1
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Food and beverage service

Customer

Customer
process

Service
sequence

Food
production

Beverage
provision
Figure 1.5 Simple model of a foodservice operation

The service sequence

The service sequence is essentially the bridge between the production system, beverage
provision and the customer process (or customer experience). The service sequence may
consist of eleven or more stages as summarised in Table 1.8.
Table 1.8 Food and beverage service sequence
  1
  2
  3
  4
  5
  6

Preparation for service
Taking bookings
Greeting and seating/directing
Taking food and beverage orders
Serving of food
Serving beverages

  7
  8
  9
10
11

Clearing during service
Billing
Dealing with payments
Dishwashing
Clearing following service

Each of these stages of the service sequence may be carried out by a variety of methods
and these different methods are described throughout the book. The choice of method for
the individual stage depends on the factors listed at the start of this section and the process
that the customer is to experience.
The customer process

The customer receiving the food and beverage product is required to undertake or observe
certain requirements: this is the customer process. Essentially, a customer enters a food
service area, orders or selects his or her choice and then is served (the customer may pay
either at this point or later). Food and beverages are then consumed, following which the
area is cleared.
Bringing these approaches together, it is possible to summarise the relationship between
the various systems with a foodservice operation, as shown in Figure 1.6. This model
identifies the key stages of a foodservice operation: for the customer, for the food and
beverage service staff and for those involved in food production and beverage provision. It
also reinforces the existence of the two sub-systems within food and beverage service that
have to be managed at the same time.

Food and beverage service methods
Food production and
beverage provision

Food production and
beverage service
Customer
process

Service
sequence

Booking if
required

Taking
bookings

Purchasing and
storing of foods
and beverages

Preparing
for service

Preparing
for service

Arriving

Welcoming /
directing

Ordering /
selecting

Taking /
receiving order

Preparing foods
and / or
beverages

Receiving

Service of food
and beverages

Preparing foods
and / or
beverages

Consuming

Clearing
during service

Clearing
during service

Paying

Billing and
dealing with
payments

Leaving

Dishwashing

Dishwashing

Clearing
after service

Clearing
after service

Figure 1.6 Outline of the relationship between the different operating systems within a
foodservice operation

Categorising the different service methods
When considering food and beverage service from a customer process perspective, rather than
considering it purely as a set of delivery methods, five basic types of customer process can
be identified (see Table 1.9).

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Chapter 1
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Table 1.9 Simple categorisation of the customer processes in food and beverage service
Service
method

Service
area

Ordering/
selection

Service

Dining/
consumption

Clearing

Table
service

Customer
enters and
is seated

From menu

By staff to
customer

At laid cover

By staff

Assisted
service

Customer
enters and
is usually
seated

From menu,
buffet or
passed trays

Combination
of both staff
and customer

Usually at laid
cover

By staff

Self-service

Customer
enters

Customer
selects items
onto a tray

Customer
carries

Dining area or
take away

Various

Single point
service

Customer
enters

Orders at single
point

Customer
carries

Dining area or
take away

Various

Specialised
or in situ
service

Where the
customer
is located

From menu or
predetermined

Brought to
the customer

Served where
the customer is
located

By staff or
customer
clearing

All modern food and beverage service methods can then be grouped or categorised under
the five customer processes summarised in Table 1.9 as follows.
ATable service: the customer is served at a laid table. This type of service, which includes
plated service or silver service, is found in many types of restaurant, cafés and in
banqueting.
BSelf-service: the customer is required to help him or herself from a buffet or counter. This
type of service can be found in cafeterias and canteens.
CAssisted service: the customer is served part of the meal at a table and is required to obtain
part through self-service from some form of display or buffet. This type of service is
found in carvery type operations and is often used for meals such as breakfast in hotels.
It may also be used for functions.
DSingle point service: the customer orders, pays and receives the food and beverages, for
instance at a counter, at a bar in licensed premises, in a fast food operation or at a
vending machine.
ESpecialised service (or service in situ): the food and drink is taken to where the customer
is. This includes tray service in hospitals or aircraft, trolley service, home delivery,
lounge and room service.
In groups A–D of the customer processes, the customer comes to where the food and
beverage service is offered and the service is provided in areas primarily designed for that
purpose, such as a restaurant or takeaway. In customer process E, the service is provided in
another location, where the area is not primarily designed for the purpose, for example, in
a guest room, lounge or hospital ward.

Food and beverage service methods
Table 1.10 Food and beverage service methods
Group A: Table service
Service to customers at a laid cover
1

2

Waiter

a) Silver/English

Presentation and service of food by waiting staff, using a
spoon and fork, onto a customer’s plate, from food flats
or dishes

b) Family

Main courses plated (but may be silver served) with
vegetables placed in multi-portion dishes on tables for
customers to help themselves; sauces offered separately

c) Plate/
American

Service of pre-plated foods to customers. Now also
widely used for banqueting

d) Butler/
French

Presentation of food service dishes individually to
customers by food service staff for customers to serve
themselves

e) Russian

Table laid with food for customers to help themselves
(this is a modern interpretation and may also sometimes
be used to indicate Guéridon or Butler service)

f)

Food served onto customer’s plate at a side table or
trolley; may also include carving, jointing and fish filleting,
the preparation of foods such as salads and dressings
and flambage

Guéridon

Bar
counter

Service to customers seated at bar counter (often
U-shaped) on stools

Group B: Assisted service
Combination of table service and self-service
3

Assisted

a) Carvery

Some parts of the meal are served to seated customers;
other parts are collected by the customers from a buffet.
Also used for breakfast service and for banqueting

b) Buffets

Customers select food and drink from displays or passed
trays; consumption is either at tables, standing or in
lounge area

Group C: Self-service
Self-service of customers
4

Cafeteria

a) Counter

Customers queue in line formation past a service counter
and choose their menu requirements in stages before
loading them onto a tray (may include a ‘carousel’ – a
revolving stacked counter, saving space)

b) Freeflow

Selection as in counter (above) but in food service area
where customers move at will to random service points;
customers usually exit area via a till point

c) Echelon

Series of counters at angles to the customer flow within a
free-flow area, thus saving space

d) Supermarket

Island service points within a free-flow area

Note: some ‘call order’ production may be included in cafeterias.

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Group D: Single point service
Service of customers at single point – consumed on premises or taken away
5

Takeaway

a) Takeaway

Customer orders and is served from single point, at a
counter, hatch or snack stand; customer consumes off the
premises; some takeaway establishments provide dining
areas

b) Drive-thru

Form of takeaway where customer drives vehicle past
order, payment and collection points

c) Fast food

Term originally used to describe service at a counter or
hatch where customers receive a complete meal or dish
in exchange for cash or ticket; commonly used nowadays
to describe type of establishment offering limited range
menu, fast service with dining area, and takeaway facility

6

Vending

Provision of food service and beverage service by means
of automatic retailing

7

Kiosks

Outstation used to provide service for peak demand or in
specific location; may be open for customers to order and
be served, or used for dispensing to staff only

8

Food
court

Series of autonomous counters where customers may
either order and eat (as in 2 Bar counter, above) or buy
from a number of counters and eat in separate eating
area, or takeaway

9

Bar

Term used to describe order, service and payment point
and consumption area in licensed premises

Group E: Specialised (or in situ)
Service to customers in areas not primarily designed for service
10 Tray

Method of service of whole or part of meal on tray to
customer in situ, e.g. at hospital beds; at aircraft seats; at
train seats; also used in ODC

11 Trolley

Service of food and beverages from a trolley, away from
dining areas, e.g. for office workers at their desks; for
customers at aircraft seats; at train seats

12 Home
delivery

Food delivered to customer’s home or place of work, e.g.
‘meals on wheels’, pizza home delivery, or sandwiches to
offices

13 Lounge

Service of variety of foods and beverages in lounge area,
e.g. hotel lounge

14 Room

Service of variety of foods and beverages in guest
bedrooms or in meeting rooms

15 Drive-in

Customers park their motor vehicle and are served at their
vehicles

Note: Banquet/function is a term used to describe catering for specific numbers of people at specific times in
a variety of dining layouts. Service methods also vary. In these cases banquet/function catering refers to the
organisation of service rather than a specific service method – see Chapter 11 Events.

Food and beverage service personnel

A detailed listing of all the modern food and beverage service methods is given in
Table 1.10 (pp.19–20) and listed under each of the groups A to D. For a particular service
method, such as waiter service, a number of tasks and duties are undertaken during
the actual service of food and beverages. However, there are other tasks and duties that
contribute to the service. These may be identified using the service sequence (see Table
1.8, p.16). Additionally, the level of complexity of food and beverage service in terms of
staff skills, tasks and duties reduces from Group A (the most complex) to Group D. Group
E contains specialised forms of service and these are further considered in Chapter 9.
Note: Apart from for fast food operations, there is no particular link between a specific service
method and a specific food production method. It is also possible that the production and
service may be separated by distance or time, or both, as for example in off-premises catering.

●●1.6 Food and beverage service personnel
Typical organisation charts for small and larger hotels are given in Figures 1.7 and 1.8. In
both these charts various food and beverage job roles are identified. For food and beverage
operations not set within hotels, the organisation often resembles the food and beverage
section of the hotel organisation charts. However, different terminology can be used for
the various job roles in differing types of establishment. The various types of job roles in
food and beverage service are identified below. In some smaller operations a number of
these job roles may be combined.
General
manager

Food
and beverage
manager

Head chef

Restaurant
manager

Figure 1.7 Small hotel organisation chart

Front of house
manager

Head receptionist

Housekeeper

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Chapter 1
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General
manager

Deputy
manager

Food and
beverage
manager

Personnel
manager

Control
office

Marketing and
sales assistant

Assistant food and
beverage manager

Head chef

Front of house
manager

Assistant front of
house manager

Restaurant
manager

Floor service
manager

Banqueting
head manager

Head
housekeeper

Storekeeper

Reception
manager

Head
cashier

Figure 1.8 Large hotel organisation chart

Food and beverage manager

Depending on the size of the establishment, the food and beverage manager is either
responsible for the implementation of agreed policies or for contributing to the setting of
the food and beverage policies. The larger the organisation the less likely the manager is to
be involved in policy setting. In general, food and beverage managers are responsible for:
◗◗ ensuring that the required profit margins are achieved for each food and beverage service
area, in each financial period
◗◗ updating and compiling new wine lists according to availability of stock, current trends
and customer needs
◗◗ compiling, in liaison with the kitchen, menus for the various food service areas and for
special occasions
◗◗ purchasing of all materials, both food and drink
◗◗ ensuring that quality in relation to the price paid is maintained
◗◗ determining portion size in relation to selling price
◗◗ ensuring staff training, sales promotions and the maintenance of the highest professional
standards

Food and beverage service personnel

◗◗ employing and dismissing staff
◗◗ holding regular meetings with section heads to ensure all areas are working effectively,
efficiently and are well coordinated.
Restaurant manager/supervisor

The restaurant manager or supervisor has overall responsibility for the organisation and
administration of particular food and beverage service areas. These may include the
lounges, room service (in hotels), restaurants and possibly some of the private function
suites. It is the restaurant manager who sets the standards for service and is responsible
for any staff training that may be required, either on or off the job. They may make out
duty rotas, holiday lists and hours on and off duty, and contribute to operational duties
(depending on the size of the establishment) so that all the service areas run efficiently and
smoothly.
Reception headwaiter

The reception headwaiter is responsible for accepting any bookings and for keeping
the booking diary up to date. They will reserve tables and allocate these reservations to
particular stations. The reception headwaiter greets guests on arrival and takes them to the
table and seats them.
Headwaiter/maître d’hôtel/supervisor

The headwaiter has overall charge of the staff team and is responsible for seeing that all the
pre-preparation duties necessary for service are efficiently carried out and that nothing is
forgotten. The headwaiter will aid the reception headwaiter during the service and will
possibly take some orders if the station waiter is busy. The headwaiter also helps with the
compilation of duty rotas and holiday lists, and may relieve the restaurant manager or
reception headwaiter on their days off.
Station headwaiter/section supervisor

For larger establishments the restaurant area is broken down into sections. The station
headwaiter has the overall responsibility for a team of staff serving a number of stations
within a section of the restaurant area. Each of the sets of tables (which may be
anything from four to eight in number) within the section of the restaurant area is
called a station.
The station headwaiter must have a good knowledge of food and wine and its correct
service, and be able to instruct other members of the staff. They take the food and
beverage orders (usually from the host) and carry out service at the table with the help of
the chef de rang, who is in command of one of the stations within the section.
Station waiter/chef de rang

The chef de rang or station waiter provides service to one set of tables (between about four
and eight) known as a station within the restaurant area. The chef de rang will normally
have had less experience than a station headwaiter.
Assistant station waiter/demi-chef de rang

The assistant station waiter or demi-chef de rang is the person next in seniority to the
station waiter and assists as directed by the station waiter.
Waiter/server/commis de rang

The waiter or commis de rang acts by instruction from the chef de rang. This person
mainly fetches and carries, may do some of the service of either vegetables or sauces, offers

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Chapter 1
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rolls, places plates upon the table and so on, and also helps to clear the tables after each
course. During the pre-preparation period much of the cleaning and preparatory tasks will
be carried out by the commis de rang.
Trainee commis/debarrasseur/apprentice

The trainee commis or debarrasseur is the apprentice or learner, having just joined the
food and beverage service staff, and who wishes to take up food service as a career. During
the service this person will keep the sideboard well stocked with equipment and may help
to fetch and carry items as required. The debarrasseur will carry out some of the cleaning
tasks during the pre-preparation periods. They may also be given the responsibility
of looking after and serving hors-d’oeuvre, cold sweets or assorted cheeses from the
appropriate trolleys.
Carver/trancheur

The carver or trancheur is responsible for the carving trolley and the carving of
joints at the table as required. The carver will plate up each portion and service with
accompaniment as appropriate.
Floor or room service staff/chef d’étage/floor or room waiter

The floor or room service staff are often responsible for a complete floor in an
establishment or, depending on the size of the establishment, a number of rooms or suites.
Room service of all meals and beverages throughout the day is normally only offered by
a first-class establishment. In smaller establishments room service may be limited to early
morning teas and breakfasts with the provision of in-room mini bars and tea and coffee
facilities.
If full floor service is in operation, the staff will consist of a head floor waiter with
the appropriate number of floor waiters working for them. This team of staff are then
responsible for the service of all meals and beverages (alcoholic and non-alcoholic) in guest
rooms. A thorough knowledge of food and drink, and their correct service, is therefore
essential. The importance of good liaison and cooperation with the housekeeping staff
cannot be over-emphasised here. The floor service staff will normally work from a floor
pantry or central kitchen with all food and drink reaching the appropriate floor and the
required room by lift and in a heated trolley (see Section 9.2, p.267).
Lounge staff/chef de sale

Lounge service staff may be employed only for lounge service within larger establishments.
In a smaller establishment it is usual for members of the food service staff to take over these
duties on a rota basis. The lounge staff are responsible for the service of morning coffee,
afternoon teas, apéritifs and liqueurs before and after both lunch and dinner, and any
coffee required after meals. They are responsible for setting up the lounge in the morning
and maintaining its cleanliness and presentation throughout the day.
Wine butler/wine waiter/sommelier

The sommelier is responsible for the service of all alcoholic drinks and non-alcoholic
bar drinks during the service of meals. The sommelier must also be a sales person. This
employee should have a thorough knowledge of all drink to be served, of the best wines
and drinks to go with certain foods, and of the liquor licensing laws in respect of the
particular establishment and area.

Food and beverage service personnel
Bar staff/bartender/mixologist

The people working within bar areas must be responsible and competent in preparing and
serving a variety of wine, drinks and cocktails. They should have a thorough knowledge
of all alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks being offered within the establishment, the
ingredients necessary for the making of cocktails, and have knowledge of the requirements
of the liquor licensing laws to ensure legal compliance.
A mixologist is a person who mixes and serves alcoholic beverages at a bar. The term
is also used for people who are creators of new mixed drinks. They may also be called a
cocktail maker, a cocktail bartender or simply a bartender. Mixology is the art of making
mixed drinks.
Barista

The word barista is of Italian origin. In Italy, a barista is a male or female bartender who
typically works behind a counter, serving both hot and cold beverages as well as alcoholic
beverages. Although it does not mean specifically a person who makes various types of
espresso-based coffee, it is now often used with this meaning. The plural in English is
baristas.
Buffet assistant/buffet chef/chef de buffet

The chef de buffet is in charge of the buffet in the room, its presentation, the carving and
portioning of food and its service. This staff member will normally be a member of the
kitchen team.
Cashier

The cashier is responsible for billing and taking payments, or making ledger account
entries for a food and beverage operation. This may include making up bills from food and
drink checks or, in a cafeteria for example, charging customers for their selection of items
on a tray (see Section 12.6, p.381).
Counter assistants

Counter assistants are found in cafeterias where they will stock the counter and sometimes
serve or portion food for customers. Duties may also include some cooking of call order
items.
Table clearers

Again, table clearers can be found in seating areas where the service is not waiter service.
These people are responsible for clearing tables using trolleys specially designed for the
stacking of crockery, glassware, cutlery, etc.
Function catering/banqueting staff/events staff

In establishments with function catering facilities there will normally be a certain number
of permanent staff. These will include the banqueting and conferencing manager, one or
two assistant managers, one or two headwaiters, a dispense person and a secretary to the
banqueting and conferencing manager. All other banqueting, conferencing and events staff
are normally engaged as required on a casual basis. In small establishments, where there
are fewer events, the manager, the assistant manager and the headwaiter will undertake the
necessary administrative and organisational work.

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Chapter 1
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Staffing requirements
The staffing requirements in various establishments will differ for a number of reasons.
Table 1.11 gives examples of the food and beverage staffing that might be found in
different types of operation.
Table 1.11 Examples of staffing requirements for different types of foodservice operation
Medium class hotel
Hotel manager
Assistant manager
Head waiter
Waiters
Wine waiter
Cashier

Cafeteria
Catering manager
Supervisors
Assistant supervisors
Counter service hands
Clearers
Cashier

Department store
Catering manager
Assistant catering manager
Supervisor
Assistant supervisors
Cashier
Dispense bar staff
Wine waiting staff
Waiting staff

Industrial foodservice/welfare catering
Catering manager
Assistant catering manager
Supervisors
Assistant supervisors
Waiter
Steward/butler
Counter service staff
Clearers
Cashiers

Popular price restaurant
Restaurant manager/supervisor
Waiting staff
Dispense bar assistant

Chapter 2

Staff attributes, skills and knowledge

2.1 Success in food and
beverage service

28

2.2 Attributes of food and
beverage service
personnel

28

2.3 Service conventions

30

2.4 Basic technical skills

34

2.5 Interpersonal skills

41

2.6 Health, safety and
security

48

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Chapter 2
Staff attributes, skills and knowledge

●●2.1 Success in food and beverage service
Today more people than ever are eating outside the home and to meet this demand there
is widening diversity in the nature and type of food and beverages on offer. Because
of the expansion of the industry, and increasing pressures for improved professionalism
in food and beverage service staff, there is even greater need for people to make their
careers in this noble profession. In addition, there is a need for improved confidence and
performance of staff, through higher standards of knowledge and skills.
Food and beverage service is the essential link between the customers and the menu,
beverages and other services on offer in an establishment. The server is the main point
of contact between the customers and the establishment and plays an important role in a
profession with increasing national and international status. The skills and knowledge of
food and beverage service, and therefore careers, are transferable between establishments,
sectors and throughout the world.
To be successful in food and beverage service requires members of staff to have:
◗◗ sound product knowledge
◗◗ well developed interpersonal skills
◗◗ a range of technical skills, and
◗◗ the ability to work as part of a team.
Working in food and beverage service offers a wealth of opportunity for professional
development and advancement – for those committed to the hospitality industry and to
working in food and beverage service, a fulfilling, exciting and enjoyable career awaits.

●●2.2 Attributes of food and beverage service
personnel

Professional and hygienic appearance

How you look and the first impressions you create are seen as a reflection of the hygiene
standards of your establishment and the quality of service to come.
All staff should be aware of the factors listed below and it is their individual
responsibility to ensure that they are put into practice.
◗◗ Staff should be clean and should use deodorants (but not strong smelling ones).
◗◗ Aftershave and perfumes should not be too strong (as this may have a detrimental effect
on the customer’s palate).
◗◗ Sufficient sleep, an adequate and healthy intake of food and regular exercise is essential
for good health and the ability to cope with the pressures and stress of work.
◗◗ Particular attention should be paid to the hands. They must always be clean, free of
nicotine stains and with clean, well-trimmed nails.
◗◗ Men should normally be clean-shaven or with any moustache or beard neatly trimmed.
◗◗ Women should only wear light make-up. If nail varnish is worn then it should be clear.
◗◗ Earrings should not be worn with the possible exception of studs/sleepers.
◗◗ Uniform should be clean, starched as appropriate and neatly pressed. All buttons must be
present.

Attributes of food and beverage service personnel

◗◗ Hair must be clean and well groomed. Long hair must be tied up or back to avoid hairs
falling into foods and drinks and to avoid repeated handling of the hair.
◗◗ Shoes must be comfortable and clean, and of a plain, neat design. Fashion is not as
important here as safety and foot comfort.
◗◗ Teeth should be brushed immediately before coming on duty.
◗◗ Cuts and burns should be covered with waterproof dressings.
◗◗ Any colds or other possible infections should be reported immediately.
◗◗ Hands should be washed immediately after using the toilet, smoking or dealing with
refuse. Hot water and soap must be used.
◗◗ Staff should try to avoid any mannerisms they may have, such as running their fingers
through their hair, chewing gum or scratching their face.
◗◗ Excessive jewellery should not be worn. The establishment policy should be followed.
Knowledge of food and beverages and technical ability

The staff must have sufficient knowledge of all the items on the menu and wine and drink
lists in order to advise and offer suggestions to customers. In addition, they must know
how to serve correctly each dish on the menu, what its accompaniments are, the correct
cover, and the make-up of the dish and its garnish. For beverage service the staff should
know how to serve various types of wine and drink, in the correct containers (e.g. glasses,
cups) and at the right temperature.
Punctuality

Punctuality is all-important. If staff are continually late on duty it shows a lack of interest
in their work and a lack of respect for the management and customers.
Local knowledge

In the interest of customers the staff should have a certain knowledge of the area in which
they work so they may be able to advise the guests on the various forms of entertainment
offered, the best means of transport to places of interest and so on.
Personality

Staff must be tactful, courteous, good humoured and of an even temper. They must
converse with the customer in a pleasing and well-spoken manner and the ability to smile
at the right time pays dividends.
Attitude to customers

The correct approach to the customer is of the utmost importance. Staff must provide
service but should not be servile, and should be able to anticipate the customer’s needs
and wishes. A careful watch should be kept on customers during the service (but without
staring) to check the progress of the meal.
Memory

A good memory is an asset to food and beverage service staff. It may help them in various
ways in their work if they know the likes and dislikes of customers, where they like to sit
in the food service area, what are their favourite drinks, and so on.
Honesty

Trust and respect in the triangle of staff, customer and management relationships leads to
an atmosphere at work that encourages efficiency and a good team spirit among the food
and beverage service operators.

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Chapter 2
Staff attributes, skills and knowledge
Loyalty

The staff’s obligations and loyalty are firstly to the establishment in which they are
employed and its management.
Conduct

Staff conduct should be impeccable at all times, especially in front of customers. The
rules and regulations of an establishment must be followed and respect shown to all senior
members of staff.
Sales ability

All members of staff reflect the image of the establishment. They are sales people and must
therefore have a complete knowledge of all forms of food and drink and their correct
service, and so be able to contribute to personal selling and merchandising. (See Section
12.2, p.363 for more information on personal selling and merchandising.)
Sense of urgency

In order for the establishment to generate the maximum amount of business over the
service period, with as high a net profit as possible, staff must develop a sense of urgency in
their work.
Complaints

Staff should have a pleasant manner and show courtesy and tact, an even temper and good
humour. They should never show their displeasure even during a difficult situation. Staff
should never argue with a customer and if they are unable to resolve a situation, it should
be referred immediately to a senior member of the team who will be able to reassure the
customer and put right any fault. Remember, loss of time in dealing with complaints only
makes the situation worse.
Contribution to the team

Above all, staff should be able to work as part of a team within and between departments.

●●2.3 Service conventions
Within food and beverage service there are traditional ways of doing things that have
become established over time. These are known as the ‘service conventions’ and all have
some logic behind them. Mostly this is to do with being effective and efficient in carrying
out the service. The use of service conventions also ensures standardisation in the service
sequence and the customer process (see Section 1.5, p.15), both for staff and for customers.
Examples of general service conventions and the rationale for them are given in Table 2.1.

Service conventions
Table 2.1 General conventions for food and beverage service
Convention

Rationale

Always work as part of a
team

All members of the team should know and be able to do
their own job well, to ensure a smooth, well-organised and
disciplined operation.

Work hygienically and
safely

For the protection of other staff and customers from harm and
to avoid accidents.

Pass other members of
staff by moving to the right

Having an establishment rule about each member of staff
always moving to the right (or left) avoids confusion and
accidents.

Avoid contact between
fingers and mouth or hair

If contact between fingers and mouth or hair, etc., is
unavoidable, then hands must be washed before continuing
with service. Always wash hands after using the toilet.

Cover cuts and sores

Covering cuts and sores with waterproof plasters or dressings is
essential health and safety practice.

Use check lists for
preparation tasks

Using checklists ensures that all members of staff complete all
preparatory tasks in the same way. For example, housekeeping
duties, furniture layouts, linen, paper, glassware, tableware,
crockery, condiments, accompaniments, table decorations,
menus, place cards, table plans, service sideboards/stations
and service equipment.

Prepare service areas in
sequence

Ensure service areas are laid out and housekeeping duties have
been completed before the preparation for service begins.
This can save time and unnecessary duplication of effort
afterwards.

Consider using white
gloves

In some establishments members of staff wear white cotton
gloves when carrying out various preparation tasks. The
gloves help to prevent the soiling of clean service items and
avoid putting finger marks on cleaned and polished service
equipment. White gloves are also sometimes used during
service, instead of using service cloths, when serving plated
foods that are presented on hot plates.

Use a model lay-up

Lay one initial full place setting (cover) to use as a model for all
staff to measure against. A place setting is usually about 60 cm
wide.

Hold glasses or cups at the
base or by the handle

This is hygienic practice. Service staff should not hold glasses or
cups, etc., by the rim.

Hold cutlery in the middle
at the sides between the
thumb and forefinger

This is safer, makes for more accurate placing of items on the
table, and also helps to prevent finger marking on the clean
cutlery items.

Lay table place settings
(covers) from the inside
out

This makes table laying easier. Place a centre to the cover (a
table mat or side plate for instance) then lay tableware in order
from the inside of the cover outwards. When laying a number of
covers it is more efficient to lay each piece of tableware for all
covers in sequence, i.e., all side plates, then all side knives, etc.

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Convention

Rationale

Use of standard lay-ups

Indicates the type of meals being taken, the sequence of the
courses and also what stage customers are at within a meal.

Fully or partly lay the table
before a meal begins

Most often tables are fully laid before a meal but this may
vary, for instance, if the table is likely to become excessively
cluttered or where there is not sufficient equipment to fully prelay all the tables.

Place items on the table
consistently

Make sure that any crested or patterned crockery or glassware
is always placed the same way round on the table and that it is
evenly spaced.

Place items low to high

Lower items should be placed near to the customer and taller
items behind or to the side of these. This makes items easily
accessible by the customer and helps to avoid accidents.

Place items according to
the customer’s position at
the table

Items placed on a table should be within reach of the
customer. Handles, etc., should be set for the customer’s
convenience.

Use checklists for all
aspects of service

These help to ensure that all information is complete and that
all managers and staff carry out procedures in the same way.

Be aware of customers
who may have additional
needs

Look out for, and be prepared to deal with, people with sight,
hearing, speech, mobility and language difficulties. Also be
able to deal with children.

Use order notation
techniques

Use of such techniques helps any server to identify which
member of a party is having a particular item of food or
beverage.

Avoid leaning over
customers

This shows courtesy and respect for physical space. Remember
that no matter how clean service staff members are, food and
beverage smells do tend to cling to service uniforms.

Take food, wine and drink
orders through hosts

This is common courtesy – agreement needs to be obtained for
any items that are to be served. For larger parties, where there
may be a choice, orders may be taken individually but it is
useful to confirm what has actually been ordered with the host
as this may save any disagreements later.

Serve cold food before
hot food

When the hot food is served the service is complete and
customers can enjoy the meal without waiting for additional
items to be served. For the same reason, accompaniments
should be automatically offered and served at the same time
as the food item.

Serve wine before food

Similar to above. Customers will wish to enjoy the wine with their
meal. They will not want to wait for the wine service, as their hot
food will go cold.

Use underplates (liners)

These are used (cold) for four main purposes: to improve
presentation on the table; to make carrying of soup plates,
bowls and other bowl-shaped dishes easier; to isolate the hand
from hot dishes; to allow cutlery to be carried along with the
item.

Service conventions

Convention

Rationale

Use service salvers or
service plates (with
napkins or mats on them
to prevent items slipping)

Service salvers or service plates are used for five main purposes:
to improve presentation of items to be served; to make carrying
of bowl-shaped serving dishes easier and more secure (also
avoids the thumb of the server being inside a service dish); to
allow for more than one serving dish to be carried at a time;
to isolate the hand from hot dishes; to allow service gear to be
carried along with the item(s).

Hold flats, food dishes and
round trays on the palm of
the hand

This is safer and ensures that the food items are best presented
for the customer. It also makes for easier carrying and avoids
the server’s thumb or service cloths being seen on the edge of
flats, dishes and round trays. If the flats or dishes are hot then
the service cloth can be underneath, folded and laid flat onto
the palm to protect the hand.

Use doilies/dish papers on
underplates (liners)

Doilies, dish papers (or linen or paper napkins) on underplates
are used to improve presentation, to reduce noise and to
prevent the dish from slipping on the underplate. Use doilies for
sweet food items and dish papers for savoury food items.

Start service from the right
hand side of the host, with
the host last

Honoured guests are usually seated on the right of a host. The
convention is to serve a table by moving anti-clockwise to
each customer, as this ensures that members of the serving staff
are walking forwards to serve the next person.

Serve women first

Often done if it does not slow the service. Particular care
needs to be taken so as not to confuse things when the host
is a woman. A host of either gender is still the host and should
always be served last.

Silver serve food from
the left hand side of a
customer

Ensures that the service dish is nearer the plate for ease of
service and to prevent food being spilt onto the person.
Customers can more easily see the food being served and
make choices if necessary, and members of the service staff
are also able to see and control what they are doing.

Use separate service gear
for different food items

This should be standard. It avoids different food items or sauces
being transferred from one dish or plate to another and avoids
messy presentation of foods on the customers’ plates.

Serve foods onto plates
consistently

For service of the whole main course onto a joint plate, place
the main item at the 6 o’clock position with potatoes served
next at the 10 past 2 position and vegetables last at the 10
to 2 position (this also follows the UK Royal National Institute
for the Blind (RNIB) recommendations). For main courses with
potatoes and vegetables and/or salads served on a separate
plate or crescent, the main item is placed in the centre of the
main plate with the separate plate or crescent of potatoes and
vegetables and/or side salad to the left of this.

Serve plated foods from
the right hand side of a
customer

Plates can be placed in front of the customer with the right
hand and the stack of other plated food is then behind the
customer’s chair in the left hand. If there is an accident, the
plates held in the left hand will go onto the floor rather than over
the customer. Plated foods should be placed so that the food
items are consistently in the same position for all customers.

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Convention

Rationale

Serve all beverages from
the right hand side of a
customer

Glasses are placed on the right hand side of a cover and the
service of beverages follows from this. For individual drinks and
other beverages, the tray is held behind a customer’s seat in
the server’s left hand. Other beverages such as coffee and tea
are also served from the right. All beverages should also be
cleared from the right.

Use trays

Use trays to bring foods and beverage items to the service
areas and to clear during and following service. Trays can be
brought to, or removed from, sideboards or service tables and
also to serve plated foods from (or to clear plates onto) with
service staff working as a pair

Separate the serving at
table from food/drink
collection and sideboard/
workstation clearing

Ensures that there is always someone in the room to attend to
customers and to monitor the overall service, while others are
bringing in food and beverage orders or clearing items away
from the service station. This approach allows for the training
of new staff and ensures that customer contact is primarily
through experienced staff.

Clear from the right hand
side of a customer

Plates can be removed from in front of the customer with the
right hand and the stack of plates is then behind the customer’s
chair, in the server’s left hand. If there is an accident, the plates
held in the left hand will go onto the floor rather than over the
customer. The exception to this is for side plates, which are on
the left-hand side of the cover. These are more easily cleared
from the left, thus avoiding stretching in front of the customer.

Use checklists for tasks
required for clearing after
service

In the same way as using checklists for preparatory tasks (see
above), using checklists for clearing after service ensures that
any member of staff completes all clearing tasks in the same
way.

●●2.4 Basic technical skills
There are six basic technical food and beverage service skills. These are identified in Table
2.2 below, together with examples of their application.
These basic technical skills are used specifically for table service and assisted service.
However, these skills are also used when providing other forms of service, for example,
when carrying trays for room service or using a service salver for bar service.

Holding and using a service spoon and fork
Expertise in this technique can only be achieved with practice. The purpose of the service
spoon and fork is to enable the waiter to serve food from a flat or dish on to the customer’s
plate quickly and to present the food on the plate well.
◗◗ The service fork should be positioned above, or on top of, the service spoon.
◗◗ The key to developing this skill is the locking of the ends of the service spoon and fork
with the small finger and the third finger, as illustrated in Figure 2.1(a).
◗◗ The spoon and fork are manoeuvred with the thumb and the index and second fingers

Basic technical skills
Table 2.2 Technical skills and their application
Technical skill

Examples of application

Holding and using a service
spoon and fork, and other service
equipment

For the service of food at a customer’s table,
especially for silver service, and for serving at a buffet.

Carrying plates

When placing and clearing plates from a customer’s
table.

Using a service salver (round tray)

For carrying glasses, carrying tea and coffee services,
as an under liner for entrée dishes and for potato and
vegetable dishes.

Using a service plate

For carrying items to and from a table, including
clean cutlery, clearing side plates and knives,
crumbing down and clearing accompaniments.

Carrying glasses

Carrying clean glasses by hand or on a salver and for
clearing dirty glasses from a service area.

Carrying and using large trays

For bringing equipment or food and beverage items
to the service area and for clearing used equipment
from the service area.

(see Figure 2.1(b)). Using this method food items may be picked up from the serving
dish in between the service spoon and service fork.
◗◗ Alternatively, the service fork may be turned to mould with the shape of the items being
served, for example, when serving bread rolls (see Figure 2.1(c)).
There are occasions where two service forks may be used, for example when serving fillets
of fish, as this makes the service of this food item easier.
When using a serving spoon and fork for serving at a sweet or cheese trolley, or at a
buffet or guéridon, the spoon and fork are held one in each hand.
Other service equipment that may be used includes serving tongs, fish slices, gateaux
slices, serving spoons, scoops, small sauce ladles and larger soup ladles.

(a) Stage 1

(b) Stage 2

Figure 2.1 Hand positions for holding a service spoon and fork

(c) Stage 3

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Carrying plates
Clean plates can be carried in a stack, using both hands, or using a tray. When carrying
clean plates that are to be placed on the customer’s table, a single hand is used to hold the
plates (usually the left hand) and the right hand is used to place the plates at each cover on
the customer’s table. If the plates are hot then the plates are held with a service cloth placed
on the palm of the left hand. A separate service cloth is then used in the right hand to hold
the hot plates when placing them in front of the customer.
When carrying plates of pre-plated foods and when clearing plates from a customer’s
table, a single hand is used to hold the plates (usually the left hand) and the right hand is
used to place and remove plates from the customer’s table. Special hand positions are used
as follows:
◗◗ Figure 2.2(a) illustrates the initial hand position for the first plate. Care must be taken to
ensure that the first plate is held firmly as succeeding plates are built up from here. The
second plate will rest firmly on the forearm and the third and fourth fingers.
◗◗ Figure 2.2(b) shows the second plate positioned on the left (holding) hand.

(a) First plate cleared

(b) Second plate cleared

Figure 2.2 Hand positions when clearing plates and carrying pre-plated food (cold)

To be able to clear properly ensures efficiency, avoids the possibility of accidents and creates
the minimum of inconvenience to customers. Well-developed clearing techniques enable
more to be cleared, in less time and in fewer journeys between sideboard or workstation
and the customer’s table. In addition, clearing properly allows for the stacking of dirties
neatly and safely at the sideboard or workstation. (See also Section 6.8, Figure 6.36(a)–(d).)

Using a service salver (round tray)
A service salver is a round, often silver or stainless steel tray (but now also can be wood
or plastic). A napkin (folded flat) is placed on the tray to help prevent items slipping on
the tray as they are being carried. There are also special non-slip mats that are now used
instead of napkins. Some trays also are made with non-slip surfaces. The service salver may
be used to:
◗◗ carry clean glasses to, and remove dirty glasses from, a customer’s table
◗◗ carry clean cutlery to and from a customer’s table

Basic technical skills

◗◗ place clean cutlery on the table
◗◗ place clean cups and saucers on the table
◗◗ provide an underflat when silver serving vegetables.
Carrying glasses

When carrying clean glasses on the service salver they should be placed the wrong way
up to reduce the risk of them toppling over. When being placed on the table, the waiter
should hold the salver in the left hand behind the customer and then place the glass at the
top right-hand corner of the cover and the right way up. The waiter should only hold
glasses by the stem to ensure that the bowl of the wine glass is not touched, otherwise
finger marks will be left on the glass bowl.
Carrying clean cutlery

When placing on, or removing, clean cutlery on a table, the items can be carried on a
service salver. This is more efficient, hygienic and safer, and generally more professional,
than carrying these items in bunches in the hands. The blades of the knives should be
placed under the arch in the middle of the forks, and if carrying sweet spoons and forks,
the prongs of the fork should go under the arch in the middle of the spoon. The reason for
this is to help hold the items steady on the service salver. Bearing in mind that the handles
of the cutlery are generally the heaviest parts, this method prevents them sliding about too
much.
Clean cutlery is placed onto the service salver after the final polish and then is carried
to the table on the tray. The cutlery is then placed from the service tray to the table by
holding the piece of cutlery between the thumb and forefinger at the side, in order to
reduce the possibility of finger marks.
Carrying cups and saucers

Tea and coffee cups are carried using a service salver, by stacking the saucers, cups and
teaspoons separately. Then before placing the cup, saucer and teaspoon on the table, the
cup is put onto a saucer, together with a teaspoon, and then the whole service is placed in
front of the customer. This is a speedier and safer method (especially when larger numbers
are involved) than carrying individual cups, saucers and teaspoons to the table one by one.
As an underflat

When silver serving food dishes, potatoes or vegetables and at the table, an underflat
should be used to hold either one large vegetable dish or a number of smaller ones,
depending on the customer’s order (see Section 6.5, p.211). The purpose of using a service
salver as an underflat is to:
◗◗ add to the presentation of the food being served
◗◗ give the waiter more control when using the service spoon and fork to serve from the
food dishes on to the customer’s plate
◗◗ provide greater protection in case of spillage, therefore not detracting from the
presentation of the food on the plate or the overall table presentation
◗◗ give the waiter added protection against heat and possible spillage on the uniform.
(For more information on silver service see Section 6.5, p.211.)

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Using a service plate
A service plate is a joint plate with a napkin upon it. It has a number of uses during the
meal service:
◗◗ for placing clean cutlery on and removing it from the table
◗◗ for clearing side plates and side knives
◗◗ for crumbing down after the main course, or any other stage of the meal if necessary
◗◗ for clearing accompaniments from the table as and when necessary.
Carrying clean cutlery

When placing on, or removing, clean cutlery from a table, the items can be carried on a
service plate. The reasons for this are the same as given under using a service salver above.
Clearing side plates and knives

When clearing dirty side plates and side knives from the customer’s table, the use of a
service plate means that the waiter has a larger area on which to stack the side knives and
any debris. Using the hand positions shown in Figure 2.2(a) and (b) (p.36), the side plates
may be stacked above the service plate and all the debris in a separate pile, together with
the side knives laid flat upon the service plate (see Section 6.8, Figure 6.41). This is a
much safer and speedier method, especially when larger numbers are involved.
Clearing accompaniments

The service plate is also used to clear such items as the cruet, cayenne pepper, pepper mill
or other accompaniments, which may not already be set on an underplate.
Crumbing down

The service plate is used in the crumbing down process. The purpose here is to freshen up
the appearance of the tablecloth prior to laying the sweet covers and serving the sweet. For
further information see Section 6.8 Clearing during service p.228.

Carrying glasses
There are two basic methods of carrying glasses in the food and beverage service areas: by
hand or on a service salver.

Figure 2.3 Carrying clean glasses by hand

Basic technical skills
Carrying by hand

Wine goblets should be positioned between alternate fingers as far as is possible. The wine
goblets should only be carried in one hand, allowing the other hand to remain free to
steady oneself in case of emergencies.
Figure 2.3 provides a close up of the wine goblets held in one hand and shows how the
base of each glass overlaps the next, allowing the maximum number of glasses to be held
in one hand. This method allows wine goblets that are already polished to be handled.
They can be carried about the room and set in their correct position on the table without
the bowl of the glass being touched. Clean glassware is always handled by the stem and for
non-stemmed glassware by the base.
Carrying glasses on a service salver

The method of carrying clean wine goblets about the restaurant using the service salver is
illustrated in Figure 2.4.

Figure 2.4 Carrying clean glasses on a service
salver

Note the use of the service salver on the palm of the hand. The purpose of this is to
allow the service salver to be rotated more easily in order to remove each wine goblet in
turn by the base and to set it on the table
Figure 2.5 indicates the use of the service salver for clearing dirty wine goblets from the
table. The first dirty wine goblet cleared should be placed on the service salver nearest to
the server. As the dirty glasses are cleared, they should be placed on the service salver to
ensure a better and more even distribution of weight, to lessen the likelihood of accidents
occurring. Again, dirty glassware is always handled by the stem and for non-stemmed
glassware by the base. This is more hygienic as it avoids touching where the customer has
been drinking from the glass.

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Figure 2.5 Carrying dirty glasses on a service
salver

Carrying glasses using glass racks

Glass racks, usually made of plastic, are often used to carry glasses during the setting up of
the restaurant and for functions. These racks enable the transportation of glasses in bulk
once they have been washed and polished at a central point. Glass racks are also used for
used glasses and many can be put through a glass wash machine.

Carrying and using large trays
Trays are used for:
◗◗ carrying food from the kitchen to the restaurant
◗◗ service in rooms and lounges
◗◗ clearing from sideboards/workstations
◗◗ clearing from tables (when the customer is not seated at the table)
◗◗ carrying equipment.

Figure 2.6 Carrying a loaded oblong tray

Interpersonal skills

The correct method of holding and carrying an oblong tray is to position the tray
lengthways onto the forearm and to support it by holding the tray with the other
hand.
Figure 2.6 shows how to carry an oblong tray. Note the tray is organised so that the
heaviest items are nearest the carrier. This helps to balance the tray. Also note that one
hand is placed underneath the tray and the other at the side.

●●2.5 Interpersonal skills
Interpersonal skills in food and beverage service centre on the interactions between the
customer and the food and beverage service staff. All other interactions are secondary
to, and the result of, the prime interaction of customers and staff. This has implications
for the way customers are treated. Conversations between customers and staff override
conversations between staff. When in conversation with customers, staff should not:
◗◗ talk to other members of staff without first excusing themselves from the customer
◗◗ interrupt interactions between customers and staff, but should wait until there is a
suitable moment to catch the attention of the other member of staff so that they may
excuse themselves from the customer first
◗◗ serve customers while carrying on a conversation between themselves
◗◗ talk across a room, either to each other or to customers.
Customers should always be made to feel that they are being cared for and not that they
are an intrusion into the operation.
Further information on customer relations is given in Section 12.3, p.366.

Dealing with customers
When addressing customers, ‘Sir’ or ‘Madam’ should be used when the customer’s name is
not known. If the name is known, then the customer should be referred to as ‘Mr Smith’
or ‘Miss Jones’, etc. First names should only be used in less formal operations and where
the customer has explicitly indicated that this is acceptable. If the customer has a title, then
appropriate use should be made of the correct form of address (for further information on
forms of address, see Section 11.4, p.350).
Greetings such as ‘Good morning’ and ‘Good evening’ should be used upon receiving
customers, or when the member of staff first comes into contact with the customer, for
example, when lounge service staff attend people already seated in the lounge.
The list below identifies examples of interpersonal skills needed at particular points
during the service.
◗◗ Showing customers to their table: always lead and walk with them at their pace.
◗◗ Seating customers: ladies first, descending in age unless the host is a lady.
◗◗ Handling coats/wraps: handle with obvious care (see Section 12.1, p.361).
◗◗ Handing menus/wine lists to customers: offer the list the right way round and open for the
customer and wait for the customer to take it.
◗◗ Opening and placing a napkin: open carefully, do not shake it like a duster, place it on the
customer’s lap after saying excuse me to the customer.
◗◗ Offering water or rolls: say, for example, ‘Excuse me Sir/Madam, may I offer you a bread
roll?’

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◗◗ Offering accompaniments: only offer them if you have them at the table. Offering them
when they are not at the table usually means ‘I will get them if you really want them!’
◗◗ Serving and clearing: always say ‘Excuse me’ before serving or clearing and ‘Thank you’
after you have finished with each customer.
◗◗ Explaining food and beverage items: use terms the customer understands, not technical
terms such as turned vegetable or pane. Use terms that make the item sound attractive
such as casserole not stew, creamed or purée potatoes not mashed. Do not use
abbreviations, for example, ‘veg’.
◗◗ Talking to customers: only talk when standing next to them and looking at them.
Other procedures that contribute to good interpersonal skills are highlighted throughout
the rest of this chapter. Also see Section 12.3, p.366.

Dealing with incidents during service
When an unforeseen incident arises it must be dealt with promptly and efficiently
without causing any more disturbance than is necessary to any of the other customers.
Quick action will very often soothe the irate customer and ensure a return visit to your
establishment. It is worth remembering at this stage that complaints, of whatever nature,
should be referred immediately to the supervisor. Delay will only cause confusion and very
often the situation may be wrongly interpreted if it is not dealt with straight away. In the
case of accidents, a report of the incident must be kept and signed by those involved.
Listed below are a few of the incidents that may occur and the suggested steps that
might be taken in order to put right any fault.
Spillages

If during the service of a course a few drops of sauce or roast gravy have fallen on the
tablecloth, the following steps might be taken:
  1 Check immediately that none has fallen on the customer being served. Apologise to
the customer.
  2 If some has fallen on the customer’s clothing, allow the customer to rub over the
dirtied area with a clean damp cloth. This will remove the worst of the spillage.
  3 If it is necessary for the customer to retire to the cloakroom to remove the spillage
then the meal should be placed on the hotplate until he or she returns.
  4 Depending on the nature of the spillage the establishment may offer to have the
garment concerned cleaned.
  5 If the spillage has gone on the tablecloth, the waiter should first of all remove any items
of equipment that may be dirtied or in her way.
  6 She should then mop or scrape up the spillage with either a clean damp cloth or a
knife.
  7 An old menu card should then be placed on top of the table but under the tablecloth
beneath the damaged area.
  8 A second menu should be placed on the tablecloth over the damaged area.
  9 A clean rolled napkin should then be brought to the table and rolled completely
overthe damaged area. The menu will prevent any damp from soaking into the clean
napkin.
10 Any items of equipment removed should be returned to their correct position on the
tabletop.

Interpersonal skills

11 Any meals taken to the hotplate should be returned and fresh covers put down where
necessary (see Section 6.4, Figure 6.27, p.208).
12 Again, apologies should be made to the customer for any inconvenience caused.
If a customer knocks over a glass of water accidentally, then the following steps might be
taken:
  1 Ensure none has gone on the customer.
  2 If some of the water has fallen on the customer’s clothing then follow steps 2 and 3
above.
  3 Where possible, as this form of accident usually involves changing the tablecloth, the
party of customers should be seated at another table and allowed to continue their meal
without delay.
  4 If they cannot be moved to another table then they should be seated slightly back from
the table so that the waiter can carry out the necessary procedures to rectify the fault
speedily and efficiently.
  5 The customers’ meals should be placed on the hotplate to keep warm.
  6 All dirty items should be removed on a tray to the waiter’s sideboard ready to go to the
wash-up area.
  7 All clean items should be removed and kept on the waiter’s sideboard for relaying.
  8 The tablecloth should be mopped with a clean absorbent cloth to remove as much of
the liquid as possible.
  9 A number of old menus should be placed on the tabletop but underneath the spillage
area of the soiled tablecloth.
10 A clean tablecloth of the correct size should be brought to the table. It should be
opened out and held in the correct manner as if one were laying a tablecloth during
the pre-service preparation period. The table should then be clothed up in the usual
manner except that when the clean cloth is being drawn across the table towards the
waiter she is at the same time taking off the soiled tablecloth. The soiled tablecloth
should be removed at the same time that the clean tablecloth is being laid so that the
customers cannot see the bare tabletop at any time. The old menus will prevent any
dampness penetrating to the clean tablecloth.
11 When the table has its clean tablecloth on it should be re-laid as quickly as possible.
12 The customers should then be re-seated at the table and the meals returned to them
from the hotplate.
Returned food

If, for example, a customer suggests that their chicken dish is not cooked, then the
following steps might be taken.
1 Apologise to the customer.
2 The dish should be removed and returned to the kitchen.
3 The customer should be asked if he or she would like another portion of the same dish
or would prefer to choose an alternative.
4 The new dish should be collected as soon as possible and served to the customer.
5 Apologies should be made for any inconvenience caused.
6 The policy of the establishment will dictate whether or not the customer is to be
charged for the alternative dish.

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Lost property

If, for example, a waiter finds a wallet under a chair that has recently been vacated by a
customer, the steps listed below might be taken.
  1 A check should be made immediately as to whether or not the customer has left the
service area. If she or he is still in the area, the wallet may be returned to them.
  2 If the customer has left the service area, the waiter should hand the wallet to the
headwaiter or supervisor in charge.
  3 The supervisor or headwaiter should check with reception and the hall porter to see if
the customer has left the building.
  4 If the customer concerned is a resident, then reception may ring the room, stating the
wallet has been found and can be collected at a convenient time.
  5 If the customer is a regular customer, it is possible that the head waiter or receptionist
may know where to contact them to arrange for collection of the wallet.
  6 If the customer is a regular customer but cannot be contacted, the wallet should be
kept in the lost property office until the customer’s next visit.
  7 If the owner has not been found or contacted immediately, the headwaiter or
supervisor should list the items contained in the wallet with the waiter who found
the wallet. The list should be signed by both the headwaiter or supervisor and the
finder).The list must be dated and also indicate where the article was found and at
what time.
  8 A copy of this list should go with the wallet to the lost property office where the
contents of the wallet must be checked against the list before it is accepted. The details
of the find are then entered in a lost property register.
  9 Another copy of the list should go to the hall porter in case any enquiries are received
concerning a wallet. Anyone claiming lost property should be passed on to the lost
property office.
10 Before the lost property office hands over any lost property, a description of the article
concerned and its contents should be asked for to ensure as far as possible that it is
being returned to the genuine owner. The office should also see proof of identity of
the person claiming ownership.
11 In the case of all lost property, the steps mentioned above should be carried out as
quickly as possible as this is in the best interests of the establishment and causes the
customer minimum inconvenience. On receipt of lost property, the customer should
be asked to sign for the article concerned and to give his address and telephone
number.
12 Any lost property unclaimed after three months may become the property of the finder
who should claim it through the headwaiter or supervisor.
Illness of customer

If a customer falls ill in your establishment then the steps below might be taken.
  1 As soon as it is noticed that a customer is feeling unwell while in the dining room or
restaurant a person in authority should be immediately called.
  2 If the customer falling ill is a woman then a female member of staff should attend her.
  3 The person in authority must enquire if the customer needs assistance. At the same
time they must try to judge whether the illness is of a serious nature or not. If in any
doubt it is always better to call for medical assistance.

Interpersonal skills

  4 It is often advisable to offer to take the customer to another room to see if they are
able to recover in a few minutes. It this happens their meal should be placed on the
hotplate until their return.
  5 If the illness appears to be of a serious nature, a doctor, nurse or someone qualified in
first aid should be called for immediately.
  6 Then the customer should not be moved until a doctor has examined him/her.
  7 If necessary the area should be screened off.
  8 Although this is a difficult situation to deal with in front of the general public, the
minimum fuss should be made and service to the rest of the customers should carry on
as normal.
  9 The medical person will advise whether an ambulance should be called.
10 The customer may have had a sudden stomach upset and wish to leave without
finishing the meal. Assistance should be offered in helping the customer leave the
restaurant.
11 Payment for the part of the meal consumed and any ensuing travel costs would be
according to the policy of the establishment.
12 It is most important that for all accidents (minor or serious) all details are recorded in
an accident book (see below). This is in case of a claim against the establishment at a
later date.
13 If after a short period of time the customer returns and continues with the meal, a
fresh cover should be laid and the meal returned from the hotplate or a new meal
served.
Alcohol over-consumption

If a customer is suspected of having too much to drink the following steps might be taken.
1 If a prospective customer asks for a table and the staff believe the client is under the
influence of drink, they may refuse them a table, even though there may be one
available. It is not always possible, however, to recognise a customer who may prove
objectionable later on.
2 If difficulty is found in handling this type of person then assistance in removing the
person from the eating area may come from other members of staff (depending on
establishment policy, physical contact should be avoided).
3 If a customer is suspected of being drunk this must first of all be ascertained by the
supervisor.
4 The customer should then be asked to leave rather than be allowed to become
objectionable to other customers.
5 If the customer has already consumed part of the meal but is not being objectionable
then the remainder of the meal should be served in the normal fashion, but the
supervisor must ensure no more alcoholic beverage is offered.
6 On finishing, the customer should be watched until he has left the premises.
7 It is always advisable to make out a report of all such incidents. They should also be
brought to the immediate attention of the manager in case of any claim at a later date
concerning a particular incident.
Unsatisfactory appearance

If a customer’s appearance is not satisfactory according to the policy of the establishment,
the following steps might be taken.

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1 If a customer’s appearance does not meet the dress code policy of the establishment or is
likely to give offence to others, then the customer should be asked to correct their dress
to the approved fashion required by the establishment.
2 Staff should be made aware of the need for sensitivity towards cultural dress.
3 If the customer will not comply with the request, he or she should be asked to leave.
4 If they have partly consumed a meal then whether they will be charged or not depends
on the policy of the house and the discretion of the head waiter or supervisor.
5 A report of this incident must be made and signed by the staff concerned.

Dealing with children
If children are among the customers arriving in the foodservice area then take the lead
in how to care for them from the parents, guardian or accompanying adults. Where
applicable, the following factors should be determined.
◗◗ Are high chairs/seat cushions required?
◗◗ Restrictions on the service of alcohol to minors
◗◗ Are children’s meal menus required?
◗◗ The portion size required if items are ordered from the standard menu.
◗◗ The provision of children’s ‘give aways’, such as crayons, colouring books, etc.
◗◗ For the safety of both children and others, the staff should be aware of children’s
movements.
◗◗ Should the children be older, then they should be addressed as either ‘Sir’ or ‘Miss’.
◗◗ Younger children should be served as promptly as possible as this will lessen the stress on
the parents.
Lost children

Should a child be reported lost, the steps listed below must be taken.
1 A complete description of the lost child should be obtained:
◗◗ male/female
◗◗ name
◗◗ age
◗◗ where last seen
◗◗ clothing worn
◗◗ any predominant features
◗◗ colour of hair
◗◗ whether any accessories were being carried, e.g. a doll.
2 Immediately inform the supervisor/security.
3 Put a constant watch on all entrances/exits.
4 Check all cloakroom/rest areas, play areas and the immediate vicinity where the child
has been reported missing.
5 Should nothing result from taking the above actions, immediately inform the police.

Customers with additional needs
Customer mobility

Extra awareness is needed to meet the requirements of customers who may have additional
needs, such as mobility difficulties. The following considerations should be given on these
occasions.

Interpersonal skills

◗◗ Offer wheelchair users places at tables where there is adequate space for manoeuvrability.
◗◗ Offer wheelchair users a place out of the main thoroughfare of customer/staff
movement.
◗◗ Offer wheelchair users a place with easy access to cloakrooms, exits and fire exits.
◗◗ Always ensure that menus, wine lists and the like are immediately available to any
wheelchair user.
◗◗ Never move the wheelchair without asking the customer first.
◗◗ Crutches/walking sticks should be placed in a safe but accessible and readily available
position.
◗◗ Customers with dexterity difficulties may be assisted by first asking the customer how
best they can be helped. Assistance may include for example ensuring that all items
served or placed on to the table are near to the customer, offering to fillet/bone fish and
meat items and offering to cut up potato and vegetable items.
Blind and partially sighted customers

Awareness is also required to meet the needs of those customers who may be blind or
partially sighted. The following considerations should be taken into account:
◗◗ Talk to and treat the customer with additional needs as you would any other customer.
◗◗ Remember it is by touch that blind people ‘see’ and are made aware that they are
involved in what is happening around them.
◗◗ If in doubt ask the person directly how they may best be helped.
◗◗ Do not talk to their companions as if the person was not there.
◗◗ Offer to read menus or wine and drink lists.
◗◗ Immediately prior to taking the customer’s order, a gentle touch on the hand or arm
will attract his or her attention to you.
◗◗ Offer to fillet/bone fish and meat items.
◗◗ Offer to cut up potato and vegetable items should it be necessary.
◗◗ Never overfill cups, glasses or soup bowls.
◗◗ Should you feel it appropriate, use bowls instead of plates for specific food items, but
always ask the customer first.
◗◗ Ask if you should describe where the food items are on the plate. Use the clock method
to explain the location of food on a plate, for example, 6 o’clock for meat, 10 to 10 for
vegetables and 10 past 2 for potatoes.
Customers with communication difficulties

Be aware of communication difficulties that may arise when, for example, customers are
deaf or hard of hearing or have little understanding of the English language. In such cases
the steps shown below may be helpful.
◗◗ Speak directly to the customer.
◗◗ Stand in such a position that the customer is able to see your face clearly.
◗◗ Speak normally but more distinctly.
◗◗ Describe food/drink items in simple, precise and plain language.
◗◗ Seat customers away from possible excessive noise, as this is most uncomfortable for
customers wearing hearing aids.
◗◗ Always read back the food or drink order received to confirm all requests.
◗◗ Listen attentively to what is being said to you to ensure you understand the customer’s
requirements.

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Handling complaints
Should a problem arise and the customer makes a complaint the following steps should be
taken.
1 Do not interrupt the customer – let them have their say and make their point.
2 Apologise – but only for the specific problem or complaint.
3 Restate the detail of the complaint briefly back to the customer to show you have
listened and understood.
4 Agree by thanking the customer for bringing the matter to your attention. This shows
you are looking at the problem from the customer’s perspective.
5 Act quickly, quietly and professionally and follow the establishment’s procedures for
handling complaints.
Never:
◗◗ lose your temper
◗◗ take it personally
◗◗ argue
◗◗ lie
◗◗ blame another member of staff or another department.
Valid complaints provide important feedback for a foodservice operation and can be used
as valuable learning opportunities to improve service.

Recording incidents
It is advisable that when any incident occurs a report is made out immediately. The basic
information that should be found in the report is as follows:
◗◗ place
◗◗ date
◗◗ time
◗◗ nature of incident
◗◗ individual, signed reports from those
concerned

◗◗ action taken
◗◗ name, address and phone number of the
customer involved
◗◗ names of the staff involved.

All reports should be kept in case similar incidents occur at a later date, and for future
reference should the need arise.

●●2.6 Health, safety and security
Maintaining a safe environment
Essentially safety is a civil duty and negligence is a criminal offence. The implications for
staff under the above legislation are that they should:
◗◗ understand the food hygiene regulations and that it is their responsibility to act within
the bounds of these regulations
◗◗ notify management of any major illnesses
◗◗ perform duties in any area concerned with the handling of food in a hygienic manner,
paying attention to food and hygiene regulations

Health, safety and security

◗◗ make themselves familiar with all escape routes and fire exits in the building
◗◗ ensure that fire exits remain clear at all times
◗◗ participate in fire evacuation drills and practices
◗◗ take reasonable care for the health and safety of themselves and of others, and ensure that
health and safety regulations are followed
◗◗ report to heads of department or duty managers any hazards which may cause injury or
ill-health to customers and/or staff.
Avoiding hazards

Employees have a responsibility to themselves, work colleagues and customers to be aware
of hazards that may arise when working. Many accidents occur through carelessness or
through lack of thought, for example:
◗◗ not having the correct protective clothing such as an apron
◗◗ not wearing sensible (stable and properly fitted) shoes
◗◗ delay in clearing spillages or picking up items of equipment that have fallen on the floor
◗◗ not being aware of customers bags placed on the floor
◗◗ items of equipment not stored correctly
◗◗ broken glass or crockery not wrapped up sufficiently before being placed in the bin
◗◗ forgetting to unplug electrical appliances prior to cleaning
◗◗ putting ashtray debris into rubbish bins containing paper (a fire hazard)
◗◗ forgetting to switch off and unplug an appliance after use, or at the end of the service
◗◗ not being observant with table lamps or lit candles on a buffet
◗◗ over-filling coffee pots, soup tureens, glasses, etc.
◗◗ using cups, glasses, soup bowls, etc., for storing cleaning agents
◗◗ stacking trays incorrectly
◗◗ carrying a mix of equipment on a tray, such as cutlery, crockery and glassware
◗◗ carpet edges turned up
◗◗ faulty wheels on trolleys or castors on sideboards
◗◗ being unaware of customers’ walking sticks and crutches
◗◗ lack of adequate space for the ‘safe’ service of food and drink due to bad planning
◗◗ lack of knowledge in carrying out certain tasks, for example, opening a bottle of
sparkling wine.
Procedure in the event of an accident

All employers must be able to provide first aid should such a need arise. In the event of
an accident the first course of action should be to call for the assistance of a trained and
qualified first aid person.
Employers must keep a record of all accidents that occur in the workplace. If you are
involved in or witness an accident you will be required to give information and/or to
complete an accident form. For this reason it is wise to make notes on the event at your
earliest convenience. The information should include:
◗◗ the location of the accident
◗◗ the time of the accident
◗◗ a statement of the event

◗ details of witnesses
◗ treatment administered.

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Procedure in case of a fire

All employees should be given fire drill training within their induction programme. This
initial training should then be followed up by regular training sessions on the procedures to
be followed in the event of fire. This training should include:
◗◗ fire procedures in own specific area of work
◗◗ fire drill instructions for both customers and staff
◗◗ the location of fire points (safe places where staff and customers should assemble after an
evacuation) nearest to own particular area of work
◗◗ the location of the fire exits
◗◗ the correct type of fire extinguisher to be used in relation to the type of fire (see Table
2.3 below)
◗◗ an identification of own specific responsibilities in the event of fire.
In the event of the fire alarm ringing employees must be aware of the following rules.
  1 Follow the fire instructions as laid down for the establishment.
  2 Usher all customers and staff out of the work area promptly and calmly.
  3 Pay special attention to customers with special needs such as those with mobility
problems.
  4 Walk quickly but do not run. Display a sense of urgency.
  5 Do not panic; remain calm as composure will be imitated by others.
  6 Proceed as promptly as possible to the nearest assembly point.
  7 Ensure that someone watches to see that there are no stragglers.
  8 Follow the exit route as laid down in the establishment fire instructions.
  9 Never use a lift.
10 Never re-enter the building until told it is safe to do so.
11 Do not waste time to collect personal items.
Table 2.3 Fire extinguishers and their uses
Contents

Water

Foam

CO2

Dry powder

Halon

Label colour*:

White on
red

Cream on
red

Black on
red

Blue on red

Green on
red

Electrical
suitability:

Danger – electrically
conductive

Safe – non-electrically conductive

Suitable for:

Solids

Some
liquids

Electrical

Liquid

Liquid

Unsuitable for:

Oil

Electrical

Solids

Very little

Solids

* Under European Union standards the body of every extinguisher must be coloured red. However, a colour
zone is used to indicate what the extinguishing medium is – the colours used for these mediums are the ones
given here, and they are the same as the previous whole body colour coding system.

Employees have a responsibility to assist in fire prevention, control and safety.
They must therefore ensure that:
◗◗ fire exits are not obstructed
◗◗ fire-fighting equipment is not damaged or misused

Health, safety and security

◗◗ no smoking rules are observed at all times
◗◗ as far as is possible all electrical and gas equipment is switched off
◗◗ all doors and windows are closed when not being used for evacuation purposes
◗◗ fire doors are not locked or wedged open
◗◗ sufficient ashtrays/stands are available for the disposal of cigarette ends and used matches
◗◗ the procedure for making an emergency fire call is known.
Cleaning programmes

All food and beverage service staff should be made aware of the importance of cleaning
programmes to reduce and minimise the build up of dust, bacteria and other forms of
debris. For this reason, together with the considerations needed for safety and hygiene,
full attention needs to be paid by all concerned to cleaning tasks and when they should be
carried out. Overall, regular maintenance makes the service area look attractive and will
project the right image for the establishment.
A cleaning programme should be set up for any cleaning tasks that must be done in any
area. Some tasks are done daily, even twice daily, for instance, the washing and polishing of
crockery before each service period. Other tasks might be done weekly, monthly or every
six months. Certain items of equipment will need cleaning immediately after each service
period is finished.
Examples of tasks are as follows:
Immediately after use:

Daily:

Weekly:

Monthly plus:

◗ carving trolley
◗◗ sweet trolley
◗◗ copper pans
◗◗ refrigerated trolleys
◗◗ flare lamps.
◗ vacuuming
◗◗ damp dusting chairs
◗◗ polishing sideboard tops
◗◗ cleaning brasses.
◗ silver cleaning
◗◗ cleaning pictures
◗◗ defrosting fridges
◗◗ wipe down doorframes and all high ledges
◗◗ washing cellar/crockery store floors.
◗ shampoo carpets
◗◗ dry clean curtains
◗◗ maintenance checks on still set, chilling units, fridges, air
conditioning systems
◗◗ cleaning all lighting.

Points to note:
◗◗ always use the correct cleaning materials for the task in hand
◗◗ clean frequently
◗◗ rinse all surfaces well
◗◗ dusters should only be used for dusting and not other cleaning tasks
◗◗ use cleaning procedures that are adequate and efficient

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◗◗ cloths used for cleaning toilets must not be used for any other purpose
◗◗ clean and store equipment safely and in its correct place
◗◗ do not use cleaning cloths for wiping down food preparation surfaces
◗◗ consider safety at all times and do not stretch or stand on chairs to reach high points –
use a stepladder.

Maintaining a secure environment
Depending upon the nature of the establishment, the security measures that are laid down
may vary considerably. As employees, staff should be aware of all such measures as they
relate to their own work environment. Consideration needs to be given to the aspects of
security outlined below.
◗◗ The importance of wearing some form of recognised identity badge.
◗◗ Being observant and reporting ‘suspicious’ persons and/or packages.
◗◗ Not discussing work duties with customers or outside of the workplace.
◗◗ Allowing bags, packages and one’s person to be searched upon request when either
entering or leaving the workplace.
◗◗ Being aware of the security procedures for the establishment, should sudden and urgent
action need to be taken.
◗◗ Ensuring external fire doors are kept shut but not locked, nor left ajar in error.
◗◗ Ensuring that all areas have been vacated when responsible for ‘locking up’ duties. All
toilets/cloakrooms must be carefully checked and at the same time all windows and
doors should be checked to ensure they are locked.
◗◗ Keys should only be handled by someone in authority. A signing out book should be
available when staff request keys.
◗◗ Keys are never to be left unattended.
◗◗ When handling cash, all large denomination notes should be checked carefully as well as
all cheque and credit card payments, to preventfraud, the passing of illegal notes and the
acceptance of altered credit cards.
◗◗ Being alert and observant at all times and not hesitating in reporting anything suspicious
to the immediate superior.
Dealing with a suspicious item or package

All employees should be constantly alert for suspicious items or packages.
◗◗ If an object is found then it must immediately be reported to the security officer,
manager or supervisor.
◗◗ Do not touch or attempt to move the object.
◗◗ If there are customers in the immediate vicinity, discreetly attempt to establish
ownership of the object.
◗◗ If the ownership is established then ask the customer to keep the object with them, or to
hand it in for safe keeping.
◗◗ If no immediate ownership is established, then the area should be cleared and the
authorities notified without delay.

Health, safety and security
Dealing with a bomb threat

Immediate action needs to be taken as a bomb could go off at any moment. As a result
staff should:
◗◗ be aware of and follow establishment policy with regard to bomb threats and evacuation
procedures
◗◗ evacuate the immediate work area
◗◗ search the work area to ensure it is cleared, if this is part of their own responsibility
◗◗ evacuate the premises and usher all customers/staff through the nearest usable exits to
specified assembly areas
◗◗ count all persons present to determine their safety and minimise the risk of fatal
accidents.

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Food and beverage service areas and
equipment
3.1 Design and purchasing
factors

55

3.2 Stillroom

56

3.3 Hotplate

57

3.4 Wash-up

59

3.5 Colour and lighting
considerations

61

3.6 Bar

63

3.7 Furniture

67

3.8 Linen

70

3.9 Crockery

71

3.10 Tableware (flatware,
cutlery and hollow-ware)

74

3.11 Glassware

79

3.12 Disposables

83

3.13 Automatic vending

85

Design and purchasing factors

●●3.1 Design and purchasing factors
In any establishment a customer’s first impressions on entering service areas are of great
importance: a customer may be gained or lost on these impressions alone. The creation of
atmosphere, by the right choice of décor, furnishings and equipment, is therefore a major
factor that contributes to the success of the foodservice operation. A careful selection
of items in terms of shape, design and colour enhances the overall décor or theme and
contributes towards a feeling of total harmony. The choice of furniture and its layout and
of the linen, tableware, small equipment and glassware will be determined by considering
various factors such as:
◗◗ the type of clientele expected
◗◗ the site or location of the establishment
◗◗ the layout of the food and beverage service area
◗◗ the type of service offered
◗◗ the funds available.
The general points to be considered when purchasing equipment for a food and beverage
service areas are:
◗◗ flexibility of use
◗◗ type of service being offered
◗◗ type of customer
◗◗ design
◗◗ colour
◗◗ durability
◗◗ ease of maintenance
◗◗ stackability
◗◗ cost and funds available







availability in the future –
replacements
storage
rate of breakage, i.e. crockery
shape
psychological effect on customers
delivery time.

Front-of-house service areas are some of the busiest of a foodservice establishment,
especially during the service periods. It is therefore important that these areas are well
designed for operational purposes and that department heads ensure that all members
of staff know exactly what their duties are, and how to carry them out efficiently and
effectively.
There are service areas behind the scenes, known as back-of-house areas. These areas
include the stillroom, hotplate (or pass) area and the wash-up. The back-of-house service
areas are usually between the kitchen and food and beverage service, or front-of-house
areas. They are important parts of the design of a foodservice operation, acting as the link
between kitchen or food preparation areas and the restaurant or food and beverage service
areas. They are also meeting points for staff of various departments as they carry out their
duties, and therefore there must be close liaison between these various members of staff
and the departments. Well designed layout of these areas is essential to ensure an even
flow of work by the various members of staff. These areas also need to be well organised,
efficient, stocked with well designed equipment and supervised.

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●●3.2 Stillroom
The stillroom provides items of food and beverages required for the service of a meal that
are not catered for by the other major departments in a foodservice operation, such as the
kitchen, larder and pastry. The duties performed in this service area will vary according to
the type of meals offered and the size of establishment concerned.

Staffing
In a large establishment a stillroom supervisor is in charge of the stillroom. Depending
on its size and the duties to be performed, they may have a number of staff under their
control. The person in charge is responsible for the compilation of work rotas for all
stillroom staff so that all duties are covered and the area is staffed throughout the whole of
the service periods. The stillroom supervisor is also responsible for the ordering of supplies
from the main dry goods store and the effective control of these items when issued to the
various departments.
Because of the number of hours that the stillroom has to remain open and to ensure it is
run efficiently, staff may work on a shift basis.

Figure 3.1 Example of a
restaurant stillroom

Equipment
The equipment in all stillrooms is of a similar nature. A wide range of food items is offered
and so to ensure their proper storage, preparation and presentation, a considerable amount
of equipment is used. The following are examples of items that might be needed:
◗◗ Refrigerator for storage of milk, cream, butter, fruit juices and so on.
◗◗ Hot and cold beverage-making facilities.
◗◗ Large double sink and draining board for washing-up purposes.
◗◗ Dishwasher of a size suitable for the stillroom but large enough to ensure efficient
turnover of equipment.
◗◗ Salamander or toasters.
◗◗ Bread slicing machine.
◗◗ Worktop and cutting board.
◗◗ Storage space for small equipment such as crockery, glassware and cutlery and tableware.

Hotplate

◗◗ Storage cupboard for all dry goods held in stock and for such paper items as doilies,
kitchen papers, napkins, etc.
◗◗ Coffee grinding machine to ensure the correct grind of coffee for the brewing method
to be used.
◗◗ Ice maker.

Provisions
As a basic guide, the following food items would normally be dispensed from the stillroom:
◗◗ All beverages such as coffee, tea, chocolate, tisanes, Bovril, Horlicks, Ovaltine and other
drinks.
◗◗ Assorted fruit juices: orange, tomato, pineapple and grapefruit.
◗◗ Milk, cream and alternatives.
◗◗ Sugars: loose, pre-wrapped portions, brown coffee crystals, Demerara, etc., and
alternatives.
◗◗ Preserves: marmalade, cherry, plum, raspberry, strawberry, apricot and honey. For the
purpose of control and to reduce wastage, many establishments now offer pre-portioned
jars or pots of jams or preserves at breakfast and for afternoon tea, rather than a preserve
dish.
◗◗ Butter: either passed through a butter pat machine, curled or pre-wrapped portions and
also butter alternatives.
◗◗ Sliced and buttered brown, white and malt bread.
◗◗ Rolls, brioche and croissants.
◗◗ Bread substitute items: gluten free, rye, rice crackers, etc.
◗◗ Dry cracker, digestive and water biscuits for service with cheese; sweet biscuits for
service with early morning and afternoon teas and coffees.
◗◗ Assorted breakfast cereals: cornflakes, Weetabix, muesli and so on. In many
establishments cereals of all types are offered in pre-wrapped, portion-controlled packets.
◗◗ Toasted scones and teacakes.
◗◗ Pastries, gâteaux and sandwiches.

Control
There are two main ways of controlling goods to be issued from the stillroom:
◗◗ If a foodservice area requires items such as butter, sugar, preserves, etc., in bulk, a
requisition signed by a supervisor is required before the stillroom will issue the items.
◗◗ Upon receipt of a waiter’s check, tea, coffee or any other beverage required in the
necessary portions will be dispensed.

●●3.3 Hotplate
The hotplate or pass is the meeting point between the service staff and the food
preparation staff. Active cooperation and a good relationship between the members of staff
of these two areas help to ensure that the customer receives an efficient and quick service
of the meal.
The hotplate itself should be stocked with all the crockery necessary for the service of a
meal. This may include some or all of the following items:

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◗◗ soup plates
◗◗ fishplates
◗◗ joint plates
◗◗ sweet plates
◗◗ consommé cups
◗◗ platters
◗◗ soup cups.
The food flats and serving dishes required for service are often placed on the top of
the hotplate and used as required. The hotplate is usually gas or electrically operated
and should be lit/switched on well in advance of the service to ensure all the necessary
crockery and silver is sufficiently heated before the service commences.

Figure 3.2 Example of a hotplate
area

Aboyeur or barker
The aboyeur, or barker, is in charge, and controls the hotplate (or pass) during the service
period. As an aid to the food service staff the aboyeur would control the ‘off board’, which
tells the waiter immediately of any menu item that is not available (off). It should be sited
in a prominent position for all to see.
The aboyeur will initially receive the food check from the waiter. Written food orders
must be legible to the aboyeur so that there is no delay in calling up a particular dish. The
aboyeur checks that none of the dishes ordered are off the menu. Then the order from the
various ‘corners’ (or ‘parties’ or ‘sections’) of the kitchen is called up, as each particular
dish is required. If a dish required has to be prepared and cooked to order, then it is
important that the aboyeur orders this to be done before the waiter comes to the hotplate
to collect it. This ensures there will be no major delay for the waiter who is going to serve
the dish, or for the customer who is waiting for the next course to be served. When a food
check is finished with it is placed into a control box. This box is often kept locked and
can only be opened by a member of staff from the control department who, for control
purposes, marries the copy of the food check from the kitchen with the copy the cashier
has and the duplicate copy of the bill.
With the modern use of an EPOS (electronic point of sale) system the electronic order
can be sent directly from the restaurant to each section of the kitchen and the aboyeur
would be the coordinator for the dishes to arrive on the pass at the same time, checking
for quality before releasing the plate to the waiting staff. The control department would

Wash-up

then use the EPOS information to control sales and revenue. (For an example of a radiocontrolled electronic system for order taking and communication, see Section 6.4, p.204
and Figure 6.20, p.205.)

Hotplate language and terminology
To ensure there is no delay in any food dish reaching the hotplate, the aboyeur should call
it up, allowing time for preparation, cooking and presentation. Various special kitchen
terms are used to warn the food preparation staff working in various corners to get ready
certain dishes. Because of a multi-national work force, many establishments now use
one single specified language within a kitchen. This is often the language of the country,
such as English in the UK. All members of staff need to know the system for their own
establishment.
Examples of traditional kitchen terms are:
◗◗ Le service va commencer: general warning to kitchen that the service is about to
commence.
◗◗ Ça marche trois couverts: indication to the kitchen of the number of covers on the table, in
this case three covers.
◗◗ Poissonnier, faites marcher trois soles Véronique: example of fish section informed of the
order required, in this case three sole Véronique.
◗◗ Poissonnier, envoyez les trois soles Véronique: when the order is required at the hotplate by
the waiter, the aboyeur calls it up. In this example it is the fish section being told to
bring the order for the three sole Véronique.
◗◗ Oui: the reply given by the chef de partie (section chef) to the order called out by the
aboyeur.
◗◗ Bien soigné: the term called out by the aboyeur before the actual order when an extra
special order is required.
◗◗ Dépêchez-vous: the words used to hurry up an order.
◗◗ Arrêtez: the term used to cancel an order.
◗◗ Foods requiring special degrees of cooking are given the following terms:
– Omelette baveuse: soft inside.
– Steak grillé:
(a) bleu: (rare) surfaces well-browned, inside raw
(b)saignant: underdone
(c) à point: medium
(d)bien cuit: cooked right through, well done.
Whatever system is used all food service staff should be familiar with the specific terms
being used in the production area in order to appreciate exactly what is going on at the
hotplate and in the food production areas, to ensure quick and efficient service.

●●3.4 Wash-up
The wash-up must be sited so that staff can work speedily and efficiently when passing
from the food service areas to the kitchens. Servers should stack trays of dirties correctly
within the service area, with all the correct sized plates together, and tableware stacked on
one of the plates with the blades of the knives running under the arches of the forks. All

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glassware that has not had grease or fat in it should be taken to a separate glass wash-up
point, often in the bar.
The wash-up service area should be the first section in the stillroom when the waiter
enters from the service area. Here all the dirty plates are deposited, stacking them correctly
and placing all the tableware in a special wire basket or container in readiness for washing.
The server must place any debris into the bin or bowl provided. All used paper, such as
napkins, doilies or kitchen paper should be placed in separate waste bins to ensure proper
recycling.

Dishwashing methods
There are four main methods of dishwashing for foodservice operations and a summary of
these is shown in Table 3.1.
Table 3.1 Summary of dishwashing methods (Based on a chart from Croner’s Catering)
Method

Description

Manual

Soiled ware washed by hand or brush machine.

Automatic
conveyor

Soiled ware loaded in racks, mounted on a conveyor by operators for
automatic transportation through a dishwashing machine.

Flight conveyor

Soiled ware loaded within pegs mounted on a conveyor by operators for
automatic transportation through a dishwashing machine.

Deferred wash

Soiled ware collected together, stripped, sorted and stacked by operators
for transportation through a dishwashing machine at a later stage.

Manual

The dirty crockery is placed into a tank of hot water containing a soap detergent. After
washing, the plates are placed into wire racks and dipped into a second sterilising tank
containing clean hot water at a temperature of approximately 75°C (179°F). The racks are
left for two minutes and then lifted out and the crockery left to drain. If sterilised in water
at this temperature the crockery will dry by itself without the use of drying-up cloths. This
is more hygienic. After drying, the crockery is stacked into piles of the correct size and
placed on shelves until required for further use.
Automatic

Many larger establishments have dishwashing machines. These are necessary because of the
high usage of crockery. The instructions for use of a washing-up machine are generally
supplied by the manufacturer, together with details of detergent to be used, and in what
quantity. These directions should be strictly adhered to.
Debris should be removed from the crockery before it is placed into the wire racks. The
racks are then passed through the machine, the crockery being washed, rinsed, and then
sterilised in turn. Having passed through the machine the crockery is left to drain for two
to three minutes and is then stacked and placed on shelves until required for further use. As
with the tank method, the plates do not require drying with tea cloths. Developments of
this method include the automatic conveyor and the flight conveyor dishwashing methods,
as described in Table 3.1.

Colour and lighting considerations

Figure 3.3 Automatic conveyor dishwasher with stand for loading the racks at the right of the
picture and a trolley for collection of completed racks at the left (image courtesy of Maidaid –
Halcyon)

●●3.5 Colour and lighting considerations
Colour
The restaurant surroundings can contribute a great deal towards the price–quality relationship
in the minds of potential customers. What may be suitable for a fast food operation would
be entirely unsuitable for a restaurant operation catering for an executive market. Bright
illumination may be found in bars with light colours on the walls, but foodservice areas are
better with dimmer illumination and warmly coloured walls, as these give a more relaxed and
welcoming atmosphere. Colour should also contribute to a feeling of cleanliness.
The colour scheme used in the foodservice area should help to reflect the character of
the operation. There is also an association between colour and the presentation of the food
that must be considered. Colour schemes generally regarded as most useful in allowing
food presentation to shine include: pink, peach, pale yellow, light green, beige, blue and
turquoise. These colours reflect the natural colours found in well-presented foodstuffs.
Just as décor and light play an important role, so table accessories need careful choice:
slip cloths, serviettes and place mats all help to make the environment more attractive.

Lighting
A well designed colour scheme can easily be spoilt by a badly planned lighting system and
therefore the two aspects should be considered together at the design stage.
Modern designs tend towards a versatile system of lighting by which a food and
beverage service area may have bright lighting at lunchtime and a more diffused form of
lighting in the evening. It is also an advantage to be able to change the colouring of the
lighting for special functions, cabarets, etc.
Restaurants have many choices available to them. The three main light sources to be
found are low voltage directional down lighters and surface mounted fittings, low energy
lamps, and Light Emitting Diodes (LED) luminaires.

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Low voltage halogen lighting is warmer in colour but less efficient to operate than
low energy bulbs of an equivalent wattage. It can however be easily directed to specific
spots such as a particular table or area. Low voltage diachroic lamps overcome many of
the colour problems found when using mains voltage incandescent lamps, which create
a yellow light when dimmed. One disadvantage of this halogen lighting is the amount of
heat generated by the lamps.
The main virtue of low energy lighting is its lower operating cost, but it is often
criticised for giving a dull and lifeless illumination. Food may be made to look appealing
by using blue-white light from fixtures, but the blue-white glow may also detract from a
warm romantic atmosphere. It is generally not used where directional lighting is needed, as
it is not easily focused or controlled.
LED lighting is a relatively new idea. Originally used as a low energy, low temperature
warning light in televisions and other electrical equipment, it has now become more
widely used in general lighting. Its advantages are many. It produces a directional crisp
light, ideal for highlighting a particular item. LED luminaires have an extremely long
life, often running into tens of thousands of hours. Colours can be changed in an instant
by varying the input voltage, so one luminaire can produce several different colours or a
mixture of colours. Its low operating temperature makes it safe to use where a customer
may touch the luminaire, for example when up lighting a column from below at floor
level.
A balance is usually needed between the low running costs of low energy lamps and
superior light quality from low voltage halogen lighting and LEDs. This balance will
depend upon both the budget for the installation and the running costs of the overall
lighting scheme.
The foodservice area needs more than proper décor lighting. Functional lighting is a
must, giving proper illumination for chefs to prepare food, staff to serve it and customers
to order and eat it. Functional lighting may amount to as much as 75 per cent of a
restaurant’s total lighting system. In the dining room two basic areas require functional
lighting: the table and the room as a whole. The aim therefore is to mix the right blend of
décor and functional lighting at the lowest possible cost.
Table lighting is most flattering to customers when it shines down from the ceiling, and
is then reflected back from a horizontal surface. Halogen down lighters serve the purpose
well here. Care must be taken, however, to ensure that the bulbs used do not give off too
bright a light, as this will create too much contrast between dark and light spots. Clean
and well-polished silver, glassware and crockery on a dining table, or a well-polished
reflective tabletop in the lounge, will bounce light gently upwards, acting as a softener to
overhead lights. Positioning of these down lights is absolutely critical to ensure lighting
the tables and not peoples’ heads. Table top lighting can add atmosphere and create an
ambience and includes candles, gaslights and shaded electric lighting. These low level
lights are the most flattering of all, as they reduce facial shadows by infilling dark areas
caused by down lights.
Functional lighting in the dining room must serve a number of purposes:
◗◗ Fixtures directing light onto ceilings and walls should indicate to customers the
dimensions of the room, together with any special attractions, such as pictures and old
oak beams. Low voltage diachroic lamps are best suited for this purpose.

Bar

◗◗ The lighting should project a subdued atmosphere, with contrasts between bright and
dark areas and tabletops capturing much of the light, while ceilings and upper walls
remain dark.
◗◗ It may be necessary to feature special areas of a dining room, such as a buffet or
self-service salad bar.
The food and beverage service area needs to have a good mix of décor and functional
lighting. Brighter lights appear to subconsciously tell customers to eat more quickly and
leave and are therefore the recommended way to illuminate for quick turnover and high
volume throughput.

●●3.6 Bar
The bar may be situated within a food and beverage service area and dispense wine or
other alcoholic drinks that are to be served to a customer consuming a meal or using a
lounge area. However, in many establishments, because of the planning and layout, wine
and other alcoholic drinks for consumption with a meal are sometimes obtained from bars
situated outside the food and beverage service area itself – in other words, from one of
the public bars. All drinks dispensed must be checked for and controlled (see Section 6.4,
p.204 and Section 12.7, p.391).

Equipment
In order to carry out efficiently the service of all forms of wine and drink requested, the
bar should have available all the necessary equipment for making cocktails, decanting wine,
serving winecorrectly, making non-alcoholic fruit cocktails and so on. The equipment
should include the items described below.
Main items

◗◗ Cocktail shaker: the ideal utensil for mixing ingredients that will not normally blend
together well by stirring. A three-part utensil.
◗◗ Boston shaker: consists of two cones, one of which overlaps the other to seal in the mix.
Made of stainless steel, glass or plated silver. The mix is strained using a Hawthorn
strainer.
◗◗ Mixing glass: like a glass jug without a handle, but has a lip. Used for mixing clear drinks,
which do not contain juices or cream.
◗◗ Strainer: there are many types, the most popular being the Hawthorn. This is a flat
spoon-shaped utensil with a spring coiled round its edge. It is used in conjunction with
the cocktail shaker and mixing glass to hold back the ice after the drink is prepared. A
special design is available for use with liquidisers and blenders.
◗◗ Bar spoon: for use with the mixing glass when stirring cocktails. The flat ‘muddler’ end is
used for crushing sugar and mint in certain drinks.
◗◗ Bar liquidiser or blender: used for making drinks that require puréed fruit.
◗◗ Drink mixer: used for drinks that doesn’t need liquidising, especially those containing
cream or ice cream. If ice is required, use only crushed ice.

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Other items

Examples include:
◗◗ assorted glasses
◗◗ ice buckets and stands
◗◗ wine baskets
◗◗ water jugs
◗◗ assorted bitters: peach, orange,
◗◗ angostura
◗◗ cutting board and knife
◗◗ coasters
◗◗ cork extractor
◗◗ ice pick
◗◗ small ice buckets and tongs
◗◗ ice crushing machine
◗◗ drinking straws
◗◗ cocktail sticks
◗◗ carafes
◗◗ wine and cocktail/drinks lists
◗◗ coloured sugars
◗◗ glass cloths, napkins and service
◗◗ cloths



















sink unit
refrigerator
ice making machine
glass washing machine
optics/spirit measures
wine measures
cooling trays
bottle opener
muslin and funnel
lemon squeezing machine
swizzle sticks
strainer and funnel
service salvers
wine knife and cigar cutter (where
legislation allows smoking)
bin
hot beverage maker
juice press
mini whisk.

Food items

Examples include:
◗◗ olives
◗◗ Worcestershire sauce

◗ Tabasco sauce
◗ cinnamon

Figure 3.4(a) Examples of cocktail bar equipment: (1) cocktail shaker, (2) Boston shaker, (3)
mixing glass with bar spoon, (4) Hawthorn strainer, (5) jug strainer insert, (6) mini whisk, (7) straws,
(8) ice crusher, (9) juice press, (10) ice bucket and tongs

Bar

◗◗ salt and pepper
◗◗ nutmeg
◗◗ Angostura bitters
◗◗ caster sugar
◗◗ eggs
◗◗ mint
◗◗ orange
◗◗ coconut cream
◗◗ Maraschino cherries









cloves
cube sugar
Demerara sugar
cream
cucumber
lemon
lime
salted nuts/crisps
gherkins.

Figure 3.4(b) Examples of bar equipment: (1) bottle coaster, (2) Champagne star cork grip, (3)
wine bottle holder, (4) vacu-pump, (5, 7, 9, 12) wine bottle openers, (6, 10) Champagne bottle
stoppers, (8) wine funnel, (11) wine bottle foil cutter, (13) Champagne cork grip, (14) wine cork
extractor, (15) appetiser bowls and cocktail stick holder, (16) measures on drip tray, (17) cutting
board and knife, (18) cigar cutters, (19, 21) bottle stoppers, (20) bottle pourers, (22) crown cork
opener, (23) mini juice press

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Planning of the bar
There are certain essentials necessary in the planning of every bar. They are factors that
should be given prime consideration when planning for a fixed bar or when setting up a
temporary bar for a particular function, as described below.
Siting

A major factor is the siting of the bar. The position should be chosen so that the bar
achieves the greatest possible number of sales.
Area

The bar staff must be given sufficient area or space in which to work and move about.
There should be a minimum of 1 m (3 ft 3 in) from the back of the bar counter to the
storage shelves and display cabinets at the rear of the bar.
Layout

Very careful consideration must be given, in the initial planning, to the layout of the bar.
Adequate storage must be provided in the form of shelves, cupboards and racks, for all
the stock required and equipment listed. Everything should be easily to hand so that the
bar staff do not have to move about more than necessary to provide a quick and efficient
service.

Figure 3.5 Back bar fitting (image courtesy of
Williams refrigeration)

Plumbing and power

It is essential to have hot and cold running water for glass washing. Power is necessary for
the cooling trays, refrigerators and ice-making machines.
Safety and hygiene

Great care must be observed to ensure that the materials used in the make-up of the bar
are hygienic and safe. Flooring must be non-slip. The bar top should be of a material

Furniture

suited to the general decor that is hard wearing, easily wiped down and has no sharp edges.
The bar top should be of average working height – approximately 1 m (3 ft 3 in) and a
depth (across the top from the bar to the service side) of about 0.6 m (20 in).

●●3.7 Furniture
Furniture must be chosen according to the needs of the establishment. Examples of various
dining arrangements are shown in Table 3.2.
Table 3.2 Dining arrangements (Based on a chart from Croner’s Catering)
Type

Description of furniture

Loose random

Freestanding furniture positioned in no discernible pattern within a given
service area.

Loose module

Freestanding furniture positioned within a given service area to a predetermined pattern, with or without the use of dividers to create smaller
areas within the main area.

Booth

Fixed seating (banquette), usually high backed, used to create secluded
seating.

High density

Furniture with minimum dimensions and usually fixed, positioned within a
given service area to create maximum seating capacity.

Module

Seating incorporates tables and chairs constructed as one and may be
fixed to the floor.

In situ

Customers served in areas not designed for service, e.g. aircraft and
hospital beds.

Bar and lounge
areas

Customers served in areas not primarily designed for food and beverage
service.

Materials and finishes
By using different materials, designs and finishes of furniture and by their careful
arrangement, often the atmosphere and appearance of the service area can be changed to
suit different occasions.
Various types of wood and wood grain finishes are available, each suitable to blend with
a particular décor. Wood is strong and rigid and resists wear and stains. It is a popular
material used for chairs and tables in most food and beverage service areas but not ideal for
canteens, some staff dining rooms and cafeterias.
Although wood predominates, more metals (mainly aluminium and aluminiumplated steel or brass) are gradually being introduced into dining furniture. Aluminium
is lightweight, hardwearing, has a variety of finishes, is easily cleaned and the costs are
reasonable. Nowadays a wooden-topped table with a metal base may be found together
with chairs with lightweight metal frames and plastic finishes for the seat and back.
Formica or plastic-coated tabletops may be found in many cafeterias or staff dining
rooms. These are easily cleaned, hardwearing and eliminate the use of linen. The tabletops
come in a variety of colours and designs suitable for all situations. Place mats may take the
place of linen.

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Chairs
Chairs come in an enormous range of designs, materials and colours to suit all situations
and occasions. Because of the wide range of styles available, chairs vary in height and
width, but as a guide, a chair seat is 46cm from the ground, the height from the ground to
the top of the back is 1 m and the depth from the front edge of the seat to the back of the
chair is 46 cm.
Plastics and fibreglass are now used extensively to produce dining room chairs. These
materials are easily moulded into a single-piece seat and back to fit the body contours, the
legs usually being made of metal. The advantages are that these are durable, easily cleaned,
lightweight, may be stacked, are available in a large range of colours and designs and are
relatively inexpensive. They are more frequently found in bars, lounges and staff dining
rooms than in a first-class hotel or restaurant.
The main considerations when purchasing chairs should be size, height, shape and even
the variety of seating required, for example, banquette (fixed bench seating as shown in
Figure 3.6), armchairs, straight-backed and padded chairs, to give the customer a choice.
Remember when purchasing chairs that the height of the chair must allow enough room
for the diner to sit comfortably at the table. A leather or wool fabric is much better to sit
on than PVC or man-made fibres which tend to become uncomfortable around the back
and seat.

Figure 3.6 Restaurant area with traditional
seating and with banquette seating shown on
right of picture (image courtesy of Dunk Ink UK)

Tables
Tables come in three main shapes: round, square and rectangular. An establishment may
have a mixture of shapes to give variety, or tables of all one shape depending on the
shape of the room and the style of service being offered. Square or rectangular tables will
seat two to four people and two tables may be pushed together to seat larger parties, or

Furniture

extensions may be provided in order to cope with special parties, luncheons, dinners and
weddings, etc. By using these extensions correctly a variety of shapes may be obtained,
allowing full use of the room and enabling the maximum number of covers in the
minimum space. The tabletop may have a plastic foam back or green baize covering which
is heat resistant and non-slip so the tablecloth will not slide about as it would on a polished
wooden top table. This type of covering also deadens the sound of crockery and tableware
being laid. As a guide tables may be said to be approximately the following sizes:
Square

◗◗ 76 cm (2 ft 6 in) square to seat two people.
◗◗ 1 m (3 ft) square to seat four people.
Round

◗◗ 1 m (3 ft) in diameter to seat four people.
◗◗ 1.52 m (5 ft) in diameter to seat eight people.
Rectangular

◗◗ 137 cm 3 76 cm (4 ft 6 in 5 2 ft 6 in) to seat four people, extensions being added for
larger parties.

Sideboards
The style and design of a sideboard (or workstation) varies from establishment to
establishment and is dependent upon:
◗◗ the style of service and the food and beverages on offer
◗◗ the number of service staff working from one sideboard
◗◗ the number of tables to be served from one sideboard
◗◗ the amount of equipment it is expected to hold.
It is essential that the sideboard is of minimum size and
portable so that it may be easily moved if necessary. If
the sideboard is too large for its purpose it is taking up
space, which could be used to seat more customers. Some
establishments use smaller fixed sideboards and also use tray
jacks (movable folding tray stands, as illustrated in Figure 3.7)
when serving and clearing.
The material used in the make-up of the sideboard should Figure 3.7 Example of a tray
jack
blend with the rest of the décor. The top of a sideboard
should be of a heat resistant material that can be easily
washed down. After service the sideboard is either completely emptied out or restocked
for the next service. In some establishments the waiters are responsible for their own
equipment on their station. If sideboards are restocked after service, the sideboard will also
carry its own stock of linen. Thus, in this example a sideboard has everything necessary to
equip a particular waiter’s station or set of tables.
The actual lay-up of a sideboard depends firstly on its construction – the number of
shelves and drawers for tableware, etc., and, secondly, on the type of menu and service
offered. Therefore the lay-up in every establishment will vary, each being suited to its
own needs and style of service and presentation. It is suggested, however, that in each
particular establishment all sideboards should be laid up in the same way. If this is done the

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Figure 3.8 Examples of sideboards (images courtesy of Euroservice UK)

staff become used to looking for a certain item in a certain place and this facilitates speedy
service. For examples of the items that may be found in a sideboard see Section 6.2, p.000.

●●3.8 Linen
There are many qualities of linen in present day use, from the finest Irish linen and cotton
to synthetic materials such as nylon and viscose. The type of linen used will depend on the
class of establishment, type of clientele and cost involved, and the style of menu and service
to be offered. The main items of linen normally to be found are shown below.
Tablecloths

◗◗ 137 cm 3 137 cm (54 in 3 54 in) to fit a table 76 cm (2 ft 6 in) square or a round table
1 m (3 ft) in diameter.
◗◗ 183 cm 3 183 cm (72 in 3 72 in) to fit a table 1 m (3 ft) square.
◗◗ 183 cm 3 244 cm (72 in 3 96 in) to fit rectangular shaped tables.
◗◗ 183 cm 3 137 cm (72 in 3 54 in) to fit rectangular shaped tables.
Slip cloths

◗◗ 1 m 3 1 m (3 ft 3 3 ft) used to cover a slightly soiled tablecloth.
Napkins (serviettes)

◗◗ 46–50 cm (18–20 in) square if linen.
◗◗ 36–42 cm (14–17 in) square if paper.
Buffet cloths

◗◗ 2 m 3 4 m (6 ft 3 12 ft) – this is the minimum size; longer cloths will be used for
longer tables.
Waiter’s cloths or service cloths

◗◗ Servers use these as protection against heat and to help to keep uniforms clean.
Tea and glass cloths

◗◗ These are used for drying items after washing; tea cloths should be used for crockery and
glass cloths for glassware. The best are made of linen or cotton and are lint free.

Crockery

Use and control of linen
Linen should be used only for its intended purpose in the restaurant and not for cleaning
purposes, as this often results in permanent soiling which will render the item unusable in
the future.
Linen should be stored on paper-lined shelves, the correct sizes together, and with the
inverted fold facing outward, which facilitates counting and control. If the linen is not
stored in a cupboard it should be covered to avoid dust settling on it.
The stock of clean linen is usually issued upon receipt of a requisition signed by a
responsible person from the service department. A surplus linen stock is usually held in the
food service area in case of emergency.
At the end of each service the dirty linen should be counted, recorded and sent to the
issuing department to be exchanged for clean. Because of the high cost of laundering,
where a tablecloth is perhaps only a little grubby, a slip cloth can be placed over it for the
succeeding service.
A range of disposable linen, including napkins, place mats and tablecloths, are available
in varying colours and qualities. There are also now reversible tablecloths with a thin
polythene sheet running through the centre that prevents any spillages from penetrating
from one side to the other. Although the expense of such items may seem high, there
are many advantages and comparable laundry charges may well be higher. For more
information on disposables, see Section 3.12 (p.83).

●●3.9 Crockery
The crockery must blend in with the general décor of the establishment and also with
the rest of the items on the table. An establishment generally uses one design and pattern
of crockery, but when an establishment has a number of different service areas it is easier,
from the control point of view, to have a different design in each service area. Nowadays
manufacturers produce a range of patterns and styles and will guarantee a supply for a
period of ten years in order to be able to replace breakages, etc.
When purchasing crockery the general points previously identified in Section 3.1 (p.55)
should be borne in mind. Other factors to consider are described below.
◗◗ Every item of crockery should have a complete cover of glaze to ensure a reasonable
length of life.
◗◗ Crockery should have a rolled edge to give added reinforcement at the edge. (Note that
hygiene is most important – chipped crockery can harbour germs.)
◗◗ The pattern should be under rather than on top of the glaze. However, this demands
additional glaze and firing. Patterns on top of the glaze will wear and discolour very
quickly. Crockery with the pattern under the glaze is more expensive but its life will be
longer.
◗◗ Crockery must be dishwasher-proof.
Some manufacturers stamp the date, month and year on the base of the item. From
this, the life of the crockery can be determined with some accuracy. Crockery that is
produced as being suitable for the foodservice industry is often referred to as ‘hotelware’.
Manufactures also tend to give trade names to their hotelware to indicate strength or
durability. Some examples of these names are:

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◗◗ Vitreous
◗◗ Vitresso
◗◗ Vitrock
◗◗ Ironstone

◗ Vitrex
◗ Vitrified
◗ Steelite.

Foodservice crockery
There are various classifications of foodservice crockery. Although referred to as crockery
here (and throughout the book), all glazed tableware was traditionally referred to as china.
Items include:
◗◗ flatware, for example, plates and saucers and serving flats
◗◗ cups and bowls, for example, tea and coffee cups, soup and sweet bowls and serving dishes
◗◗ hollow-ware, for example, pots and vases.

Types of crockery
Bone china

This very fine, hard china is expensive. Decorations are only found under the glaze. It can
be made to thicker specifications, if requested, for hotel use. The price of bone china puts
it out of reach of the majority of everyday caterers, and only a few of the top-class hotels
and restaurants use it. Metalised bone china has been developed specially for the hospitality
industry. It contains added metallic oxides to make it much stronger than bone china.
Hotel earthenware

Vitrified (or vitreous) earthenware is produced in the United Kingdom in vast quantities.
It is the cheapest but least durable hotelware although it is much stronger than regular
domestic earthenware. There is a standard range of designs and patterns in varying colours.
Domestic weight earthenware is lighter and thinner than hotel earthenware (or vitrified
hotelware). Because of its short life, lack of strength and possible high breakage rate it is
not regarded as suitable for commercial use.
Stoneware

This is a natural ceramic material traditionally made in the United Kingdom and fired at
a very high temperature, about 1,200°C–1,315°C (2,200°F). It is shaped by traditional
handcrafting techniques so there are a wide variety of shapes and finishes available, from
matt to a high gloss glaze. It is non-porous and extremely durable with high thermal and
shock resistance. The price is slightly higher than earthenware due to its long-life guarantee.
Porcelain

This is of a different composition with a semi-translucent body, normally cream/grey, and
has a high resistance to chipping.

Crockery sizes
A wide range of crockery items are available (see Figure 3.9(a)) and their exact sizes will
vary according to the manufacturer and the design produced. As a guide, the sizes are as
follows:
◗◗ side plate:
◗◗ sweet plate:
◗◗ fish plate:

15 cm (6 in) diameter
18 cm (7 in) diameter
20 cm (8 in) diameter

Crockery

◗◗ soup plate:
◗◗ joint plate:
◗◗ cereal/sweet bowel:
◗◗ breakfast cup and saucer:
◗◗ teacup and saucer:
◗◗ coffee cup and saucer (demi-tasse):
◗◗ teapot:

20 cm (8 in) diameter
25 cm (10 in) diameter
13 cm ( 5 in) diameter
23–28 cl (8–10 fl oz)
18.93 cl (62⁄3 fl oz)
9.47 cl (3½ fl oz)
28.4 cl (½ pint)
56.8 cl (1 pint)
85.2 cl (1½ pint)
113.6 cl (2 pint).

Other items of crockery required include:
◗◗ consommé cup and saucer
◗◗ soup bowl/cup
◗◗ platter (oval plate)
◗◗ salad crescent
◗◗ egg cup
◗◗ butter dish
◗◗ ashtray
◗◗

tea pot
hot water jug
coffee pot
milk jug
cream jug
hot milk jug
sugar basin
salt and pepper pots.

Although crockery has been the traditional medium for presenting and serving food, there
is now an increasing trend to use contemporary styles of glassware instead. Figure 3.9 gives
examples of both traditional crockery and also contemporary styled tableware that can be
used as alternatives.

Figure 3.9(a) Selection of crockery – traditional style

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Figure 3.9(b) Selection of contemporary tableware

Storage
Crockery should be stored on shelves in piles of approximately two dozen. Any higher
may result in their toppling down or damage to plates at the bottom of the stack because of
the weight bearing down on them. Crockery should be stored at a convenient height for
placing on and removing from the shelves without fear of accidents occurring. If possible
crockery should be kept covered to prevent dust and germs settling on it.

●●3.10 Tableware (flatware, cutlery and
hollow-ware)

Tableware includes all items of flatware, cutlery and hollow-ware and may be classified as
follows:
◗◗ flatware in the catering trade denotes all forms of spoon and fork, as well as serving flats
◗◗ cutlery refers to knives and other cutting implements
◗◗ hollow-ware consists of any other item, apart from flatware and cutlery, for example,
teapots, milk jugs, sugar basins and serving dishes.
Manufacturers produce varied patterns of flatware, hollow-ware and cutlery in a range of
prices to suit all demands. There are also patterns of flatware and cutlery that are scaled
down to three-quarters the normal size specifically for tray service.
Although traditionally flatware included spoons and forks, and cutlery referred to knives,

Tableware

the modern usage of these terms has changed. All spoons, forks and knives used as eating
implements are now referred to as cutlery. The term ‘cutlery’ is therefore used throughout
the rest of this book.
The majority of foodservice areas use either plated silverware or stainless steel. Once
again, the points mentioned previously concerning purchasing should be borne in mind.
In addition, when purchasing flatware and cutlery it is important to consider:
◗◗ the type of menu and service offered
◗◗ the maximum and average seating capacity
◗◗ the peak demand period turnover
◗◗ the washing-up facilities and their turnover.

Figure 3.10 Examples of cutlery: (left to right) fish fork, sweet fork, joint fork, fish knife, small (side)
knife, joint knife, coffee spoon, tea spoon, soup spoon, sweet spoon, table (service) spoon

Silver
Manufacturers will often quote 20-, 25- or 30-year plate. This denotes the length of life a
manufacturer may claim for their plate subject to fair or normal usage. The length of life of
silver also depends upon the weight of silver deposited. There are three standard grades of
silver plate – full standard plate, triple plate and quadruple plate.
In silver-plated tableware two grades have been specified:
1 Standard for general use.
2 Restaurant thicker grade for restaurant use and marked with an ‘R’.
The minimum thickness of silver plating quoted should give a life of at least 20 years,
depending on usage.
The hallmark on silver tells two things: The two symbols represent the standard of silver
used and the Assay office responsible. The two letters are the maker’s mark and the date
letter.
Plain cutlery and flatware is more popular than patterned for the simple reason that it
is cheaper and easier to keep clean. The best investment is knives with handles of hard
soldered silver plate, nickel or good stainless steel. Handles are an important factor in
cutlery. Plastic materials, however, are much cheaper and usually satisfactory.

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Silver cleaning methods

All the service silver should be cleaned on a rota basis. It is the duty of the head
plate person to ensure that this is carried out and that all silver is cleaned regularly.
Obviously items that are in constant use will require more attention. The head plate
person will also put on one side any articles of silver that are broken or that require
buffing up or re-plating, so that they may be sent to the manufacturer for any faults to
be corrected.
There are various methods of silver cleaning and the method used generally depends on
the size and class of establishment. The main methods used are summarised in Table 3.3.
Table 3.3 Summary of silver cleaning methods
Method

Description

Silver dip

Items to be cleaned are completely immersed in dip in a plastic bowl for a
very short time, rinsed in clean water and polished with a tea cloth. Very quick
method but hard on metal if left in dip too long.

Burnishing
machine

Items to be cleaned are placed in a drum containing many ball bearings, soap
powder and water. The drum rotates and the tarnish is rubbed off. All items are
rinsed in hot water and dried with a tea cloth.

Polvit

Items to be cleaned are placed in an enamel or galvanised iron bowl within
which is the Polvit aluminium metal sheet containing holes, together with some
soda. At least one piece of silver needs contact with the Polvit. Boiling water is
poured onto the silver being cleaned. A chemical reaction causes the tarnish
to be lifted. After three to four minutes remove silver and rinse in boiling water.
Drain and then polish with a clean, dry tea cloth.
   A simpler version of this may be used for silver fork tips that have become
tarnished. An aluminium saucepan on the stove, half filled with gently boiling
water, can be used to put fork tips into for a short time. The forks need to touch
each other and the side of the saucepan at the same time for the chemical
reaction to take place. This easily removes the tarnishing and is less harmful to
the silver than using silver dip.

Plate
Powder

Pink powder is mixed with a little methylated spirit to a smooth paste. The
smooth paste is rubbed well onto the tarnished silver with a clean piece of cloth.
The article is left until the paste has dried which is then rubbed off with a clean
cloth. The article must be rinsed well in very hot water and given a final polish
with a clean dry tea cloth. For a design or engraving use a small toothbrush
to brush the paste into the design and a clean toothbrush to remove it. This
method is both time-consuming and messy, but produces very good results.
(Information based on details obtained from the Cutlery and Allied Trades
Research Association (CATRA).)

Stainless steel
Stainless steel tableware is available in a variety of grades. The higher priced designs usually
incorporate alloys of chromium (which makes the metal stainless) and nickel (which gives
a fine grain and lustre). Good British flatware and cutlery is made of 18/8 or 18/10
stainless steel. This is 18 per cent chromium and 8 per cent nickel. However, the harder
the metal used for the cutting edge, the more difficult it is for the manufacturer to gain a
sharp edge.

Tableware

Stainless steel is finished by different degrees of polishing:
◗◗ high polish finish
◗◗ dull polish finish
◗◗ light grey matt, non-reflective finish.
Stainless steel resists scratching far more than other metals and may therefore be said to
be more hygienic. Although it does not tarnish it can stain. There are special cleaning
products for stainless steel such as a commercial powder that is applied with a wet sponge
or cloth and rubbed on the surface before being rinsed off. Such products can be used to
keep stainless steel looking clean and polished.
Table knives require attention to keep the sharpness of the blade. Table knives are
normally sharpened, according to the recommendations of the Cutlery and Allied Trades
Research Association (CATRA), to approximately a 60° edge angle (compared to the
30° for the Chef ’s knife). Traditionally table knives were sharpened with a plain edge (that
is, without serrations, scallops or indentations on the edge). Today many knives found
in the foodservice industry have much thicker blades and the cutting edges are serrated.
There is a well established myth that for a table knife to work well it must be serrated.
However a serrated knife simply tears the meat piece rather than cutting it.

Specialised service equipment
There is an almost unlimited range of flatware, cutlery and hollow-ware in use in the
catering industry today. These items are those necessary to give efficient service of any

Figure 3.11 Specialised service equipment as listed in Table 3.4

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Table 3.4 Items of specialised equipment and their use
Equipment

Use

  1 Asparagus holder

Used to hold asparagus spears when eating

  2 Sugar tongs

Required for cube sugar

  3 Pastry slice

Sweet trolley – serving portions of gâteau

  4 Oyster fork

Shellfish cocktail/oysters

  5 Pastry fork

Afternoon tea

  6 Corn-on-the-cob holders

One to pierce each end of the cob

  7 Lobster pick

To extract the flesh from the claw

  8 Butter knife

To serve a butter portion

  9 Sauce ladle

Service from sauce boat

10 Fruit knife and fork

Dessert – cover

11 Nutcrackers

Dessert – fruit basket

12 Grape scissors

To cut and hold a portion of grapes

13 Grapefruit spoon

Grapefruit halves

14 Ice-cream spoon

For all ice-cream dishes served in coupes

15 Sundae spoon

Ice-cream sweet in a tall glass

16 Snail tongs

Used to hold the snail shell

17 Snail dish

Dish is round with two ears, having six indentations to hold a
portion (6) of snails

18 Snail fork

Used to extract the snail from its shell

19 Cheese knife

Cheese board

20 Stilton scoop

Service of Stilton cheese

21 Caviar knife

Part of cover for caviar

22 Gourmet spoon

Sauce spoon for cover

23 Preserve spoon

Used with preserve/jam dish

form of meal at any time of the day. Everyone is familiar with the knife, fork, spoon, flats,
vegetable dishes and lids, entrée dishes and lids, soup tureens, teapot, hot water jugs, sugar
basins and so on that we see in every day use. Over and above these, however, there are
a number of specialist items of equipment provided for use with specific dishes. Some of
these more common items of specialist equipment are shown in Table 3.4, together with a
brief note of the dishes that they may be used for.

Storage
In larger establishments the silver room, or plate room as it is sometimes known, is a
separate service area within which a complete stock of tableware required for the service

Glassware

of meals, together with a slight surplus stock in case of emergency is stored. Tableware
for banqueting service may be of a different design and kept specifically for that purpose
within the banqueting department. In smaller establishments it is often combined with the
wash-up area.
The large tableware items such as flats, salvers, soup tureens and cloches, are often stored
on shelves, with all the flats of one size together, and so on. All shelves should be labelled
showing where each different item goes. This makes it easier for control purposes and for
stacking; heavier items should go on lower shelves and the smaller and lighter items on
higher shelves. This helps to prevent accidents. All tableware, together with the smaller
items such as cruets, butter dishes, special equipment, table numbers and menu holders,
can be stored in drawers lined with green baize. This helps to prevent noise and stops the
various items sliding about and scratching when in the drawer.
Theoretically all tableware should be stored in a room or cupboard that can be locked,
since it constitutes a large part of the capital investment of the foodservice operation.
Cutlery may be stored in cutlery trolleys or trays ready for use, which can also be locked in
a store.

Staffing
For large operations there may be a head plate person with a number of staff under them.
In smaller establishments duties are often combined with the wash-up. It would then be
the duty of either the washing-up staff or the waiting staff to ensure that all the service
tableware is kept clean.

●●3.11 Glassware
Well designed glassware combines elegance, strength and stability, and should be fine
rimmed and of clear glass. All glassware should be clean and well polished.
Glassware contributes to the appearance of the table and the overall attraction of the
service area. There are many standard patterns available to the foodservice operator. Most
manufacturers now supply hotel glassware in standard sizes for convenience of ordering,
availability and quick delivery. Modern drinking glasses take many new forms and shapes,
although all are primarily designed to meet the needs of the range of modern drinks being
offered. Examples of drinking glasses and their use are shown in Figure 3.12
A good wine glass should be plain and clear so that the colour and brilliance of a wine
can be clearly seen. It should have a stem for holding the wine glass so that the heat of
one’s hand does not affect the wine on tasting. There should be a slight incurving lip
to help hold the aroma and it should be large enough to hold the particular wine being
tasted. Although standard goblets can be used for a range of wines there are various glass
shapes that are traditionally associated with certain wines. Examples of these are shown in
Figure 3.13.

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Cocktail glasses: for
cocktails generally and
smaller: for Pink Lady
and White Lady

Sour glass: for spirits
and mixers and for sours
and as an alternative to
rocks glass

The saucer: for
Champagne cocktails
and Daisies. Not really
used much now

Martini Cocktail glass:
for Dry, Medium and
Sweet Martinis and
Manhattans but also
used for other cocktails

The tulip: all
Champagne and
sparkling wines and also
for Buck’s Fizz and the
Grasshopper
The flute: for sparkling
wines generally
and also for Brandy
Alexander and Kir
Royale
Paris goblet: in various
sizes and used for wines,
waters and beers. Also
used for Cobblers, Pina
Colada and Green
Blazer
Worthington: for
bottled beers, soft drinks
and for Pimms, Coolers
and long drinks such as
Fruit Cups
Rocks/Old Fashioned
glass: also known
as whisky glass, often
used for any spirits
and mixers. Also used
for drinks such as Old
Fashioned and Negroni
Highball/Collins
glass: used for spirits
and mixers and for
Highballs, John Collins,
Tom Collins, Mint Julep,
Tequila Sunrise and
Spritzers
Brandy balloon: small
for brandies and for B
& B and brandy and
liqueur-based cocktails,
for frappés and for
liqueurs. Larger for long
drinks such as Pimms

Figure 3.12 Examples of drinking glasses and their uses

Slim Jim: for spirits and
mixers and for sours and
as an alternative to
highball glass
Copita (sherry): mainly
for sherry but also used
for sweet wines
Elgin: traditional glass
used for sherry in single
and double measure
(Schooner) sizes. Also in
smaller version used for
liqueurs
Port or sherry (dock)
glass: used for both
ports and sherries and
also for sweet wines
Lager/pilsner: different
sizes used for bottled
and draft lager beers

Beer (straight):
traditional beer glass
in different sizes for half
and full measures of
any beers and also beer
based mixed drinks
Beer (dimple):
traditional beer glass
in different sizes for half
and full measures of
any beers and also beer
based mixed drinks,
including Black Velvet
and also Pimms

Glassware

Alsace
and German

Burgundy, Rhône
and Loire

Anjou

Champagne
and sparkling wine

Jura

Bordeaux

Côtes de
Provence

Carafe
wines

Franconia

Chianti

Figure 3.13 Bottle types and glasses for wine

Type and sizes of glassware
Glass is produced from sand (silicon dioxide), which is combined with other substances
to produce particular characteristic properties. The mixture is heated to a very high
temperature, which forms a molten mass. This glass is either blown or moulded to
different shapes and then allowed to cool and solidify. The various types of glass used in the
hospitality industry are outlined in the text below. Examples of sizes for drinking glasses are
shown in Table 3.5.
Soda lime glass

This glass contains sand, soda ash and limestone as the principal ingredients. It is used for
day-to-day, relatively inexpensive glassware.
Lead crystal

This form of glass includes sand, red lead and potash, which produces a slightly softer glass
of high brilliance. The surface can be left plain or can be cut to produce prismatic effects
and sparkle.

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Table 3.5 Examples of sizes for glassware
Glass

Size

Wine goblets

14.20, 18.93, 22.72, 28 cl (5, 62⁄3, 8, 10 fl oz)

Flûte/tulip

18–23 cl (6–8 fl oz)

Saucer champagne

18–23 cl (6–8 fl oz)

Cocktail glasses

4–7 cl (2–3 fl oz)

Sherry, Port

5 cl (1.75 fl oz)

Highball

23–28 cl (9–10 fl oz)

Lowball

18–23 cl (6–8 fl oz)

Worthington

28–34 cl (10–12 fl oz)

Lager glass

28–34 cl (10–12 fl oz)

Brandy balloon

23–28 cl (8–10 fl oz)

Liqueur glass

2.5 cl (0.88 fl oz)

Tumbler/Slim Jim

28.40 cl (½ pint)

Beer

25–50 cl (½–1 pint)

Borosilicate glass

This is glass made with the addition of borax, which increases its hardness and heat
resistance. This type of glass is used for flame ware.
Tempered and toughened glass

This glass has additional treatments to make it more resistant to the effects of heat. It is
mostly used as ovenware glass, but the treatment is also used to produce glassware that
needs to withstand heavy usage.
Glassware decoration

The surface of glassware may be decorated by:
◗◗ cutting to produce patterns or badging
◗◗ sand-blasting to texture the surface
◗◗ acid-etching to make patterns or to add badging
◗◗ engraving using grinding wheels to add patterns
◗◗ surface printing with patterns from transfers.
As well as being used for drinking glasses, jugs and vases, etc., contemporary glassware is
now used as an alternative to crockery for the presentation and service of food (see Section
3.9, p.73).

Storage and cleaning
Drinking glasses are normally stored in a glass pantry and should be placed in single rows
on thin plastic grid matting, upside down to prevent dust settling in them. Plastic racks
made specifically for the purpose of stacking and storing glasses are yet another alternative.
Such racks are also a convenient method of transporting glassware from one point to

Disposables

another, which cuts down on breakages. Tumblers and other straight-sided glassware
should not be stacked inside one another as this may result in breakages and can cause
accidents to staff.
Most day-to-day glassware used in the industry can be washed using dishwashers.
However, for certain glassware this is not recommended. This includes lead crystal and
other forms of fine glassware, which should be hand washed. Over time most glassware
will become milky in appearance, and the glassware will then need to be replaced. Finer
glassware will become like this very quickly, unless hand washed.
Glass decanters should also be hand washed. They can also be cleaned using a
proprietary denture cleaner. An alternative product contains small ball bearings that are put
into the decanter with warm water and a small amount of detergent. The decanter is then
moved so that the ball bearings move around inside it. Afterwards the decanter is emptied
through a filter so as to reclaim the ball bearings for use another time. The decanter is
then thoroughly rinsed in hot water. After cleaning and rinsing, decanters should be stood
upside-down on special stands made for the purpose, or on plastic or wooden dowels set
into a wooden base (to prevent the decanters falling over). This ensures that the decanters
drain and dry fully, and no lime scale deposits build up inside.

●●3.12 Disposables
There has been considerable growth in the use of disposables or ‘throw-aways’ as they are
sometimes called and this is due to a number of factors:
◗◗ the need to reduce costs
◗◗ the difficulty of obtaining labour for washing up
◗◗ to reduce the high cost of laundering
◗◗ improved standards of hygiene
◗◗ breakage cost minimisation
◗◗ reduction in storage space required
◗◗ changes in cooking and storage technology, for example, cook/chill and cook/freeze
◗◗ the needs of transport caterers on trains, boats and planes
◗◗ the development of fast-food and takeaway operations
◗◗ increased customer acceptability.
Although many establishments use disposables to cut costs, the disposables must be
attractive, presentable and acceptable to the client and also help to attract customers. The
choice of which disposables to use may be determined by:
◗◗ necessity because of operational needs for:
– outdoor catering
– automatic vending
– fast food
– takeaways
◗◗ cost considerations such as:
– traditional forms of service equipment
– cost of laundry
– wash-up costs.

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Types of disposables
The main varieties of disposables are generally used for:
◗◗ storage and cooking purposes
◗◗ service of food and beverages, for
example, plates, knives, forks, cups
◗◗ décor – napkins, tablecloths, slip cloths
banquet roll, place mats


hygiene – wipes
clothing, such as aprons, chef hats,
gloves
packaging – for marketing and
presentation purposes.

The types of disposables that may be used to replace the normal restaurant linen would
be serviettes, place mats, tray cloths, tablecloths and coasters, etc. Today, most forms of
disposables can be of various colours, patterned or have the house-style motto or crest
reproduced on them. The vast range of colours available also allows for changes in a service
area with different colours being used for each meal.
Throwaway packs of knives, forks and spoons are more convenient and hygienic where
the turnover of custom is very high over very short periods of time. This might apply in
industrial canteens and transport catering. Throwaway packs eliminate delays at service
points where the speed of washing-up is inadequate.
A considerable advance in the range of disposables available has been the introduction of
disposables whose approximation to crockery tableware is very close. For instance,they may
have a high quality, overall finish and a smooth, hard, white surface. The plates themselves
are strong and rigid with no tendency to bend or buckle, and a plasticising ingredient
ensures that they are greaseproof and moisture-proof, even against hot fat and gravy. Oval
meal plates, snack trays and compartmentalised plates are all available to the caterer.
Environmental issues

When purchasing disposable items it is important to consider products that are
environmentally friendly. With the development of new materials many disposable
products are now totally compostable and biodegradable, as they are made from renewable
resources such as:
◗◗ sugar cane fibre off cuts – very similar to conventional paper products and used for
bowls, plates and cups
◗◗ clear polylactic acid (PLA) from carbon stored in plants such as corn and used for cups,
containers and straws. Not suitable for hot liquids but can be frozen
◗◗ cornstarch cutlery, made from a starch-based polymer and chalk
◗◗ bamboo ware, used to make plates, bowls, cups and cutlery from reconstituted bamboo.

Advantages of disposables
◗◗ Equipment and labour: disposables reduce the need for washing-up equipment, staff and
materials.
◗◗ Hygiene: usage improves the standard of hygiene in an establishment.
◗◗ Time: disposables may speed up service, for example, for fast food.
◗◗ Properties: disposables have good heat retention and insulation properties.
◗◗ Marketing: disposables can be used as a promotional aid.
◗◗ Capital: usage reduces the amount of capital investment.
◗◗ Carriage: they are easily transported.
◗◗ Cost: disposables may be cheaper than hiring conventional equipment.

Automatic vending

Disadvantages of disposables
◗◗ Acceptability: customer acceptability may be poor.
◗◗ Cost: disposables can be more expensive than some conventional equipment.
◗◗ Storage: back-up quantities are required.
◗◗ Supply: there is heavy reliance on supply and delivery time.
◗◗ Environment: unless they are made from renewable resources and are completely
biodegradable they have a negative impact on the environment.

●●3.13 Automatic vending
In the broadest sense, automatic vending may be defined as selling by automation. It is a
form of automatic retailing using one of the following methods of payment:
◗◗ coin
◗◗ banknote
◗◗ money card
◗◗ token
◗◗ free vend.
Vending can be used to provide either services and facilities or consumables, for example:
Service and facilities

Consumables

◗◗ TV time
◗◗ gas
◗◗ water
◗◗ electricity
◗◗ shoe cleaning
◗◗ car parking
◗◗ toilets
◗◗ baggage store





hot and cold beverages
meals
confectionery
tobacco
alcoholic drinks.

Types of foodservice vending machine
Within foodservice operations, automatic vending mainly is used for the supply of a wide
variety of food and beverages, both hot and cold. Vending machines are found in canteens,
factories, offices, industrial concerns, railway stations, garages (including motorway
service stations), schools, hospitals, leisure centres and hotels. Vending machines used for
foodservice operations include:
◗◗ Merchandiser: customer can view the products on sale, for example, confectionery
machines. Can be used for refrigerated drinks (bottles and cans) and pre-packaged meals
and snacks. Can also be used for hot meals and snacks through internal heating
◗◗ Hot beverage vendor: mixes the powdered ingredients with hot water to produce the
product.
◗◗ In-cup system: ingredients are already in individual cups to which hot water is added.
◗◗ Cold beverage vendor: by use of post-mix syrup and water (carbonated or non-carbonated).
◗◗ Micro-vend system: provides a range of hot or cold foods from which the customer may
make a selection and heat in an accompanying microwave oven.

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The numbers and types of machines required will depend on their location, the type and
numbers of people they are providing a service for, the cost factor and the variety of food
and beverage items required.

Figure 3.14 Examples of foodservice vending machines (image courtesy of Sodexo UK and
Ireland)

The machines required might be installed either individually or in small groups, to
supplement the conventional catering establishment or to cover a small sales demand that
does not warrant the expense of employing extra labour and plant. The opposite to this
would be the installation of a complete vending service where demand is highly volatile,
space is limited and the use of staffed operations would be uneconomical.
General factors that should be considered prior to purchasing foodservice vending
equipment may be summarised as follows:
◗◗ Cup sales: may be one to two drinks per person per day when charged but could double
if offered free.
◗◗ Ingredient capacity: related to required periods of restocking.
◗◗ Number of selectors (items) available: this will often relate to the demand (anticipated
number of customers).
◗◗ Hygiene: ease of cleaning.
◗◗ Extraction efficiency: for heat/steam systems.
◗◗ Restocking: ease of filling.
◗◗ Maintenance: regular servicing contract.
◗◗ Physical dimension/acceptability: whether the machine will fit into the environment and
blend in with the décor.
◗◗ Siting: as close as is feasible to those using the machine, that is, either on the work floor
or in a food service area so as to maximise use.
◗◗ Weight (floor loading): ease of moving for cleaning and siting purposes.
◗◗ Availability of services: power and plumbing.
◗◗ Capital available: whether the machine should be leased or purchased.
◗◗ Training: whether staff can be trained easily to replenish, clean and maintain machines.
◗◗ Policy: there must be clear guidelines linked to failure of a machine and insurance cover.

Automatic vending

Advantages of foodservice vending
The machines themselves may be used in conjunction with the conventional kitchen
production. At the same time they relieve some of the pressure of work on thecounter
hands and cashier by taking some of the customers away from the counter andto the
machines. This is especially true where only hot or cold beverages are requiredtogether
with a limited range of snacks for a certain percentage of those being catered for. Other
advantages are:
◗◗ 24-hour service: automatic vending machines can provide a 24-hour service.
◗◗ Low cost: automatic vending machines are cheaper to operate than conventional methods
of service.
◗◗ Food cost control: this is a great advantage because automatic vending allows for strict
portion control.
◗◗ Economy of labour: results in a reduction in the foodservice wages bill.
◗◗ Natural tea break: with the advent of these machines the fixed tea break has given way to
the natural tea break, which can increase staff productivity.
◗◗ Fresh beverages: while a main meal may be served, if beverages are available by machine
then they are fresh and taken as and when required.
◗◗ Variety: automatic vending machines offer a wide variety of hot and cold snacks and
beverages, all contained within a space considerably smaller than would be necessary for
conventional forms of production and service.
◗◗ Reduced wastage: as long as the customer demand has been correctly gauged, wastage can
be reduced to a minimum.
◗◗ Ease of maintenance: a member of the permanent staff should be trained to replenish and
clean the vending machines daily.

Disadvantages of vending
There are disadvantages to automatic vending that have to be considered in relation to
the total operation before making a final decision on usage. These may be summarised as
follows:
◗◗ Speed of service: for a beverage this is approximately 10 seconds; a cafeteria operator
would be faster. Conventional systems are more suitable for large-scale operations.
◗◗ Quality: although quality has improved for both the product and its packaging, customer
resistance still exists.
◗◗ Human presence: there may be very little, if any, human presence. Manufacturers have
researched this problem and attempted to overcome it with attractively designed and
colourful machines.
◗◗ Electricity: the machines are subject to power failure and power surges.
◗◗ Maintenance: automatic vending machines require regular daily servicing and cleaning.
Depending upon the style of operation, the machines may require servicing and
cleaning twice a day.
◗◗ Vandalism: most modern machines are robust, but can be vandalised resulting in loss of
revenue through lack of available service.
◗◗ Breakdown: can take vital service hours to repair.

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Cleaning of vending machines
Automatic vending machines are neither self-cleaning nor self-maintained and human
help is needed here. Therefore, regular service maintenance is required and should be
guaranteed if all is to run smoothly and without the problems of mechanical breakdown.
The type of vending machine and the service demand upon it will help to determine the
regularity of the service requirements.
Regular daily cleaning and replenishment is nearly always required, although demand
may necessitate additional daily visits for cleaning and replenishment.
Staff should be trained in the techniques of cleaning and replenishing vending machines.
Key factors to be considered are:
◗◗ Clean at times when demand is lowest to avoid unnecessary loss of sales.
◗◗ Avoid electrical accidents by using the minimum amount of water while cleaning, and
preferably disconnect from the mains supply.
◗◗ Read the supplier’s recommendations carefully and use only nominated cleaning agents.
◗◗ Ensure the temperature controls are functioning correctly.
◗◗ Ensure all sales items are clearly visible and operating instructions are easy to follow.
◗◗ When replenishing the machine, check the sell-by dates and put older items to the front.
◗◗ Ensure all packaging and labelling is correct.
◗◗ Check slow moving sales items very carefully for the correct use by dates and any
deterioration in the commodity.
◗◗ Refill appropriate containers with the relevant powders for the products being sold.
◗◗ Ensure as appropriate that cups, plates and napkins are available in the machines.
◗◗ Always wipe down the complete outside of the vending machine to project an image of
good hygiene.
Note: At all times extreme care must be taken concerning the various aspects of hygiene and
food safety when foods and beverages are being served in this way.

Chapter 4

The menu, menu knowledge and
accompaniments
4.1 Origin of the menu

90

4.2 Classic menu sequence

90

4.3 Classes of menu

92

4.4 Influences on the menu

97

4.5 Menu and service
knowledge

99

4.6 Hors-d’oeuvre and other
appetisers

100

4.7 Soups

104

4.8 Egg dishes

105

4.9 Pasta and rice dishes

106

4.10 Fish dishes

106

4.11 Meats, poultry and
game

107

4.12 Potatoes, vegetables
and salads

109

4.13 Cheese

110

4.14 Sweets

116

4.15 Savouries

117

4.16 Dessert (fresh fruit and
nuts)

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●●4.1 Origin of the menu
The menu is primarily a selling aid. Originally the bill of fare (English) or menu (French)
wasnot presented at the table. Banquets generally consisted of two courses, each made
up ofavariety of dishes, anything from 10 to 40 in number. The first set of dishes were
placedonthe table before the diners entered – hence the word ‘entrée’ – and, when
consumed, these dishes were removed or relieved by another set of dishes – hence the
words ‘relevés’ or ‘removes’.
The word ‘menu’ dates back to the eighteenth century, although the custom of making
a list of the courses for a meal is much older. Modern menus first appeared during the
early nineteenth century, in the Parisian restaurants of the Palais-Royal.

●●4.2 Classic menu sequence
Over the last 100 or so years the sequence of the European menu has taken on a classical
format or order of dishes. This format is used to lay out menus as well as to indicate the
order of the various courses. Although the actual number of courses on a menu, and dishes
within each course, will depend on the size and class of the establishment, most follow the
classic sequence. This sequence is as follows:
  1 Hors-d’oeuvres
Traditionally this course consisted of a variety of compound salads (see p.000) but now
includes such items as pâtés, mousses, fruit, charcuterie and smoked fish.
  2 Soups (potages)
Includes all soups, both hot and cold.
  3 Egg dishes (oeufs)
There are a great number of egg dishes beyond the usual omelettes, but these have not
retained their popularity on modern menus.
  4 Pasta and rice (farineux)
Includes all pasta and rice dishes. Can be referred to as farinaceous dishes.
  5 Fish (poisson)
This course consists of fish dishes, both hot and cold. Fish dishes such as smoked
salmon or seafood cocktails are mainly considered to be hors-d’oeuvres dishes and
therefore would be served earlier in a meal.
  6 Entrée
Entrées are generally small, well garnished dishes which come from the kitchen
ready for service. They are usually accompanied by a rich sauce or gravy. Potatoes
and vegetables are not usually served with this course if it is to be followed by a main
course. If this is the main meat course then it is usual for potatoes and vegetables to
also be offered. Examples of this type of dish are tournedos, noisettes, sweetbreads,
garnished cutlets or filled vol-au-vent cases.
  7 Sorbet
Traditionally sorbets (sometimes now called granites) were served to give a pause within
a meal, allowing the palate to be refreshed. They are lightly frozen water ices, often
based on un-sweetened fruit juice, and may be served with a spirit, liqueur or even
Champagne poured over. Russian cigarettes also used to be offered at this stage of a meal.

Classic menu sequence

  8 Relevé
This refers to the main roasts or other larger joints of meat, which would be served
together with potatoes and vegetables.
  9 Roast (rôti)
This term traditionally refers to roasted game or poultry dishes.
10 Vegetables (légumes)
Apart from vegetables served with the Relevé or Roast courses, certain vegetables
(e.g. asparagus and artichokes) may be served as a separate course, although these types
of dishes are now more commonly served as starters.
11 Salad (salade)
Often refers to a small plate of salad that is taken after a main course (or courses) and is
quite often simply a green salad and dressing.
12 Cold buffet (buffet froid)
This course includes a variety of cold meats and fish, cheese and egg items together
with a range of salads and dressings.
13 Cheese (fromage)
Includes the range of cheeses and various accompaniments, including biscuits, breads,
celery, grapes and apples. This course can also refer to cheese-based dishes such as soufflés.
14 Sweets (entremets)
Refers to both hot and cold puddings.
15 Savoury (savoureux)
Sometimes simple savouries, such as Welsh rarebit or other items on toast, or in pastry,
or savoury soufflés, may be served at this stage.
16 Fruit (dessert)
Fresh fruit, nuts and sometimes candied fruits.
17 Beverages
Traditionally this referred to coffee but nowadays includes a much wider range
of beverages being generally available, including tea, coffee (in both standard and
de-caffeinated versions) and a range of other beverages such as tisanes, milk drinks
(hot or cold) and proprietary drinks such as Bovril or Horlicks. These are commonly
available throughout the day, with a choice of milks, creams (including non-dairy
creamers) and sugars (including non-sugar sweeteners).
Note: Although listed here to indicate the sequence for meals, beverages are not counted
as a course as such and therefore should not be included when the number of courses for a
meal is stated. Thus if a meal is stated as having four courses, this means thatthere are four
food courses and that the beverages at the end are an addition to these.

The classic menu sequence outlined above is based on a logical process of taste sensations.
This classic sequence also provides the guide for the compilation of both à la carte and
table d’hôte menus (see below for definitions), as is evident in many examples of modern
menus. However, a number of courses are often now grouped together. At its most simple
this might comprise:
◗◗ starters – courses 1 to 4
◗◗ main courses – courses 5, 6 and 8 to 12
◗◗ afters – courses 13 to 16
◗◗ beverages.

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This sequence is also used as a guide for the compilation and determination of the order of
courses for event and special party menus.
This sequence shows the cheese course after the main course and before the sweet
course. However, the sweet course is still sometimes offered before the cheese course.
Note: The modern European classic menu sequence outlined here is derived from traditional
European (mainly Franco-Russian, Swiss and English) cuisine and service influences. The menu
structure and menu sequence can change considerably within the various world cuisines.
Menu terms also vary, for instance in the USA a main course is commonly called an entrée and
sweets are commonly called dessert. The term ‘dessert’ is also now becoming more commonly
used to denote sweets generally.

●●4.3 Classes of menu
Menus may be divided into two classes, traditionally called à la carte (from the card) and
table d’hôte (table of the host). The key difference between these two is that the à la carte
menu has dishes separately priced, whereas the table d’hôte menu has an inclusive price
either for the whole meal or for a specified number of courses, for example, any two or
any four courses. There are, however, usually choices within each course.
Sometimes the term ‘menu du jour’ is used instead of the term ‘table d’hôte menu’.
Another menu term used is ‘carte du jour’ (literally ‘card of the day’), or ‘menu of the
day’, which can also be a fixed meal with one or more courses for a set price. A ‘prix fixe’
(fixed price) menu is similar. A ‘tasting menu’ (‘menu degustation’) is a set meal with a
range of courses (often between 6 and 10). These tasting menus are offered in restaurants
where the chef provides a sample of the range of dishes available on the main menu. These
tasting menus can also be offered with a flight (selection) of wines (sometimes this can be
a different wine for each course). For all classes of menu the price of the meal might also
include wine or other drinks.

Table d’hôte menu
The key characteristics of the table d’hôte menu are:
◗◗ the menu has a fixed number of courses
◗◗ there is a limited choice within each course
◗◗ the selling price is fixed
◗◗ the food is usually available at a set time.

À la carte menu
The key characteristics of the à la carte menu are:
◗◗ the choice is generally more extensive
◗◗ each dish is priced separately
◗◗ there may be longer waiting times as some dishes are cooked or finished to order.
All menus, no matter how simple or complex, are based on one of the two basic menu classes:
table d’hôte or à la carte. Some menus combine the features of these two classes, offering a
number of menu items together at a set price while other menu items are priced separately.

Classes of menu

Figure 4.1 Example of a table d’hôte menu (courtesy of The Ritz Hotel, London)

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Classes of menu

Figure 4.2 Example of an à la carte menu (courtesy of The Ritz Hotel, London)

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All Day Dining
STARTERS
Pomodoro tomato, red pepper and pesto soup

£8.50

Spicy corn fed chicken and coriander velouté with ginger wonton

£8.25

Smoked organic Scottish salmon Old England

£16.00

Parma Ham, white balsamic and mango

£12.00

SALADS & SANDWICHES
Classic Blue Fin Tuna Nicoise

£13.00

Salad with avocado, tomato and asparagus

£14.00

Classic Caesar Salad
with corn fed chicken
with Tiger prawns and avocado

10.00
£13.50
£15.00

Confit duck salad with saladaise potatoes

£14.50

Crotin goats cheese, poached pear, chicory and walnut salad

£14.00

100% pure Angus beef burger with hand cut chips

£16.00

Croque Madame - baked chicken,
Gruyère cheese with fried free range egg

£15.50

Croque Monsieur ham and Gruyère cheese

£15.50

Club with corn fed chicken, and hand cut chips
Baked Ruben on rye pastrami, sauerkraut,
Savora mustard and Montgomery cheddar
Angus beef steak sandwich with Pomodoro tomatoes,
onion rings and iceberg lettuce

Main

£14.75
£14.50

£ 16.50
Pink Paris
mushroom risotto

Deep fried plaice fillets and chips with mushy peas
All sandwiches served on either bloomer, rye bread or sliced white and brown bread.
Seared Scottish Salmon, spring onion mashed potatoes
and grain mustard sauce
Tiger prawn penne pasta, garlic
and crispy shallots
Tomato tart, goats cheese, roquette and confit onions
Rump of English lamb with thyme and seasonal vegetables

£16.75
£17.00
£18.50

£18.00

£17.50
£20.50

FROM THE GRIDDLE
Corn fed chicken Supreme 160g
Angus rib eye steak 175g / 225g
Castle of Mey sirloin steak 175g / 225g

£17.00
£20.00 / £24.00
£21.50 / £25.50

All griddle mains are served with a baked Pomodoro tomato
with confit onions, field mushroom and gaufrette potatoes with
either béarnaise, red wine or green peppercorn sauce

SIDE ORDERS
Petit pois, spring onion and mint
Green beans and shallots
Potatoes chipped, mashed or buttered
Market vegetables
Green salad with tomato and cucumber

Figure 4.3 Example of an All Day
Dining menu (part of the Palm Court
menu, courtesy of The Langham Hotel,
London)

All prices are inclusive VAT. A discretionary 12.5% service charge will be added to your bill.

£3.75
£3.75
£3.75
£3.75
£3.75

Influences on the menu

●●4.4 Influences on the menu
Modern-day menus are the result of a combination of a number of factors. Menu content,
traditionally based on classic cuisine, is continually being influenced by food trends, fads
and fashions. In the main, customer demand is being affected by a greater understanding
of:
◗◗ the relationship between health and eating
◗◗ dietary requirements
◗◗ cultural and religious influences
◗◗ vegetarianism
◗◗ ethical influences.
Because of these influences there is now a greater emphasis on offering alternatives such as
low fat milks (for example, skimmed or semi-skimmed), non-dairy creamers for beverages,
alternatives to sugar such as sweeteners, sorbets alongside ice creams and polyunsaturated
fat and non-animal fats as alternatives to butter. These influences have also affected
cooking ingredients and methods, with the development of lower fat dishes, lighter cuisine
and attractive and decent alternatives for non-meat eaters, with greater use of animal
protein substitutes such as Quorn and tofu.
Health and eating

The key issue in the relationship between health and eating is ensuring a healthy diet.
This means eating a balanced diet rather than viewing individual foods as somehow
more healthy or less healthy. Customers are increasingly looking for the availability of
choices that will enable them to achieve a balanced diet. Customers are also requiring
more specific information on methods of cooking used, for example, low fat or low salt
methods. General consensus suggests that the regular diet should be made up of at least
one third based on a range of bread, cereals, rice and potatoes; one third based on a variety
of fruit and vegetables; and the remainder based on dairy foods, including low fat milk,
low fat meats and fish and small amounts of fatty and sugary food.
Dietary requirements

There are a variety of medical conditions, including allergies, which are more common
than was previously understood. Customers may therefore require a certain diet for
medical reasons (including the prevention of allergic reactions). Such customers will need
to know about the ingredients used in a dish since eating certain things may make them
very ill and may even be fatal. Although such customers will usually know what they can
and cannot eat, it is important that when asked, a server is able to accurately describe the
dishes so that the customer can make the appropriate choice. The server should never guess
and if in doubt, should seek further information. Some examples of dietary requirements
are given in Table 4.1.

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Table 4.1 Examples of dietary requirements
Allergies

Food items that are known to cause allergies include the gluten in wheat,
rye and barley (known as coeliac), peanuts and their derivatives, sesame
seeds and other nuts such as cashew, pecan, brazil and walnuts, as well
as milk, fish, shellfish, eggs and tropical fruits. Sometimes these foods can
cause anaphylactic shock resulting in the lips, tongue or throat swelling
dramatically over a very short period of time. Prompt medical treatment is
needed in such cases.

Diabetic

This refers to the inability of the body to control the level of insulin within the
blood. An appropriate diet may include foods listed in the low cholesterol
section below and the avoidance of dishes with a high sugar content.

Low cholesterol

Diets will include polyunsaturated fats and may include limited quantities
of animal fats. Other items eaten may include lean poached or grilled
meats and fish, fruit and vegetables and low fat milk, cheese and yoghurt.

Low sodium/
salt

This requires a reduction in the amount of sodium or salt consumed. Diets
will include low sodium/salt foods and cooking with very limited or no salt.

Cultural and religious dietary influences

Various faiths have differing requirements with regard to the dishes/ingredients that may
be consumed, and these requirements often also cover preparation methods, cooking
procedures and the equipment used. Examples are given in Table 4.2 below.
Table 4.2 Dietary requirements according to the various faiths
Hindus

Do not eat beef and rarely pork. Some Hindus will not eat any meats, fish
or eggs. Diets may include cheese, milk and vegetarian dishes.

Jews

Only ‘clean’ (kosher) animals may be consumed. Jews do not eat pork or
pork products, shellfish or animal fats and gelatine from beasts considered
to be unclean or not slaughtered according to the prescribed manner.
There are restrictions placed on methods of preparation and cookery. The
preparation and eating of meat and dairy products at the same meal is
not allowed.

Muslims

Will not eat meat, offal or animal fat unless it is halal (i.e. lawful, as required
under Islamic Dietary Law) meat. Will not consume alcohol, even when
used in cooking.

Sikhs

Do not eat beef or pork. Some will keep to a vegetarian diet. Others may
eat fish, mutton, cheese and eggs. Sikhs will not eat halal meat.

Rastafarians

Will not eat any processed foods, pork or fish without fins (e.g. eels). Will not
consume tea, coffee or alcohol.

Roman
Catholics

Few restrictions on diet. Usually will not eat meats on Ash Wednesday or
Good Friday. Some keep with the past requirement for no meat to be
eaten on Fridays. Fish and dairy products may be eaten instead.

Vegetarianism

Vegetarianism may derive from cultural, religious, moral, ethical or physiological
considerations. It is therefore important that food descriptions are accurate.
The various forms of vegetarianism are summarised in Table 4.3 below.

Menu and service knowledge
Table 4.3 Forms of vegetarianism
Vegetarians: semi

Do not eat red meats, or all meats other than poultry, or all meats.
Diet will include fish and may include dairy produce and other
animal products.

Vegetarians: lacto-ovo

Do not eat meat, fish or poultry but may eat milk, milk products
and eggs.

Vegetarians: lacto

Do not eat meat, fish, poultry and eggs but may eat milk and milk
products.

Vegans

Do not eat any foods of animal origin. Diet will mainly consist of
vegetables, vegetable oils, cereals, nuts, fruits and seeds.

Fruitarians

More restricted form of vegetarianism. Excluded are all foods of
animal origin together with pulses and cereals. Diet may include
mainly raw and dried fruit, nuts, honey and olive oil.

Ethical influences

Customers have become increasingly aware of ethical issues, such as:
◗◗ ensuring sustainability of foods consumed
◗◗ fair trade
◗◗ the acceptability or otherwise of genetically modified foods or irradiated foods
◗◗ reducing food packaging and food waste
◗◗ reducing the effects that food production and food transportation have on the
environment generally.
There is also a greater trend towards using more seasonal and locally sourced food and
beverage items, when the quality, taste, freshness and nutritional value are all at their peak,
and when supplies are more plentiful and cheaper. For foodservice businesses, the benefits
can also include:
◗◗ improved menu planning, as suppliers can give information in advance on what they are
able to provide
◗◗ more reliable products and service, with greater flexibility to respond to customer needs
◗◗ increased marketing opportunities through making a feature of using locally sourced
food and beverage items and through special promotions related to local seasons and
food and beverage specialities
◗◗ support for training of staff from local suppliers.
Legal considerations are summarised in Section 12.1, p.361 and additional information
about how to meet customer needs is given in Section 12.2, p.363.

●●4.5 Menu and service knowledge
Knowledge about the product is at the core of successful food and beverage service.
This knowledge enables the server to advise the customer of the content of dishes, the
methods used in making the dishes and also ensures that the customer is provided with
an appropriate service lay-up and the correct accompaniments. The rest of this chapter
provides information on the lay-ups and accompaniments for a selection of menu items by

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course. Additional information is contained in Annex A: Glossary of Cuisine and Service
Terms (p.402).
There are a number of dishes where traditional accompaniments are normally served.
Accompaniments offered with certain dishes are mainly to assist in improving the flavour
or to counteract richness. There are also traditions indicating the appropriate lay-up or
cover for certain dishes. The sections that follow contain guides to these lay-ups and
accompaniments. However, these guides are not intended to be prescriptive, as changes are
constantly taking place and new accompaniments being tried. Also, the desire for healthier
eating has led to a number of changes, for example, alternatives to butter such as Flora
are often provided and frequently bread is not buttered in advance, thereby allowing the
customer to choose his or her requirements. The availability of lower fat milks, non-dairy
creamers and non-sugar sweeteners is also now standard.
For the lay-up the most important consideration is to aid eating. The use of fish knives
and forks, for instance, is becoming less fashionable (the original reason for these Victorian
items was as much to do with people wanting to show that their silver was new, rather than
inherited, as it was to do with being able to keep these items separate from other items).
Small (demi-tasse) coffee cups are now seen less often in restaurants although these cups are
still used for espresso.

A note on sauces
Although there appear to be a wide variety of sauces, they are almost always variations on
the same base sauces. These base sauces are summarised in Table 4.4.
Table 4.4 Base sauces
Fond brun

Basic brown meat sauce

Velouté

White sauce using fish, meat, poultry or vegetable stock

Allemande

A velouté thickened with cream and egg yolks

Béchamel

Savoury white sauce made with milk

Tomato sauce

Made with fresh, tinned or puréed tomatoes

Mayonnaise

Cold sauce made from egg yolks, oil, vinegar, salt, pepper and mustard

Hollandaise

Hot sauce made from melted butter, egg yolks, shallots, vinegar and
seasonings

Vinaigrette

Cold sauce made from mixing oil, vinegar and a selection of seasonings

These sauces provide the base for other sauces. By adding a variety of different ingredients,
for example adding cheese to a béchamel sauce to create a Mornay sauce, a wide range of
sauces can be created.

●●4.6 Hors-d’oeuvre and other appetisers
Traditionally, hors-d’oeuvres were a selection of salads, fish and meats. The selection was
served onto a cold fish plate and the cover was a fish knife and fork. The cover nowadays
is more likely to be dictated by the type of food being served and its presentation. Oil

Hors-d’oeuvre and other appetisers

and vinegar were also traditionally offered but this has become less common because such
foods are usually already well dressed. Buttered brown bread is also offered less often,
thereby allowing the customer a choice of breads and butter or alternatives.
Service can be a pre-plated selection or offered as a selection from individual ravier
dishes, from a tray, guéridon or from the traditional hors-d’oeuvre trolley, although this
trolley is seldom seen now.
Table 4.5 Example of common hors d’oeuvre items
Salads

Plain or compound. Examples of plain salads include fish and meat salads,
cucumber salad, tomato salad, potato salad, beetroot salad, red cabbage
and cauliflower. Compound salads include, for example, Russian (mixed
vegetables in mayonnaise); Andalouse (celery, onions, peppers, tomatoes, rice
and vinaigrette); Italienne (vegetable salad, cubes of salami, anchovy fillets and
mayonnaise); and Parisienne (slices of crayfish, truffles, Russian salad and bound
with mayonnaise and aspic).

Fish

May include items such as anchovies, herring (fresh or marinated), lobster,
mackerel (marinated, smoked or fresh), smoked eel (filleted or sliced) and
prawns (plain, in cocktail sauce or in a mousse).

Meats

Includes items such as pâtés, ham (raw, boiled or smoked) and salamis of all
varieties.

Canapés

These are slices of bread with the crusts removed, cut into a variety of shapes,
then toasted or fried in oil or butter and garnished. Garnishes can include
smoked salmon, foie gras, prawns, cheese, asparagus tips, tomato, egg, capers,
gherkins, salami and other meats.

Eggs

These can be poached, presented in aspic or mayonnaise, or hard-boiled, cut in
two and garnished or stuffed with various fillings, which include the yolk.

Table 4.6 Examples of other appetisers
Asparagus
(asperges)

Fresh asparagus can be eaten hot with, for example, melted butter or
Hollandaise sauce or cold with vinaigrette or mayonnaise. It is useful
to place an upturned fork under the right hand side of the plate to tip
the plate so that the sauce will form in a well at the bottom of the plate
towards the left hand side. Eating can be with a side knife and fork, with
an asparagus holder or with the fingers. If with the fingers, then a finger
bowl containing lukewarm water and a slice of lemon and a spare
napkin should be offered.

Avocado
(poire d’avocat)

Generally served in halves with a salad garnish on a fish plate. Can be
served with vinaigrette (now more likely to be made with a wine vinegar),
which is served separately, or with prawns in a cocktail sauce. There are
also special dishes to hold half an avocado. Brown bread and butter is
less common now. Alternative methods of presentation are also found, for
example, where the avocado is sliced and fanned out. A side knife and
sweet fork are then laid.

Caesar salad

Salad of cos (or Romaine) lettuce, dressed with vinaigrette or other similar
dressing (originally containing near-raw egg), garlic, croûtons and grated
(or shaved) parmesan cheese. There are a number of variations to these
ingredients. Side knife and sweet fork are laid. Sometimes this salad is
served in a bowl.

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Caviar (caviare)

Served with a caviar knife (broad blade knife) or side knife, on the
right hand side of the cover. Served onto a cold fish plate and
accompaniments include blinis (buck wheat pancakes) or hot breakfast
toast, butter, segments of lemon, chopped shallots and chopped egg
yolk and egg white. Portion size is usually up to about 30 g (1 oz).

Charcuterie

This can include a selection of a range of meat (mainly pork) items
including Bayonne ham, salamis, smoked ham, Parma ham and also
pâtés and terrines. Cover is a side knife and sweet fork or a joint knife
and fork if taken as a main course. Accompaniments are peppermill
and cayenne pepper, gherkins and sometimes onions. Occasionally a
small portion of potato salad is offered. Bread is usually offered but brown
bread and butter is now less common.

Corn on the cob
(maïs naturel)

These are usually served with special holders which are like small swords
or forks. Three wooden cocktail sticks in each end can be used, but
avoid trying to use two sweet forks as it is possible to painfully catch teeth
on the prongs. There are special dishes available, but a soup plate will
do to provide a reservoir for the melted butter or Hollandaise sauce. A
peppermill is offered. A finger bowl containing lukewarm water and a
slice of lemon and spare napkin might be advisable.

Fresh fruit

Either served on a plate or in a bowl. Eaten with a side knife and sweet
fork (fruit knife and fork if available) if served on a plate and sweet
spoon and fork if served in a bowl. Usually no accompaniment is offered
although some people might like caster sugar. Both caster sugar and
ground ginger are offered with melon if served alone. (For guéridon
preparation of fruit see p.328.)

Fruit cocktails

Usually served in a glass or some form of bowl. These are eaten with a
teaspoon and caster sugar is offered, especially if grapefruit is included in
the cocktail.

Fruit juices

Usually served in a glass. Sometimes caster sugar is offered in which case
a teaspoon should be given to stir in the sugar. For tomato juice, salt and
Worcestershire sauce (shaken) are offered, and again a teaspoon should
also be given to aid mixing in these accompaniments.

Globe
artichokes
(artichaut)

This vegetable is usually served whole as a starter. The edible portion
of the leaves is ‘sucked off’ between the teeth after being dipped in
a dressing (for example, vinaigrette if served cold or melted butter or
Hollandaise sauce if served hot). The leaves are held with the fingers.
The heart is finally eaten with a side knife and sweet fork. A finger bowl
containing lukewarm water and a slice of lemon and a spare napkin are
essential. There are special dishes for this vegetable, but a fish plate with
a small bowl for the dressing will also suffice. In this case a spare plate for
the discarded leaves will be needed. Alternatively a joint plate may be
used.

Gravlax
(gravadlax)

Salmon pickled with salt, sugar and dill. Usually eaten with a fish knife
and fork or a side knife and sweet fork. Traditional accompaniments are
a slightly sweetened sauce of mustard and dill and often half a lemon
(which may be wrapped in muslin to prevent the juice squirting onto the
customer when the lemon is squeezed). A variety of unbuttered breads
are often offered, with butter and alternatives served separately.

Hors-d’oeuvre and other appetisers

Mousses and
pâtés

Normally these are eaten using a side knife and sweet fork. Hot,
unbuttered breakfast toast or bread is offered. Butter or alternatives may
be offered and other accompaniments appropriate to the dish itself,
for example, lemon segments with fish mousses, although lemon is often
offered with meat-based pâtés.

Niçoise salad

There are a number of versions of this salad. Generally it includes boiled
potatoes, whole French beans, tomatoes, hard-boiled eggs (quartered
or sliced), stoned black olives, flakes of tuna fish and anchovy fillets. This
salad is usually made up and plated. Vinaigrette is often offered.

Other salads

Salads can be made up and served plated or constituted at the
guéridon. Dressings vary. Cover is usually related to the main ingredient,
i.e. fish knife and fork for fish-based salads but a side knife and fork can
be used for all. For guéridon service of salads see Section 10.5 (p.300).

Oysters (hûitres)

Cold oysters are usually served in one half of the shell on a bed of crushed
ice in a soup plate. An oyster fork is usually offered but a small sweet
fork can also be used. Oysters are usually eaten by holding the shell in
one hand and a fork in the other. A finger bowl containing lukewarm
water and a slice of lemon and an extra napkin may be offered.
Accompaniments include half a lemon and the oyster cruet (cayenne
pepper, pepper mill, chilli vinegar and Tabasco sauce). Traditionally
brown bread and butter is also offered.

Potted shrimps

A fish knife and fork or a side knife and sweet fork should be laid.
Accompaniments include hot, unbuttered, breakfast toast (there is
plenty of butter already in this dish), cayenne pepper, a peppermill and
segments of lemon.

Seafood
cocktails
(Cocktail de
crevettes)

These are usually made up and served in a seafood cocktail holder, glass
or bowl. A teaspoon and small fork are often laid for eating. Sometimes
the cutlery is placed on the underplate and placed on the table with
the dish. Accompaniments are a lemon segment, peppermill, sometimes
cayenne pepper and traditionally brown bread and butter, although this
is less common now.

Smoked salmon
(saumon fumé)

Usually eaten with a fish knife and fork or a side knife and sweet fork.
Traditional accompaniments are half a lemon (which may be wrapped
in muslin to prevent the juice squirting onto the customer when the lemon
is squeezed), cayenne pepper, peppermill and brown bread and butter.
Nowadays a variety of unbuttered bread may be offered with butter and
alternatives served separately. Oil is sometimes offered and also chopped
onions and capers.

Other smoked
fish

As well as the accompaniments offered with smoked salmon, creamed
horseradish has become a standard offering with all other smoked fish
including trout, mackerel, cod, halibut and tuna.

Snails
(escargots)

Snail tongs are placed on the left and a snail fork on the right. The snails
are served in an escargot dish, which has six or twelve indentations.
French bread is offered for mopping up the sauce. Half a lemon (which
may be wrapped in muslin to prevent the juice squirting onto the
customer when the lemon is squeezed) may also be offered and a finger
bowl containing lukewarm water and a slice of lemon and an extra
napkin laid as part of the cover.

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●●4.7 Soups
Soups are divided into a number of categories. These include consommés, veloutés,
crèmes, purées, potages, bisques (shell fish soups) and broths. Examples of these are shown
in Table 4.7. There are also various national soups and examples of these are shown in
Table 4.8.
Table 4.7 Types of soup and service methods
Consommé

Clarified soup made from poultry, beef, game or vegetable bouillon.
Usually served in consommé cups with a sweet spoon. These soups were
once drunk from the cup using the handles and the spoon was provided
to help in eating the garnish. The tradition continues in the use of the cup
but it is now presented at the table on a consommé saucer or underplate.
The handles on some styles of cups have become merely representative
ears. Warmed Sherry or sometimes Madeira might be added to the
consommé in the restaurant just before serving. Although consommé is
usually served hot it can also be served cold or jellied (en gelée).

Veloutés,
crèmes and
purées

These soups are usually eaten from a soup plate on its underplate and
with a soup spoon. It is however common now to see soup bowls of
varying designs. Traditionally croûtons were only offered with purées and
Cream of Tomato soup, but they are now commonly offered with a range
of soups.

Potages, broths
and bisques

These are usually served in soup plates and eaten with a soup spoon but
again bowls of varying designs are also used.

Table 4.8 Examples of national soups
Batwinia
(Russian)

Purée of spinach, sorrel, beetroot and white wine, with small ice cubes
served separately. Served very cold.

Bortsch (Polish)

Duck-flavoured consommé garnished with duck, diced beef and turned
root vegetables. The accompaniments are sour cream, beetroot juice
and bouchées filled with duck pâté. A soup plate is often used, as there
are a large amount of accompaniments.

Bouillabaisse
(French)

This is really a form of fish stew. Although a soup plate and soup spoon is
used, it is common for a side knife and sweet fork to also be laid as part
of the cover. Thin slices of French bread, dipped in oil and grilled (sippets),
are offered as well as rouille (see Annex A: Glossary of cuisine and service
terms, p.402).

Cherry
(German)

Bouillon consisting of cherry purée, cherry juice and red wine, served with
stoned cherries and sponge finger biscuits.

Chowder
(USA)

Chowders are thick soups usually containing seafood, potatoes and
cream or milk. The most well known is New England clam chowder made
with potatoes, onion, bacon or salt pork, flour and clams. Served with
clam cakes, which are deep fried balls of buttery dough with chopped
clam inside.

Cock-a-leekie
(Scottish)

Veal and chicken consommé garnished with shredded leeks and
chicken. Served with prunes: these may have been put into the soup
plate at the service point.

Egg dishes

Gazpacho
(Spanish)

A cold, tomato-based soup. It contains tomatoes, onions, breadcrumbs,
peppers, cucumber, garlic, ice water, sugar and spices. Croûtons,
diced cucumber, peppers, tomato and onion may all be offered as
accompaniments. Served chilled in soup plates on underplates and
eaten with a soup spoon.

Kroupnich
(Russian)

Barley and sections of poultry offal garnished with small vol-au-vents
stuffed with poultry meat.

Mille fanti
(Italian)

Consommé with a covering of breadcrumbs, Parmesan cheese and
beaten eggs.

Minestrone
(Italian)

Vegetable paysanne soup with pasta. Traditional accompaniments are
grated Parmesan cheese and grilled flûtes.

Miso (Japanese)

Miso is a paste made from fermented soya beans. The soup is made by
adding this paste to dashi soup stock. The stock itself is made from bonito
flakes and konbu seaweed. Ingredients that provide contrasts such as
spring onion and the delicate tofu, and those that float and sink such
as potatoes and seaweed, may be paired together and offered as a
garnish at the last moment.

Petit Marmite
(French)

Beef and chicken-flavoured soup garnished with turned root vegetables
and dice of beef and chicken. Served in a special marmite pot, which
resembles a small casserole. A sweet spoon is used to eat this soup, as it
is easier to get this spoon into the small pot. Accompaniments are grilled
flûtes, poached bone marrow and grated (shaved) Parmesan cheese.
Sometimes the bread and cheese are done as a croûte on top of the
soup before serving at the table.

Potage Germiny
(French)

Consommé thickened before service with egg yolks and cream. Cheese
straws are offered.

Shchi (Russian)

Bortsch consommé, garnished with sauerkraut. Beetroot juice and sour
cream are offered separately.

Soupe à
l’oignon
(French)

French onion soup, often served in a consommé cup or soup bowl. Can
be served with grilled flûtes and grated (shaved) Parmesan cheese but is
often topped with a slice of French bread gratinated with cheese.

●●4.8 Egg dishes
Egg dishes as separate courses have become less common in recent years. Omelettes have
retained their popularity while dishes such as eggs en cocotte occasionally feature on
menus. The egg dishes listed in Table 4.9 have specific service requirements.
Table 4.9 Egg dishes and service requirements
Oeuf sur le plat

The egg is cooked in the oven in the oeuf sur le plat dish and is then served
to the customer in this dish on an underplate. A sweet spoon and fork are
used but a side knife may be given, depending on the garnishes. A sur le
plat dish is a small, round, white earthenware or metal dish with two ears.

Oeuf en
cocotte

The egg is cooked in the cocotte dish and served in this dish with various
garnishes. The dish is placed on a doyley on an underplate and a teaspoon
is used to eat the dish. A cocotte dish is a small round earthenware dish
with straight sides about the size of a small teacup.

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Omelettes

As an egg course an omelette is eaten with a joint fork and is served onto
a hot fish plate. The joint fork is placed on the right hand side of the cover.
Should the omelette be eaten as a main course it would be served onto
a hot joint plate, the cover being a joint knife and fork, as potato and
vegetables or salad would accompany this dish. Omelettes are often
plated but may be served from a flat using two forks, two fish knives or a
slice. The ends may also be trimmed as part of this service.

●●4.9 Pasta and rice dishes
These dishes, which are also referred to as farinaceous dishes, include all pastas such as
spaghetti, macaroni, nouilles and ravioli, and also rice dishes such as pilaff or risotto. It
also includes dishes such as Gnocchi Piedamontaise (potato), Parisienne (choux paste) and
Romaine (semolina).
Most pasta and rice dishes are served plated these days. For spaghetti, a joint fork should
be laid on the right hand side of the cover and a sweet spoon on the left. For all other
dishes a sweet spoon and fork are used, with the sweet spoon on the right and the fork on
the left. Grated Parmesan cheese is normally offered with all these dishes. Sometimes the
Parmesan cheese is shaved from the piece rather than grated.

●●4.10 Fish dishes
Traditionally, fish dishes were eaten with a fish knife and fork but this practice is declining.
For a fish course the usual lay-up is a fish plate and side knife and sweet/small fork. If fish
is to be served as a main course, a joint plate with fish knife and fork or a joint knife and
fork should be used. The general accompaniments for fish dishes are shown in Table 4.10.
Table 4.10 General accompaniments for fish dishes
Hot fish dishes with a sauce

Usually no accompaniments.

Hot fish dishes without a
sauce

These often have Hollandaise or another hot butter-based
sauce offered. Lemon segments may also be offered.

Fried fish which has
been bread crumbed (à
l’Anglaise)

These dishes often have tartare sauce or another
mayonnaise-based sauce offered, together with segments of
lemon.

Fried or grilled fish dishes, not
bread crumbed

These dishes are usually offered with lemon. Sometimes
sauces such as Hollandaise or tartare are offered.

Deep fried fish which has
been dipped in batter (à
l’Orly)

A (kitchen-made) tomato sauce is sometimes offered
together with segments of lemon. Proprietary sauces can also
be offered, as can vinegar if chips are being served.

Cold poached fish dishes

Usually mayonnaise or another mayonnaise-based sauce
such as Sauce Vert is offered, together with segments of
lemon.

Fish dishes with special service requirements are listed in Table 4.11.

Meats, poultry and game
Table 4.11 Fish dishes with special service requirements
Grilled herring (hareng
grillé)

Served as a starter on a hot fish plate. A fish knife and fork would be
traditionally laid to complete the cover, but now more commonly a
side knife and small/sweet fork completes the place setting. Usually
served with a mustard sauce.

Whitebait
(blanchailles)

Served as a starter on a hot fish plate and traditionally eaten with
a fish knife and fork. Nowadays more commonly a side knife and
small/sweet fork would complete the cover. Accompaniments are
cayenne pepper, peppermill, segments of lemon and brown bread
offered with butter or alternatives.

Mussels (moules
marinière)

Usually served in a soup plate or bowl on an underplate with
brown bread and butter, or more commonly now a variety of
breads offered with butter or alternatives. Cayenne pepper may
be offered. A fish knife and fork, or a side knife and small/sweet
fork and sweet spoon are often laid for eating. A plate for the
debris is usually placed on the table together with a finger bowl,
containing lukewarm water and a slice of lemon, and a spare
napkin.

Cold lobster (homard
froid)

Cover is a fish knife and fork or a side knife and small/sweet fork
and a lobster pick together with a spare debris plate and a finger
bowl, filled with lukewarm water and a slice of lemon together
with a spare napkin. Lemon and sauce mayonnaise are the usual
accompaniments.

●●4.11 Meats, poultry and game
Roast meats
In all cases roast gravy is offered. For dishes where the roast is plain (not roasted with herbs,
for instance) the accompaniments are shown in Table 4.12.
Table 4.12 Accompaniments for plain roast meats
Roast beef (boeuf rôti)

Horseradish sauce, French and English mustards and Yorkshire
pudding.

Roast lamb (agneau rôti)

Traditionally mint sauce, although redcurrant jelly is sometimes
also offered.

Roast mutton (mouton
rôti)

Traditionally redcurrant jelly, although mint sauce is sometimes
also offered. An alternative traditional accompaniment is a
white onion sauce.

Roast pork (porc rôti)

Apple sauce and sage and onion stuffing.

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Boiled meats
Accompaniments for boiled meets are listed in Table 4.13.
Table 4.13 Accompaniments for boiled meats
Boiled mutton (mouton bouilli)

Caper sauce is traditionally served.

Salt beef (silverside)

Turned root vegetables, dumplings and the natural
cooking liquor.

Boiled fresh beef (boeuf bouilli)

Turned root vegetables, natural cooking liquor, rock salt
and gherkins.

Boiled ham (jambon bouilli)

Parsley sauce or white onion sauce.

Other meat dishes
Table 4.14 Accompaniments for other meat dishes
Irish stew

This stew is often served in a soup plate and a sweet spoon is offered together
with the joint knife and fork. Accompaniments are Worcestershire sauce and
pickled red cabbage.

Curry (kari)

Served on a hot joint plate and eaten with a sweet spoon and joint knife
and fork. General accompaniments are poppadums (crisp, highly seasoned
pancakes), Bombay Duck (dried fillet of fish from the Indian Ocean) and
mango chutney. Also offered is a Curry Tray, which will have items such as
diced apple, sultanas, sliced bananas, yoghurt and desiccated coconut.

Mixed grill
and other
grills

These dishes may be garnished with cress, tomato, straw potatoes and
parsley butter. Various mustards (French and English) and sometimes
proprietary sauces (tomato ketchup and brown sauce) are offered as
accompaniments.

Steaks

As for mixed grill. Sauce Béarnaise is offered with Chateaubriand (double
fillet) and sometimes with other grilled steaks.

Poultry, furred and feathered game
Table 4.15 Accompaniments for poultry and furred and feathered game
Poultry
Roast chicken (poulet
rôti)

The accompaniments are bread sauce, roast gravy, parsley and
thyme stuffing, game chips and watercress. Sage and onion
stuffing is also used.

Roast duck (caneton
rôti)

Sage and onion stuffing, apple sauce and roast gravy are served.

Wild duck (caneton
sauvage)

Roast gravy and traditionally an orange salad with an acidulated
cream dressing is offered as a side dish.

Roast goose (oie rôti)

Sage and onion stuffing, apple sauce and roast gravy.

Roast turkey (dinde rôti)

Cranberry sauce, chestnut stuffing, chipolata sausages, game
chips, watercress and roast gravy are the usual accompaniments.

Potatoes, vegetables and salads

Furred game
Jugged hare

Heart-shaped croûtons, forcemeat balls and redcurrant jelly.

Venison (venaison)

Cumberland sauce and redcurrant jelly.

Feathered game
When roasted

The accompaniments for all feathered game such as partridge
(perdreau), grouse (lagopède) and pheasant (faisan) are fried
breadcrumbs, hot liver pâté spread on a croûte on which the
meat sits, bread sauce, game chips, watercress and roast gravy.

●●4.12 Potatoes, vegetables and salads
A wide variety of potatoes and vegetables, including salads, may be served with various
main dishes and courses. These can be:
◗◗ silver served onto the main plate alongside the main dish
◗◗ pre-plated onto the main plate alongside the main dish
◗◗ silver served onto a crescent or side plate, separate from the main plate, and placed at
the upper left hand side of the main plate. A separate small/sweet fork or spoon may
be placed to the left of the cover to assist with either the salad or the potatoes and
vegetables
◗◗ pre-plated onto a crescent or side plate, separate from the main plate, and then placed at
the left hand side of the main plate. A separate sweet fork or spoon may be placed to the
left of the cover to assist with either the salad or the potatoes and vegetables
◗◗ placed on the table in multi-portion serving dishes from which customers can serve
themselves, using service spoons and forks (family service).
A baked potato (pomme au four) is often served separately on a hot side plate, with
a small/sweet fork on the plate to aid eating. Accompaniments are cayenne pepper,
peppermill and butter (or substitutes). Butter is not now automatically put on the top of
the potato, but is offered separately, together with alternatives.
For further information on the service of potatoes and vegetables see Section 6.5, p.213.

Salads
There are two main types of salad:
1 Plain salads, which consist of two main types. These may be either green salads made up
of green leaf ingredients or vegetable salads made up of one main vegetable ingredient
which will dominate the overall flavour of the dish. Plain salad may often be served with
a main course or as a separate course after a main course. Various types of dressings are
either included in the salad or offered separately.
2 Compound salads, which may be a plain salad plus other ingredients, such as meat, fish
and mushrooms, or a combination of a number of ingredients, mixed together using
specific dressings or sauces.

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Table 4.16 Examples of salads
Française

Lettuce hearts, sections of skinned tomato, hard-boiled egg, with
vinaigrette offered separately

Verte

Lettuce hearts, vinaigrette offered separately

Saison

Lettuce hearts plus other salad vegetables in season, vinaigrette offered
separately

d’orange

Lettuce hearts, in sections, filleted orange, freshly made acidulated cream
dressing

Mimosa

Lettuce hearts, filleted orange, grapes skinned and stoned, sliced banana,
sprinkled with egg yolk, acidulated cream dressing offered separately

Japonaise

Lettuce, bananas, apple, tomatoes all in dice, shelled walnuts, fresh
cream offered separately

Lorette

Corn salad, julienne of beetroot, raw celery heart and vinaigrette offered
separately

Russian

Macedoine of mixed cooked vegetables including potato, often
decorated with other ingredients such as tomatoes, eggs, anchovies,
lobster, ham and tongue, and bound in mayonnaise sauce

Niçoise

French beans, tomato quarters, sliced potatoes, anchovies, capers, olives,
vinaigrette

Endive

Hearts of lettuce, endive, sauce vinaigrette

The cover for a salad when offered separately with a main course should be a salad crescent
(quarter moon-shaped dish) or a small round wooden bowl, with a small/sweet fork, or
sometimes a small wooden spoon and fork. The prongs of the small/sweet fork should be
pointing downwards when placed over the rim of the salad crescent as part of the cover.
For silver items this also helps to avoid tarnishing of the silver by the acid in the dressing.
When a salad is served separately after the main course the cover is:
◗◗ a cold fish plate or bowl such as a soup plate
◗◗ a small (side) knife and fork.
A selection of salads may often be offered as hors d’oeuvre (see p.100) and these are served
in the same way.
For the preparation and service of salads and dressings at the guéridon, see Section 10.5,
p.300.
All salads should be served chilled, crisp and attractive. Remember a salad is not
complete without a well-made salad dressing or sauce, such as vinaigrette or mayonnaise.
For examples of salad dressings see Section 10.5, p.300.

●●4.13 Cheese
Cheeses are distinguished by flavour and categorised according to their texture. They differ
from each other for a number of reasons, mainly arising through variations in the making
process. Differences occur in the rind and how it is formed and in the paste and the

Cheese

cooking process (relating here to both time and temperature). Cheeses also vary because
the milk used comes from different animals such as cows, sheep and goats.
Dependent upon use, cheeses may be purchased either whole or pre-portioned. Cheese
should be stored in a cool, dark place, with good air circulation or in a refrigerator. If it
is not covered in its original wrapping, it should be wrapped in either greaseproof paper,
cling film or aluminium foil to prevent any drying out taking place. It should also be stored
away from food items that absorb flavours/odours, such as dairy produce.
The texture of a cheese depends largely on the period of maturation. The recognised
categories are:
◗◗ fresh
◗◗ soft
◗◗ semi-hard

◗ hard
◗ blue

Examples of cheeses commonly available within each of the five categories are listed in
Table 4.17.
Table 4.17 Examples of cheeses within the five categories
Fresh cheese
Cottage

Unripened low-fat, skimmed milk cheese with a granular curd.
Originated in the USA and now has many variations.

Cream

Similar to cottage cheese but is made with full fat milk. There are a
number of different varieties available, some made from non-cow’s
milks.

Mozzarella

Italian cheese made from buffalo milk but may now also be made
from cow’s milk.

Ricotta

Italian cheese made from the whey of cow’s milk. A number of other
Italian varieties are available, made from sheep’s milk.

Soft cheese
Bel Paese

This light and creamy Italian cheese has a name that means ‘beautiful
country’ and was first produced in 1929.

Brie

Famous French cheese made since the eighth century. Other countries
now make this style of cheese, distinguishing it from the original French
brie by the addition of the name of the country or county of origin, e.g.
German brie, Somerset brie.

Camembert

Famous French cheese which is stronger and often more pungent than
Brie.

Carré de l’est

A soft cheese produced in France that is made from pasteurised
cow’s milk, and packed in square boxes. Like Camembert, it softens
on ripening and is darker in colour than Brie. When ripe it has a mild
flavour.

Epoisses de
Bourgogne

Small, sticky, pale orange, soft-washed rind, double cream cow’s milk
cheese, washed in Marc de Bourgogne, which has a creamy, runny
pungent centre. Originally invented at the beginning of the sixteenth
century by Cistercian monks. Production started again in 1956 by a M
Berthaut from the village of Epoisses in Burgundy, France.

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Feta

Greek cheese made from both goat’s and sheep’s milk.

Liptauer

Hungarian cheese spread made from sheep and cow’s milk. Often
found with various additions, such as onions, mustard or spices.

Mont d’Or,
Vacherin du Hautdoubs

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Soft, slightly acidic, full flavoured, herby, washed- rind cheese
made from cow’s milk. Vacherin Mont d’Or (Swiss) and Vacherin
du Haut-doubs/Le Mont d’or (French) come from the Swiss/French
border region. Only produced between 15 August and 31 March
and therefore exclusive to the autumn and winter months. Sold in
characteristic round pine or spruce wood boxes and traditionally
served from the box, but may also be enjoyed directly from the box
with a spoon.

Munster

French Vosges cheese similar to Camembert in shape but with an
orange-red rind. American, German and Swiss versions are also
available.

Stracchino

Italian cheese originally from Lombardy. A soft, delicate cheese which
now has a number of varieties.

Semi-hard cheese
Appenzeller

Typical example of Swiss cheese textures. The name is from the Latin
for ‘abbot’s cell’.

Caerphilly

Buttermilk-flavoured cheese with a soft paste. Some people will find
it almost soapy. Originally a Welsh cheese but now manufactured all
over Britain.

Cantal

French cheese from the Auvergne, similar to Cheddar.

Cheddar

Classic British cheese now made all over the world and referred to as,
for example, Scottish cheddar, Canadian cheddar.

Cheshire

Crumbly, slightly salty cheese, available as either white or red. It was
originally made during the twelfth century in Cheshire but is now made
all over Britain.

Chèvre d´Argental

The name means ‘goat’, which denotes the origin of the milk from
which this cheese is made. Full-flavoured, densely textured, creamy
cheese from the Rhone-Alps, with a bloomy rind.

Derby

English Derbyshire cheese now more often known by the sageflavoured variety, Sage Derby.

Edam

A Dutch cheese that is similar to, but harder than, Gouda. It has a
fairly bland, buttery taste and a yellow or red wax coated rind. It is
sometimes flavoured with cumin.

Emmenthal

The name of this Swiss cheese refers to the Emme Valley. It is similar to
Gruyère, although it is softer and slightly less tasty.

Esrom

Similar to the French Port Salut, this Danish cheese has a red rather
than yellow rind.

Gloucester/Double
Gloucester

Full-cream, classic English cheeses originally made only from the milk of
Gloucestershire cows.

Gouda

Buttery textured, soft and mild flavoured well-known Dutch cheese with
a yellow or red rind.

Cheese

Gruyère

Mainly known as a Swiss cheese, but both the French and Swiss
varieties can legally be called by this name. It has small pea-size holes
and a smooth, relatively hard texture. The French varieties may have
larger holes.

Jarlsberg

Similar to Emmenthal, this Norwegian cheese was first produced in the
late 1950s. It has a yellow wax coating.

Lancashire

Another classic English cheese similar to Cheshire (white Cheshire is
sometimes sold as Lancashire).

Leicester

Mild flavoured and orange-coloured English cheese.

Limberger

Often quite pungent, this cheese originated in Belgium but is now also
available from Germany.

Manchego

Relatively hard cheese, which may have holes, and has either a white
or sometimes yellow paste. Made in Spain from sheep’s milk.

Monterey

Creamy, soft American cheese with many holes. A harder version
known as Monterey Jack is suitable for grating.

Pont l’Evêque

Similar to Camembert, but square in shape, this French cheese
originates from Normandy.

Port Salut

Mild flavoured cheese with a name meaning ‘Port of Salvation’,
referring to the abbey where exiled Trappist monks returned after the
French Revolution.

Reblochon

Creamy, mild flavoured cheese from the Haute-Savoie region of
France. The namecomes from the illegal ‘second milking’ from which
the cheese was originally made.

Tilsit

Strong flavoured cheese from the East German town of the same
name where it was first produced by the Dutch living there. Now
available from other parts of Germany.

Wensleydale

Yorkshire cheese originally made from sheep or goat’s milk but now
made from cow’s milk. This cheese is the traditional accompaniment
to apple pie.

Hard cheese
Caciocavallo

Originating from ancient Roman times, the name means ‘cheese on
horseback’ because its shape is said to resemble saddlebags.

Kefalotyri

Literally Greek for ‘hard cheese’, this is a tasty cheese from Greece
which is suitable for grating.

Parmesan

Classic Italian hard cheese, more correctly called Parmigiano
Reggiano. It is also known as the grated cheese used in and for
sprinkling over Italian dishes, especially pasta, and also minestrone.

Pecorino

Hard, sheep’s milk, grating or table cheese from southern Italy. Also
available with added peppercorns as Pecorino Pepato from Sicily.

Provolone

Smoked cheese made in America, Australia and Italy. Now made from
cow’s milk but originally from buffalo milk. Younger versions are softer
and milder than the longer kept and more mature varieties.

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Blue cheese
Bleu d’Auvergne

Strong, spicy, full-flavoured cow’s milk blue cheese from the Auvergne,
with a lingering finish and a salty tang. Has a natural rind and the
cheese is creamy and moist with a sharp aroma. Invented in 1845
by farmer, Antoine Roussel, who used a needle to make holes in the
cheese to allow air inside, facilitating mould veins to develop in the
cheese.

Bleu de Bresse

Fairly soft and mild flavoured French cheese from the area between
Soane-et-Loire and the Jura.

Blue Cheshire

One of the finest of the blue cheeses which only becomes blue
accidentally, although the makers endeavour to assist this process by
pricking the cheese and maturing it in a favourable atmosphere.

Danish Blue

One of the most well known of the blue cheeses. Softish and mild
flavoured, it was one of the first European blue cheeses to gain
popularity in Britain.

Dolcelatte

Factory-made version of Gorgonzola. The name is Italian for ‘sweet
milk’ and the cheese is fairly soft with a creamy texture and greenish
veining.

Dorset Blue

A strong, hard-pressed cheese, being close textured and made from
skimmed milk. It is straw-coloured with deep blue veins, rather crumbly
and has a rough rind.

Fourme D’Ambert

Rich, un-pressed cylindrical blue cow’s milk cheese from the Auvergne,
with a natural yellowish-gray rind and creamy open texture. Good
depth of flavour, with a slight sharpness on the palate. Matured in
caves for around eight weeks. It is the tangiest of the French variety
of blue mould cheeses. The name is derived from the Latin forma
meaning form.

Gorgonzola

Softish, sharp flavoured, classic Italian cheese with greenish veining,
which is developed with the addition of mould culture.

Roquefort

Classic, sheep’s milk cheese from the southern Massif Central in France.
The maturing takes place in caves which provide a unique humid
environment which contributes to the development of the veining.

Stilton

Famous and classic English cheese made from cow’s milk. So called
because it was noted as being sold in the Bell Inn at Stilton by travellers
stopping there. According to legend it was first made by a Mrs Paulet
of Melton Mowbray. Traditionally served by the spoonful but nowadays
usually, and perhaps preferably, it is portioned. The pouring of port on
to the top of a whole Stilton, once the top rind had been removed,
was also popular but this practice has declined. The White Stilton has
also become popular and is slightly less flavoursome than the blue
variety.

Cheese
Round and square cheeses can be presented
whole and then portioned by being cut into
triangular pieces. Note that with square or oblong
cheeses one of the cuts is at an angle.

Brie or similar type cheeses may be either
presented whole or cut into triangular slices and
then portioned by being sliced (much like a cake)
as required.
Small soft cheeses such as goat’s cheeses may be
presented whole and then portioned by being cut
in half or quarter as the customer requests.

Flattened or pyramid shaped cheeses may be
presented whole and then portioned by being cut
into small triangles by keeping one side of each
cut at an angle.

Largish wedges of blue cheeses can be cut from a
cylinder or half cylinder of cheese for presentation,
and these wedges are then cut into smaller
wedges for service. Other cheeses bought in
cylinders or half cylinders can be cut and
presented for service and then portioned in the
same way.

A cylinder (truckle) or half cylinder of cheese may
also be presented whole and then portioned by
individual wedges being cut from it. In order to do
this the cheese is first cut around at about 25 to 30
cm. This is also an alternative to the tradition of
Stilton being portioned by scooping the cheese
out from the top of the cylinder after removing the
top rind.
Figure 4.4 Examples of methods for cutting cheeses

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Cover, accompaniments and service for cheese
Cover

The cover for cheese is:
◗◗ side plate
◗◗ side knife
◗◗ sometimes a small/sweet fork.
Accompaniments

Accompaniments set on the table may include:
◗◗ cruet (salt, pepper, and mustard)
◗◗ butter or alternative
◗◗ celery served in a celery glass part filled with crushed ice, on an underplate
◗◗ radishes (when in season) placed in a glass bowl on an underplate with teaspoon
◗◗ caster sugar for cream cheeses
◗◗ assorted cheese biscuits (cream crackers, Ryvita, sweet digestive, water biscuits, etc.) or
various breads.
Service

If not plated, the cheese board or trolley will be presented to the customer containing
avaried selection of cheeses in ripe condition together with sufficient cheese knives for
cutting and portioning the different cheeses (see Figure 4.4 for examples of the methods
for cutting and portioning). If cheese is wrapped in foil this must be removed by the waiter
before serving. The waiter should remove the cheese rind if it is not palatable (edible).
This is not necessary in the case of Camembert and Brie as the rind of these two French
cheeses is palatable.

●●4.14 Sweets
Most sweets are generally served onto sweet plates or are pre-plated. Puddings and various
hot dishes can be pre-plated onto or served into various bowls. The lay-up is usually the
sweet spoon and fork. Often the customer may require a sugar sifter. Various items may
require different lay-ups, for instance a sundae spoon, ice cream spoon or teaspoon. The
main consideration is always to aid eating.
The range of possible sweets is very extensive and varied. Examples of type of sweet
dishes are listed in Table 4.18.
There are no particular accompaniments to sweets and the choice of whether to serve
on a plate or in a bowl is often dependent on the texture of the sweet dish, for example
fruit salad in a bowl and gâteau portions on a sweet plate.
With portioned items such as gâteau, flans or pies, then the cut face, or point of the cut
item, is placed facing the customer. The serving of sauces such as custard and whipped
cream can be from sauce boats (ladled or spooned not poured), or there may be individual
portion jugs. Alternatively, the sauceboats may be left, on an underplate, on the table for
the customers to help themselves. If sauces are served then it is usual not to serve these
over the item but around it – unless the customer specifically requests it.

Savouries
Table 4.18 Examples of types of sweet dishes
Bavarois, mousses, syllabubs
Charlottes: moulds lined with sponge and filled with bavarois in various flavours and
sometimes with fruits.
Coupes and sundaes: usually ice cream and various fruit combinations, served in coupe
dishes or sundae dishes.
Creams: such as Chantilly (sweetened whipped cream flavoured with vanilla), custard
(Sauce Anglaise) and dishes such as Egg Custard or Crème Brûlée.
Fritters (beignets)
Fruit dishes: such as fruit salads, poached fruits (Compôte) and baked apples.
Gâteaux
Ices (ice cream, frozen yoghurt) and sorbets (water ices): presented in various forms,
including bombs (ice cream preparations made into bomb shapes using moulds).
Omelettes: with a variety of fillings and flavourings, for example, rum, jam, or apple.
Pancakes: with a variety of fillings, for example, cherries or other fruits.
Pies, flans and other pastries
Puddings: including Bread and Butter, Cabinet, Diplomate and various fruit puddings.
Soufflés: hot or cold.

●●4.15 Savouries
On the lunch and dinner menu a savoury may generally be served as an alternative to a
sweet. In a banquet it may be a separate course served in addition to either a sweet or
cheese course. Examples of savouries are given in Table 4.19.
Table 4.19 Examples of savouries
On toast

Usually shaped pieces of toast with various toppings such as anchovies,
sardines, mushrooms, smoked haddock and the classic Welsh rarebit (toasted
seasoned cheese, egg andbéchamel sauce mixture), or Buck rarebit (Welsh
rarebit with a poached egg on the top).

Canapés or
croûtes

Shaped pieces of bread about 6 mm (¼” inch) thick, brushed with melted
butter and grilled, or may be shaped shallow fried bread. Examples include:
• Scotch woodcock (scrambled egg, topped with a trellis of anchovies and
studded with capers)
• Croûte Diane (chicken livers wrapped in streaky bacon)
• Croûte Derby (ham purée garnished with a pickled walnut)
• Devils on horseback (prunes wrapped in bacon)
• Angels on horseback (poached oysters wrapped in bacon)
• Canapé Charlemagne (shrimps in a curry sauce)
• Canapé Quo Vadis (grilled roes garnished with small mushrooms).

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Tartlettes

Round pastry cases with various fillings such as mushrooms, or cheese soufflé
mixtures with various garnishes, or prawns or other fish in various sauces.

Barquettes

Filled boat-shaped pastry cases, similar to tartlettes.

Bouchées

Filled small puff pastry (vol-au-vent) cases.

Omelettes

Two- and three-egg omelettes with various flavours/fillings such as parsley,
anchovy, cheese or fines herbes (mixed herbs).

Soufflés

Made in a soufflé dish with various flavours such as mushroom, spinach,
sardine, anchovy, smoked haddock or cheese.

Flans

Either single or portioned savoury flans such as Quiche Lorraine.

Cover, accompaniments and service

Savouries are usually pre-portioned by the kitchen and served onto a hot fish plate.
The main cover for a savoury is usually a side knife and a small/sweet fork. The
accompaniments are:
◗◗ salt and pepper
◗◗ cayenne pepper
◗◗ pepper mill
◗◗ Worcestershire sauce (usually only with meat savouries).
The savoury is served to the customer plated, after the cover has been laid and the
accompaniments placed on the table. Where a savoury is being served as an alternative to
sweets or cheese, with other customers in the party taking these, then the convention of
serving all cold dishes before hot dishes (irrespective of the host) usually applies.

●●4.16 Dessert (fresh fruit and nuts)
Dessert may include all types of fresh fruits and nuts according to season, although the
majority of the more popular items are now available all the year round. Some of the more
popular items are dessert apples, pears, bananas, oranges, mandarins, tangerines, black and
white grapes, pineapple and assorted nuts such as Brazils. Sometimes a box of dates may
appear on the fruit basket.
The dessert is usually dressed up in a fruit basket by the larder section and may be used
as a central piece on a cold buffet until required.

Cover, accompaniments and service
Cover

The cover to be laid for dessert is normally:
◗◗ fruit plate
◗◗ fruit knife and fork – traditionally interlocked on the fruit plate
◗◗ spare napkin
◗◗ one finger bowl, on a sideplate and containing lukewarm water and a slice of lemon.
It will be placed at the top right hand corner of the cover and may be used by the
customer for rinsing his or her fingers

Dessert (fresh fruit and nuts)

◗◗ one finger bowl, on a sideplate and containing cold water for rinsing the grapes. It will
be placed at the top left hand corner of the cover
◗◗ nut crackers and grape scissors, to be placed on the fruit basket
◗◗ spare sideplate for shells and peel.
Accompaniments

The following accompaniments should be set on the table:
◗◗ caster sugar holder on a sideplate
◗◗ salt for nuts.
Service

The fruit basket is presented to the customer who makes his or her choice of a portion of
fresh fruit or nuts. If the customer chooses nuts, then the nutcrackers would be removed
from the fruit basket, placed on a side plate and left on the table at the head of the cover.
If grapes are chosen then the waiter rests the fruit basket on the table, supporting it with
one hand and cuts off the selected portion of grapes with the aid of the grape scissors.
These are so made that they will grip the stem once the portion has been cut and removed
from the main bunch, and thus by holding the portion with the grape scissors they may be
rinsed in the finger bowl at the top left hand corner of the cover and placed on the fruit
plate. If guéridon service is being used, the procedure will be the same but takes place
from the guéridon or trolley.
Should the customer require any other fresh fruit he or she will make their selection
from the fruit basket and place the desired fresh fruit onto their fruit plate. If they request
their choice of fresh fruit to be peeled, cored, sliced or segmented this will be carried out
by the waiter from the guéridon or trolley and on completion will be presented attractively
on the fruit plate. The guéridon preparation of fruit is described in Section 10.12, p.328.

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Beverages – non-alcoholic and alcoholic

5.1 Tea

121

5.2 Coffee

124

5.3 Other stillroom beverages 134
5.4 Non-alcoholic bar
beverages

134

5.5 Wine and drinks lists

137

5.6 Cocktails and mixed
drinks

141

5.7 Bitters

144

5.8 Wine

144

5.9 Spirits

158

5.10 Liqueurs

161

5.11 Beer

161

5.12 Cider and perry

165

5.13 Tasting techniques

166

5.14 Matching food with
wine and other drinks

170

5.15 Safe, sensible drinking

175

Tea

●●5.1 Tea
Tea was discovered by accident over 5,000 years ago, when leaves from a tea bush
accidentally dropped into some boiling water and delicately flavoured the liquid. Tea was
originally drunk for its medicinal benefits and it was not until the 1700s that it began to be
consumed as the delicious beverage that we know today.
Tea is prepared from the leaf bud and top leaves of a tropical evergreen bush called
camellia sinensis. It produces what is regarded as a healthy beverage, containing
approximately only half the caffeine of coffee and at the same time it aids muscle relaxation
and stimulates the central nervous system. The leaf particle size is referred to as grades.
These are Pekoe (pecko) – the delicate top leaves, Orange Pekoe – a rolled leaf with a slim
appearance and Pekoe Dust – the smallest particle of leaf size. In between these grades
there are a set of grades known as fannings. In tea terminology, ‘flush’ refers to a picking,
which can take place at different times of the year.

Tea producing countries
Tea is grown in more than 25 countries around the world. The crop benefits from acidic
soil, a warm climate and where there is at least 130 cm of rain a year. It is an annual crop
and its flavour, quality and character is affected by the location, altitude, type of soil and
climate. The main tea producing countries are described below.
China

This is the oldest tea growing country and is known for speciality blends such as Keemun,
Lapsang Souchong, Oolongs and green tea.
East Africa (Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania and Zimbabwe)

This area produces good quality teas, which are bright and colourful and used extensively
for blending purposes. Kenya produces teas which are easily discernible and have a reddish
or coppery tint and a brisk flavour.
India

India is the largest producer of tea, producing about 30 per cent of the world’s tea. Best
known are the teas from Assam (strong and full bodied), Darjeeling tea (delicate and
mellow) and also Nilgiri, which is second only to Assam and produces teas similar to those
of Sri Lanka.
Indonesia

Teas produced here are light and fragrant with bright colouring when made and are used
mainly for blending purposes.
Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon)

Teas here are inclined to have a delicate, light lemon flavour. They are generally regarded
as excellent afternoon teas and also lend themselves to being iced.
All teas are fermented (oxidised) during the process of manufacture, which gives them
their black colour. The one exception is the China green tea.

Purchasing tea
Most teas used are blended teas sold under proprietary brands or names. Other teas,
sometimes called speciality or premium teas, are sold by the name of the specific tea (see

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Table 5.1 Service of tea below). The word ‘blend’ indicates that a named tea may be
composed of a variety of different teas to produce one marketable tea, which is acceptable
to the average consumer taste. For instance, what is sometimes termed a standard tea
may contain somewhere in the region of 15 different teas, some of which would almost
certainly include Indian tea for strength, African tea for colour and China tea for flavour
and delicacy.
Tea may be purchased in a variety of forms depending on requirements such as volume
of production, type of establishment and clientele, the occasion, method of service, storage
facilities available and cost.
The different means of purchasing are:
◗◗ Bulk: this is leaf tea (also called loose tea), which allows the traditional method of
serving.
◗◗ Tea bags: these are heat-sealed and contain either standard or speciality teas. They come
in one-cup, two-cup, pot-for-one or bulk brew sizes up to several litres.
◗◗ String and tag: this comes as a one-cup teabag with string attached and a tag that remains
outside the cup or teapot for easy and quick identification of the tea by the customer.
◗◗ Envelopes: this is again a string and tag teabag but in an envelope for hygienic handling.
It is used for trays for in-room tea and coffee-making facilities.
◗◗ Instant: instant tea granules.
◗◗ Pods: these are specially designed individual portions of tea that are used in proprietary
tea and coffee makers. Each pod makes one portion of tea and the pod is then disposed
of.

Storage
Tea should be kept:
◗◗ in a dry, clean and covered container
◗◗ in a well ventilated area
◗◗ away from excess moisture
◗◗ away from any strong smelling foods as it very quickly absorbs strong odours.

Making of tea
The type of tea used will, of course, depend on the customer’s choice, but most
establishments carry a varied stock of Indian, Ceylon, China and speciality teas, together
with a variety of tisanes (fruit flavoured teas and herbal infusions) available upon request.
The quantities of dry tea used per pot or per gallon may vary slightly with the type of
tea used, but as an approximate guide the following may be used:
◗◗ 42.5–56.7 g (1½–2 oz) dry tea per 4.546 litres (1 gallon)
◗◗ ½ litre (1 pint) of milk will be sufficient for 20–24 cups
◗◗ ½ kilogram (1 lb) sugar for approximately 80 cups.
When brewing smaller amounts in the stillroom, such as a pot for one or two, it is often
advisable to install a measure for the loose tea. This ensures standardisation of the brew and
control on the amount of loose tea being used. Alternative methods of pre-portioning tea
may also be used, such as tea bags.
When making tea in bulk and calculating quantities of tea required for a party, allow

Tea

approximately 1⁄6 litre (1⁄3 pint) per cup or 24 cups per 4.546 litres (1 gallon). If breakfast
cups are used, capacity approximately ¼ litre (½ pint), then allow only 16 cups to 4.546
litres (1 gallon).
Because tea is an infusion the flavour is obtained by allowing the tea to brew. To achieve
good results, a few simple rules can be applied:
1 Heat the pot before putting in the dry tea so that the maximum heat can be obtained
from the boiling water.
2 Measure the dry tea exactly.
3 Use freshly boiled water.
4 Make sure the water is boiling on entering the pot.
5 Allow the tea to brew for 3–6 minutes (depending on the tea) to obtain maximum
strength from the brew.
6 Remove the tealeaves at the end of the brewing period if required, but especially if
making the tea in multi-pot insulated urns.
7 Ensure all the equipment used is scrupulously clean.
Table 5.1 lists the ways of serving various teas.
Table 5.1 Service of teas
Afternoon tea

Usually a blend of delicate Darjeeling tea and high-grown Ceylon tea to
produce a refreshing and light tea. As the name of the blend suggests, this
tea is suitable for afternoon tea but may also be taken at any time. Served
with milk or lemon and sugar offered separately.

Assam

Rich full and malty flavoured tea, suitable for service at breakfast, usually
with milk. Sugar would be offered separately.

China

Tea made from a special blend of tea that is more delicate in flavour and
perfumed than any other tea. Less dry tea is required than for making Indian
or Ceylon tea. Traditionally China tea is rarely served with milk. It is made in
the normal way and is best made in a china pot. China tea is normally drunk
on its own, but may be improved, according to taste, by the addition of a
slice of lemon. Slices of lemon would be offered on a side plate with a sweet
fork. Sugar may be offered separately.

Darjeeling

Delicate tea with a light grape flavour and known as the ‘Champagne of
teas’. Usually served as an afternoon or evening tea with either lemon or a
little milk if preferred. Sugar may be offered separately.

Earl Grey

Blend of Darjeeling and China tea, flavoured with oil of Bergamot. Usually
served with lemon or milk. Sugar would be offered separately.

English
Breakfast

Often a blend of Assam and Kenya teas to make a bright, flavoursome and
refreshing tea. Usually served as a breakfast tea but may be offered at any
time. Usually served with milk but can also be taken with lemon. Sugar is
offered separately.

Iced tea

This is strong tea that is made, strained and well chilled. The tea is then stored
chilled until required. It is traditionally served in a glass, such as a tumbler. A
slice of lemon may be placed in the glass and some additional lemon slices
served separately as for Russian tea. Sugar may be offered.

Indian or
Ceylon Blend

Indian or Ceylon Blend tea may be made in either china or metal teapots.
These teas are usually offered with milk. Sugar is offered separately.

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Jasmine

Green (unoxidised) tea that is dried with Jasmine Blossom and produces a
tea with a fragrant and scented flavour.

Kenya

Consistent and refreshing tea usually served with milk. Sugar would be
offered separately.

Lapsang
Souchong

Smoky, pungent and perfumed tea, delicate to the palate and may be said
to be an acquired taste. Usually served with lemon. Sugar would be offered
separately.

Multi-pot

There are many occasions when tea has to be produced in bulk. Such
occasions might be a reception tea, tea breaks in an industrial catering
concern, or for functions catering for large numbers. In these instances
tea may be made in multi-pots/urns, which may be described as teapots
or urns, varying in capacity from one to 25 litres (1 to 5 gallons). These
containers have infusers which hold the required quantity of tealeaves for
the size of pot/urn being used. The infuser would be placed in the pot/urn
and freshly boiled water added. The mix would then be allowed to brew
for a number of minutes – a maximum of 10 minutes for a 25-litre urn – and
the infuser is then removed to ensure a good quality product is served. The
quantity of tea made should always relate to the number to be served – this
will ensure minimum delay in the service and minimum wastage.

Russian or
lemon tea

Tea that is brewed from a special blend similar to China tea, but is also often
made from either Indian or Ceylon tea. It is made in the normal way and
is usually served with a slice of lemon. The tea is served in quarter litre (half
pint) glasses, which stand in a silver holder with a handle and on a side plate
with a teaspoon. A slice of lemon may be placed in the glass and a few
slices of lemon served separately. Sugar would be served separately.

Sri Lanka

Makes a pale golden tea with a good flavour. Ceylon Blend is still used as a
trade name. Served with lemon or milk. Sugar would be offered separately.

Tisanes

These are fruit flavoured teas and herbal infusions which are often used
for medicinal purposes and are gaining in popularity with trends towards
healthier eating and drinking. Often these do not contain caffeine. Examples
are:
Herbal teas
• camomile
• peppermint
• rosehip
• mint

Fruit teas
• cherry
• lemon
• blackcurrant
• mandarin orange

These teas are usually made in china pots or can be made by the cup or
glass. Sometimes served with sugar.

●●5.2 Coffee
There is evidence to suggest that coffee trees were cultivated about 1,000 years ago in the
Yemen. The first commercial cultivation of coffee is thought to have been in the Yemen
district of Arabia in the fifteenth century. By the middle of the sixteenth century coffee
drinking had spread to Sudan, Egypt, Syria and Turkey. Venetian traders first brought
coffee to Europe in 1615 and the first coffee house in England was opened in Oxford in

Coffee

1650. The drinking of coffee spread from Britain to America, but after the Boston Tea
Party in 1773, the North American palate changed from drinking tea as a beverage to
coffee.
The trees that produce coffee are of the genus Coffea, which belongs to the Rubiaceae
family. There are somewhere in the region of 50 different species, although only two of
these are commercially significant. These are known as Coffea arabica and Coffea camephora,
which is usually referred to as Robusta. Arabica accounts for some 75 per cent of world
production.
The coffee tree is an evergreen shrub, which reaches a height of two to three metres
when cultivated. The fruit of the coffee tree is known as the ‘cherry’ and these are about
1.5 cm in length and have an oblong shape. The cherry usually contains two coffee seeds.
The coffee tree will not begin to produce fruit until it is 3–5 years old and it will then
usually yield good crops for up to 15 years.

Coffee producing countries
Coffee is a natural product grown in many countries of the tropical and sub-tropical belt in
South and Central America, Africa and Asia. It is grown at different altitudes in different
basic climates and in different soils and is looked upon as an international drink consumed
throughout the world. Brazil is the world’s largest grower of coffee, Columbia is second,
the Ivory Coast third and Indonesia fourth.

Purchasing coffee
The different means of purchasing coffee are:
◗◗ Bulk: (either as beans or in vacuum packs of pre-ground beans) allowing for the
traditional methods of making and serving.
◗◗ Coffee bags: these are heat-sealed and come in one-cup, two-cup, pot-for-one or bulk
brew sizes up to several litres.
◗◗ Instant: instant coffee granules, available in sizes from one cup to pot size.
◗◗ Individual filters: vacuum packed and containing one portion.
◗◗ Pods: these are specially designed individual portions of pre-ground coffee that are used
in proprietary coffee and tea makers. Each pod makes one portion of coffee and the pod
is then disposed of.
Companies who sell coffee have their own blending experts whose task it is to ensure that
the quality and taste of their particular coffee brand is consistent, despite the fact that the
imported beans will vary from shipment to shipment.
Samples of green coffee beans are taken from bags in the producing countries and
the port of arrival. The samples are sent to prospective buyers whose experts roast, brew
and taste samples to test their quality before deciding on the type of blend for which the
particular coffee is suitable.
Most brands of coffee sold in shops are, in fact, a blend of two or more batches of beans.
Because they have no smell or taste, green beans have to be roasted in order to release the
coffee aroma and flavour. The roasting process should give a uniform colour. The outputs
from different roastings are used to form different blends.
The common degrees of roasting are:
◗◗ Light or pale roastings: suitable for mild beans to preserve their delicate aroma.

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◗◗ Medium roastings: give a stronger flavour and are often favoured for coffees with
well-defined character.
◗◗ Full roastings: popular in many Latin countries, they have a bitter flavour
◗◗ High roasted coffee: accentuates the strong bitter aspects of coffee, although much of the
original flavour is lost.
Commercial coffee roasters can either convert the beans into instant (soluble) coffee or
prepare them for sale as roasted or ground beans. The higher the roast, the less acidity and
the more bitterness there is in the coffee.
Certain coffees also have flavourings added, either in the blend or during the process of
making. Examples of these include:
◗◗ Turkish coffee – vanilla
◗◗ French coffee – chicory
◗◗ Viennese coffee – fig.

The grind
Roasted coffee must be ground before it can be used to make the brew. Coffee is ground
to different grades of fineness to suit the many different methods of brewing. The most
suitable grinds for some common methods of brewing coffee are:
Method
Cafetière
Espresso
Filter/Drip
Jug
Percolator
Turkish
Vacuum infusion

Grinding grade
Medium
Very fine
Fine to medium
Coarse
Medium
Pulverised
Medium fine to fine

Storage
Some tips for storing coffee:
◗◗ Store in a well ventilated storeroom.
◗◗ Use an airtight container for ground coffee to ensure that the oils do not evaporate,
causing loss of flavour and strength.
◗◗ Keep coffee away from excess moisture.
◗◗ Do not store near any strong smelling foods or other substances, as coffee will absorb
their odours.

Making coffee
Methods of brewing can vary, ranging from instant coffee brewed by the cup, through
to 1½–3litre (3–6 pints) units and up to machines that may produce large quantities for
functions. Coffee beans may be purchased and then ground according to requirements.
The beans should not be ground until immediately before they are required as this will
ensure the maximum flavour and strength from the oils within the coffee bean. If ground
coffee is purchased it normally comes in vacuum-packed packets in order to maintain its
qualities until use. These packets contain set quantities to make 4.5 litres (1 gallon) and 9
litres (2 gallons) and so on.

Coffee

When making coffee in bulk 283.5–340 g (10–12 oz) of ground coffee is sufficient to
make 4.5 litres (1 gallon) of black coffee. Assuming that cups with a capacity of 1⁄3 pint
will be used then 283.5–340 g (10–12 oz) of ground coffee is sufficient to provide 24 cups
of black coffee or 48 cups if serving half coffee and half milk. When breakfast cups are
used then 16 cups of black coffee or 32 cups of half coffee and half milk will be available.
Capacity, at a dinner where demi-tasse 11⁄3 litre (1⁄6 pint) cups are used, is 48 cups of black
coffee or 96 cups half black coffee and half milk.
The rules to be observed when making coffee in bulk are as follows:
◗◗ Use freshly roasted and ground coffee.
◗◗ Buy the correct grind for the type of machine in use.
◗◗ Ensure all equipment is clean before use.
◗◗ Use a set measure of coffee to water: 283.5–340 g per 4.5 litres (10–12 oz per gallon).
◗◗ Add boiling water to the coffee and allow to infuse.
◗◗ The infusion time must be controlled according to the type of coffee being used and the
method of making.
◗◗ Control the temperature since to boil coffee is to spoil coffee (it will develop a bitter taste).
◗◗ Strain and serve.
◗◗ Offer milk (hot or cold) or cream separately and sugar and alternatives.
◗◗ The best serving temperatures are 82°C (180°F) for coffee and 68°C (155°F) for milk.
Characteristics of good coffee

Coffee should have:
◗◗ good flavour
◗◗ good aroma
◗◗ good colour when milk or cream are added – not grey
◗◗ good body.
Reasons for bad coffee

Weak coffee:
◗◗ water has not reached boiling
◗◗ point
◗◗ insufficient coffee used
◗◗ infusion time too short

◗ stale or old coffee used
◗ incorrect grind of coffee used for
◗ equipment in operation.

Stale or lifeless coffee:
◗◗ all points for weak coffee listed
◗◗ above
◗◗ coffee kept too long before use, or
◗◗ kept at wrong temperature

◗ dirty equipment
◗ water not fresh
◗ coffee reheated.

Bitter coffee:
◗◗ too much coffee used
◗◗ infusion time too long
◗◗ coffee not roasted correctly
◗◗ sediment remaining in storage or
serving compartment

◗ infusion at too high a temperature
◗ coffee may have been left too
long before use.

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Coffee making methods
Coffee may be made in many ways and the service depends on the method used. A
description of the various methods is given below. Figure 5.1 illustrates ways in which
coffee may be made. Examples of modern coffee service styles are given in Table 5.2.

Figure 5.1 Coffee brewing methods (clockwise
from top): pour through filter machine, single
filter, Turkish/Greek/Arabic coffee, jug and
plunger/cafetière

Table 5.2 Examples of modern coffee service styles
Filter (filtre)

Traditional method of making coffee. Often served with hot or cold
milk or cream

Cafetière

Popular method of making and serving fresh coffee in individual or
multi-portion jugs. Often served with hot or cold milk or cream

Espresso

Traditional short strong black coffee

Espresso doppio

Double espresso served in larger cup

Café crème

Regular coffee prepared from fresh beans, ground fresh for each
cup, resulting in a thick cream coloured, moussy head

Espresso ristretto

Intense form of espresso, often served with a glass of cold water in
continental Europe

Americano

Espresso with added hot water to create regular black coffee. May
also be regular black coffee made using filter method

Espresso macchiato

Espresso spotted with a spoonful of hot or cold milk or hot milk foam

Coffee

Espresso con panna

Espresso with a spoonful of whipped cream on top

Cappuccino

Espresso coffee topped with steamed frothed milk, often finished with
a sprinkling of chocolate (powdered or grated)

Caffè (or café) latté

Shot of espresso plus hot milk, with or without foam

Flat white

Double shot of espresso topped with frothed milk which has been
stirred together with the flat milk from the bottom of the jug, to create
a creamy rather than frothy texture

Latte macchiato

Steamed milk spotted with a drop of espresso

Caffè mocha (or
mochaccino)

Chocolate compound (syrup or powder) followed by a shot of
espresso. The cup or glass is then filled with freshly steamed milk
topped with whipped cream and cocoa powder

Iced coffee

Chilled regular coffee, sometimes served with milk or simply single
espresso topped up with ice cold milk

Turkish/Egyptian

Intense form of coffee made in special jugs with finely ground coffee

Decaffeinated

Coffee with caffeine removed. Can be used as alternative to prepare
the service styles listed above

Instant coffee

Coffee made from processed powder (often freeze dried). Regular
and decaffeinated styles are available

Instant

This may be made in individual coffee or teacups, or in large quantities. It involves the
mixing of soluble coffee solids with boiling water. When making instant coffee in bulk,
approximately 71 g (2½ oz) to each 4.5 litres (one gallon) of water should be allowed. This
form of coffee may be made very quickly, immediately before it is required, by pouring
freshly boiled water onto a measured quantity of coffee powder. Stir well.
Saucepan or jug method

This is an American method of making coffee, more often used in the home than in a
catering establishment. A set measure of ground coffee is placed in a saucepan or jug and
the required quantity of freshly boiled water is poured onto the coffee grounds. This
should then be allowed to stand for a few minutes to extract the full flavour and strength
from the ground coffee. It is then strained and served.
La cafetière (coffee or tea maker)

La cafetière, or jug and plunger method, makes coffee simply and quickly by the infusion
method and to order. This ensures that the flavour and aroma of the coffee are preserved.
La cafetière comes in the form of a glass container with a lip held in a black, gold or
chrome finished holder and sealed with a lid which also holds the plunger unit in position.
The method of making is completed simply by adding boiling water to the ground
coffee, stirring and then placing the plunger unit and lid in position. A guideline to the
quantity of coffee to be used might be:
◗◗ 2 level sweet spoonfuls for the 3 cup size
◗◗ 6 level sweet spoonfuls for the 8 cup size
◗◗ 9 level sweet spoonfuls for the 12 cup size.

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Infusion time is from 3 to 5 minutes. During this time the coffee grains will rise to the
top of the liquid. After this if the plunger is moved slightly the coffee grains will fall to the
bottom of the glass container. When the grains have fallen it is easier to push the plunger
down.
Percolator method

This method was used more in the home than commercially. A set quantity of coffee
grounds is placed in the percolator, which is then filled with freshly drawn water. The
water, upon reaching boiling point, rises up through a tube and percolates the coffee
grounds, extracting the full flavour, colour and strength. Hot or cold milk, cream and sugar
may be added to taste. The use of this method of making coffee is declining.
Vacuum infusion (‘Cona’)

This traditional method of making coffee has considerable visual appeal in the restaurant,
and has the advantage that the coffee served is always fresh as only limited quantities are
made at one time.
Banks of these machines may be used for varying requirements, housing two, three, four
or five containers at one time. They are compact and portable and very easy to keep clean.
The method of making the coffee is fairly simple but is best supervised for safety reasons
and to ensure the best results and a constant standard.
The filters in this vacuum-type equipment are sometimes glass, but more often than not
are made of plastic or metal. The bowls are either glass or metal.
In this method of making coffee the lower bowl is filled with cold water or, to speed up
the operation, freshly heated but not boiled water, up to the water level. The upper bowl
is then set in the lower bowl, making sure it is securely in place. The filter is placed in the
upper bowl, ensuring it is securely fitted, and the required quantity of ground coffee is
added according to the amount of water being used. The water is then heated.
As the water reaches boiling point it rises up the tube into the upper bowl, mixing with
the ground coffee. As it rises in the upper bowl, it is often best to stir the mixture gently to
ensure that all coffee grounds infuse with the liquid, as sometimes the grounds are inclined
to form a cap on top of the liquid and therefore do not fully infuse. At the same time, care
must be taken that the filter is not knocked as this may cause grains to pass into the lower
bowl.
On reducing the heat, the coffee liquid passes back into the lower bowl leaving the
grounds in the upper bowl. The upper bowl and filter are then removed and washed
ready for re-use. The coffee in the lower bowl is ready for use and should be served at a
temperature of approximately 82°C (180°F).
Filter (café filtre)

This is a method originating from and traditionally used in France and may be made
individually in the cup or in bulk. The filter method produces excellent coffee. Fresh
boiled water is poured into a container with a very finely meshed bottom, which stands on
a cup or pot. Within the container is the required amount of ground coffee. The infusion
takes place and the coffee liquid falls into the cup/pot below. Filter papers may be used to
avoid the grounds passing into the lower cup, but this will depend on how fine or coarse
is the ground coffee being used. There are now many electronic units available of differing
capacities. Cold water is poured into a reservoir and is brought to boiling point and then
dripped onto the ground coffee.

Coffee
Pour through filter method

This is an excellent method of making filter coffee, which has increased in popularity over
the past few years. Many of these pour through filter machines are available for purchase,
or on loan from a number of the main coffee suppliers.
The principle behind this method is that when the measured quantity of freshly drawn
water is poured into the top of the pour through filter machine this water displaces the hot
water already in the machine. This hot water infuses with the ground coffee and runs into
the serving container as a coffee liquid ready for immediate use. It takes approximately 3–4
minutes to make one brew.
When coffee is made by this method, ensure that:
◗◗ the machine is plugged in and switched on at the mains
◗◗ the brew indicator light is on. This tells the operator that the water already held in the
machine is at the correct temperature for use
◗◗ the correct quantity of fresh ground coffee, which will usually come in the form of a
vacuum-sealed pack, is used. A fresh pack should be used for each new brew of filter
coffee being made
◗◗ a new clean filter paper is used for each fresh brew.
Individual filter

This is an alternative way of making bulk filter coffee. It is a plastic, disposable, individual
filter, bought with the required amount of coffee already sealed in the base of the filter.
Each individual filter is sufficient for one cup and after use the whole filter is thrown
away. The advantage of this method is that every cup may be made to order. It appeals to
customers as they are able to see that they are receiving entirely fresh coffee and it also has
a certain novelty value.
When making a cup of coffee by this method, the individual filter is placed onto a cup.
Freshly boiled water is then poured into the individual filter to the required level. The
liquid then infuses with the ground coffee within the individual filter and drips into the
cup. A lid should be placed over the water in the filter to help retain the temperature.
Time of making is approximately 3–4 minutes.
Espresso

This method is Italian in origin. The machines used
in making this form of coffee can provide cups of
coffee individually in a matter of seconds, some
machines being capable of making 300–400 cups of
coffee per hour.
The method involves passing steam through the
finely ground coffee and infusing under pressure.
The advantage is that each cup is made freshly for
Figure 5.2 Espresso machine
the customer. Served black, the coffee is known
as Espresso and is served in a small cup. If milk is
required, it is heated for each cup by a high-pressure
steam injector and transforms a cup of black coffee into Cappuccino. As an approximate
guide, from 12 kg (1 lb) of coffee used, 80 cups of good strength coffee may be produced.
The general rules for making coffee apply here, but with this special and delicate type of
equipment extra care should be taken in following any instructions.

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Still-set

This method normally consists of a small
central container into which the correct
sized filter paper is placed. A second,
fine-meshed metal filter with a handle
is then placed on the filter paper and
the ground coffee placed on top of this.
There is an urn on either side of varying
capacities according to requirements. The
urns may be 4½, 9, 13 or 18 litres (1, 2, 3
or 4 gallons) in size.
These still-sets are easy to operate, but
must be kept very clean at all times and
Figure 5.3 Modern still-set
regularly serviced. The urns should be
rinsed before and after each brew until the
water runs clear. This removes the thin
layer of cold coffee that clings to the side of the urn that, if left, will spoil the flavour and
aroma of the next brew.
Boiling water is passed through the grounds and the coffee passes into the urn at the
side. Infusion should be complete in 6–8 minutes for 4½ litres (1 gallon) of coffee, using
medium ground coffee. The milk is heated in a steam jacket container. It should be held
at a constant temperature of 68°C because if held at too high a temperature or boiled or
heated too soon, on coming into contact with the coffee it will destroy its flavour and
taste. At the same time, the milk itself becomes discoloured. The coffee and milk should
be held separately, at their correct temperatures ready for serving.
Decaffeinated

Coffee contains caffeine, which is a stimulant. Decaffeinated coffee is made from beans
after the caffeine has been extracted. The coffee is made in the normal way.

Figure 5.4 Examples of insulated jugs and dispensers for coffee and tea service (images courtesy
of Elia®)

Coffee
Iced coffee

Strong black coffee should be made in the normal way. It is then strained and chilled well
until required. It may be served mixed with an equal quantity of cold milk for a smooth
beverage, or with cream. It is served in a tall glass, with ice cubes added and with straws.
Cream or milk is often served separately and sugar offered.
Turkish or Egyptian coffees

These are made from darkly roasted mocha beans, which are ground to a fine powder.
The coffee is made in special copper pots, which are placed on top of a stove or lamp, and
the water is then allowed to boil. The sugar should be put in at this stage to sweeten the
coffee, as it is never stirred once poured out. The finely ground coffee may be stirred in or
the boiling water poured onto the grounds. The amount of coffee used is approximately
one heaped teaspoonful per person. Once the coffee has been stirred in, the copper pot is
taken off the direct heat and the cooling causes the grounds to settle. It is brought to the
boil and allowed to settle twice more and is then sprinkled with a little cold water to settle
any remaining grains. The coffee is served in small cups. While making the coffee it may
be further flavoured with vanilla pods but this is optional.
Irish and other speciality coffees

Speciality coffees are often completed and served at the table using the following
equipment:
◗◗ service salver
◗◗ tray cloth or napkin
◗◗ 20 cl (7 fl oz) stemmed glass on a
◗◗ side plate
◗◗ teaspoon
◗◗ jug of double cream






25 ml measure
coffee pot
sugar basin of coffee sugar with
a teaspoon
bottle of the spirit or liqueur
being used.

The procedure for making Irish coffee is:
1 A Paris goblet or other suitable stemmed glass of about 20 cl (7 fl oz) capacity is used.
2 Brown sugar is added first (a certain amount of sugar is always required when serving
this form of coffee, as it is an aid to floating the double cream on the surface of the hot
coffee).
3 One measure of Irish whiskey added.
4 The teaspoon is then placed in the goblet before the coffee is poured into the glass. This
is so the spoon will help to conduct the heat and avoid cracking the bowl of the glass as
the hot, strong black coffee is poured in.
5 The coffee should then be stirred well to dissolve the sugar and to ensure the ingredients
are blended. The liquid should now be within 2½ cm (1 in) of the top of the glass. The
liquid may still be swirling but not too much, as this will tend to draw the cream down
into the coffee as it is poured.
6 The double cream should be poured slowly over the back of a teaspoon onto the surface
of the coffee until it is approximately 1.9 cm (¾ in) thick. The coffee must not be
stirred: the best flavour is obtained by drinking the whiskey-flavoured coffee through
the cream.
7 When the Irish coffee has been prepared, the glass should be put on a doily on a side
plate and placed in front of the customer.

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Figure 5.5 Tray laid for the service of Irish coffee

Other forms of speciality, or liqueur, coffees include:
Café Royale or
Café Parisienne:
Brandy
Monk’s coffee:
Benedictine
Russian coffee:
Vodka
Seville coffee:
Cointreau

Jamaican coffee or
Caribbean coffee:
Calypso coffee:
Highland coffee:
Swiss coffee:

Rum
Tia-Maria
Scotch Whisky
Kirsch

●●5.3 Other stillroom beverages
Other beverages may be offered for service and are often made in the stillroom. These
include drinks such as cocoa, drinking chocolate, Horlicks, Ovaltine and Bovril. They
should be prepared and served according to the maker’s instructions.
If milk shakes are requested, then the following basic ingredients are required:
◗◗ chilled milk
◗◗ syrups (flavourings) (see p.137)
◗◗ ice-cream.
Milk shakes are often served with a straw in a tall glass after making in a mixer or blender.

●●5.4 Non-alcoholic bar beverages
Non-alcoholic dispense bar beverages may be classified into five main groups:
1 aerated waters
2 natural spring/mineral waters
3 squashes
4 juices
5 syrups.

Non-alcoholic bar beverages

Aerated waters
These beverages are charged (or aerated) with carbonic gas. Artificial aerated waters are by
far the most common. The flavourings found in different aerated waters are obtained from
various essences.
Examples of these aerated waters are:
◗◗ soda water: colourless and tasteless
◗◗ tonic water: colourless and quinine flavoured
◗◗ dry ginger: golden straw-coloured with a ginger flavour
◗◗ bitter lemon: pale, cloudy yellow-coloured with a sharp lemon flavour.
Other flavoured waters, which come under this heading, are:
◗◗ ‘fizzy’ lemonades
◗◗ orange
◗◗ ginger beer
◗◗ cola, etc.
Aerated waters are available in bottles and cans and many are also available as post-mix.
The term post-mix indicates that the drink mix of syrup and the carbonated (filtered)
water is mixed after (post) leaving the syrup container, rather than being pre-mixed (or
ready mixed) as in canned or bottled soft drinks. The post-mix drinks are served from
hand-held dispensing guns at the bar. These have buttons on the dispensing gun to select
the specific drink. The key advantage of the post-mix system is the saving on storage space,
especially for a high turnover operation. Dispensing systems need regular cleaning and
maintenance to ensure that they are hygienic and working properly. Also, the proportions
of the mix need to be checked regularly: too little syrup and the drinks will lack taste; too
much syrup and the flavours become too strong.

Natural spring waters/mineral waters
The European Union has divided bottled water into two main types: mineral water and
spring water. Mineral water has a mineral content (which is strictly controlled), while
spring water has fewer regulations, apart from those concerning hygiene. Waters can be
still, naturally sparkling or carbonated during bottling.
Bottle sizes for mineral and spring waters vary considerably from, for example, 1.5 l to
200 ml. Some brand names sell in both plastic and glass bottles, while other brands prefer
either plastic or glass bottles depending on the market and the size of container preferred
by that market.
Natural spring waters are obtained from natural springs in the ground, the waters
themselves being impregnated with the natural minerals found in the soil and sometimes
naturally charged with an aerating gas. The value of these mineral waters, as they are
sometimes termed, has long been recognised by the medical profession. Where natural
spring waters are found, there is usually what is termed a spa, where the waters may
be drunk or bathed in according to the cures they are supposed to effect. Many of the
best-known mineral waters are bottled at the springs (bottled at source).
Recently there has been a shift in consumer demand for bottled waters, mainly
because of environmental and sustainability concerns. In some cases demand has reduced
considerably. Regular utility tap water, from safe commercial supplies, has become more

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Table 5.3 Examples of varieties of mineral water
Name

Type

Country

Appollinaris

Naturally sparkling

Germany

Badoit

Slightly sparkling

France

Buxton

Still or carbonated

England

Contrex

Still

France

Evian

Still

France

Perrier

Sparkling and also fruit flavoured

France

San Pellegrino

Carbonated

Italy

Spa

Still, naturally sparkling and also fruit-flavoured

Belgium

Vichy

Naturally sparkling

France

Vittel

Naturally sparkling

France

Volvic

Still

France

Table 5.4 Examples of varieties of spring water
Name

Type

Country

Ashbourne

Still or carbonated

England

Ballygowen

Still or sparkling

Ireland

Highland Spring

Still or carbonated

Scotland

Llanllry

Still or sparkling

Wales

Malvern

Still or carbonated

England

Strathmore

Still or sparkling

Scotland

popular in foodservice operations and customers increasingly expect this to be available,
chilled or served with ice. There has also been the emergence of commercial filter
systems being used by foodservice operations. Utility supplied tap water is filtered at the
establishment and then offered either as chilled still or sparking water in branded carafes or
bottles, for which the establishment makes a charge.

Squashes
A squash may be served on its own diluted by water, soda water or lemonade. Squashes are
also used as mixers for spirits and in cocktails, or used as the base for such drinks as fruit
cups. Examples are:
◗◗ orange squash
◗◗ lemon squash
◗◗ grapefruit squash
◗◗ lime juice.

Wine and drinks lists

Juices
The main types of juices held in stock in the dispense bar are:
Bottled or canned
◗◗ orange juice
◗◗ pineapple juice
◗◗ grapefruit juice
◗◗ tomato juice.
Fresh
◗◗ orange juice
◗◗ grapefruit juice
◗◗ lemon juice.
Apart from being served chilled on their own, these fresh juices may also be used in
cocktails and for mixing with spirits.

Syrups
The main uses of these concentrated, sweet, fruit flavourings are as a base for cocktails,
fruit cups or mixed with soda water as a long drink. The main ones used are:
◗◗ Cassis (blackcurrant)
◗◗ Cerise (cherry)
◗◗ Citronelle (lemon)
◗◗ Framboise (raspberry)

◗ Gomme (white sugar syrup)
◗ Grenadine (pomegranate)
◗ Orgeat (almond).

Syrups are also available as ‘flavouring agents’ for cold milk drinks such as milk shakes.
Information on the service of non-alcoholic bar beverages may be found in Section 6.7,
p.224.

●●5.5 Wine and drinks lists
The function of the wine and drink list is similar to that of the menu and is a selling aid.
Careful thought is needed in its planning, design, layout, colour and overall appearance to
ensure it complements the style of the establishment.
The service staff should have a good knowledge of all the wines and drinks available and
of their main characteristics. They should also have a good knowledge of wines or other
drinks that are most suitable to offer with different foods (the matching of food to wine
and other drinks is discussed in Section 5.14, p.170).

Types of wine and drinks lists
Bar and cocktail lists

These may range from a basic standard list offering the common everyday apéritifs such
as sherries, vermouths, bitters, a selection of spirits with mixers, beers and soft drinks,
together with a limited range of cocktails, through to a very comprehensive list offering
a good choice in all areas. The actual format and content will be determined by the style
of operation and clientele that the establishment wishes to attract. Depending on this, the
emphasis may be in certain areas, such as:

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◗◗ cocktails: traditional or fashionable
◗◗ malt whiskies
◗◗ beers
◗◗ New World wines
◗◗ non-alcoholic drinks.
A listing of cocktails, and their recipes and service notes, is given in Annex B, p.432.
Restaurant wine lists

These may take various formats such as:
◗◗ a full and very comprehensive list of wines from all countries, with emphasis on the
classic areas such as Bordeaux/Burgundy plus a fine wine/prestige selection
◗◗ a middle-of-the-road, traditional selection, for example, some French, German and
Italian wines, together with some New World wines
◗◗ a small selection of well-known or branded wines – a prestige list
◗◗ predominantly wines of one particular country.
After meal drinks lists (digestifs)

These lists are often combined with the wine list – although occasionally they are presented
as a separate liqueur list. The list should offer a full range of liqueurs, together with possibly a
specialist range of brandies and/or a specialist range of malt whiskies. Vintage and Late Bottled
Vintage (LBV) port may also be offered here. In addition a range of speciality liqueur/spirit
coffees might also be included (such as those identified in Section 5.2, pp.133–4).
Banqueting and events wine lists

The length of the list will generally depend on the size and style of operation. In most
instances there is a selection of popular wine names/styles on offer. There would be a
range of prices from house wines to some fine wines to suit all customer preferences. In
some instances the banqueting wine list is the same as the restaurant wine list.
For further information see Chapter 11 Events (p.333).
Room service drinks lists

There may be a mini-bar in the room, or the room service menu may offer a choice
from a standard bar list. The range of wines offered is usually limited and prices will vary
according to the type of establishment.

Contents of wine and drink lists
The contents of wine and drink lists are commonly listed in the order in which they may
be consumed:
1 Apéritifs – which alongside sparkling and still wines can include a range of aromatised
wines (p.152), fortified wines (p.152) and natural spring and mineral waters (p.135).
2 Cocktails (p.141).
3 Spirits (p.158) and associated mixers such as aerated waters (p.135).
4 Wines – sparkling (p.150) and still (p.144).
5 Beers (p.161), cider (p.165), aerated waters and squashes (pp.135–6).
6 Digestifs – which as well as liqueurs (p.161) may also include various spirits (p.158), such
as brandy (p.159), malt whiskies (p.160), and also ports, other fortified wines, sweet table
wines, and vin doux naturels (p.152).
7 Speciality coffees (p.133).

Wine and drinks lists

Listing of wines
Wines are usually listed in three main ways:
1 listing wines by place of origin (geographical)
2 listing wines by type
3 listing wines by grape.
Geographical listing for wines

The traditional approach is to list wines by geographical area. Within this approach
the wines are presented country by country or region, such as for instance France, or
Australasia (which includes Australia and New Zealand), and then within that area by area.
It is also usual to have the wines presented under each country, region or area with the
white wines first, followed by the rosé wines and then the red wines. Using this approach
the listing of wines within a wine list might be:
  1 Champagne and sparkling
  9 Australia
  2 France
10 The Americas (USA and South
  3 Germany America)
  4 Italy
11 Australasia
  5 Spain
12 South Africa
  6 Portugal
13 Other world wines
  7 England
14 House wines
  8 Other European wines
Listing wines by type

A modern approach is to have wines listed by type:
◗◗ sparkling wines
◗◗ white wines
◗◗ rosé wines
◗◗ red wines
◗◗ dessert (sweet) wines.
The wines can then be listed under each type of wine in three main ways:
1 country by country
2 region by region (similar to the geographical listing described above)
3 by the style of the wine.
If the wines are to be listed by type and by style, then the wines could be presented under
the following headings:
◗◗ Sparkling wines

◗◗ Rosé wines
◗◗ White wines
– grapy whites
– grassy-fruity whites
– richer whites

Red wines
– fruity reds
– claret style reds
– herby-spicy reds.

To help the customer choose a wine and to enable staff to make recommendations, it is
also useful for each of the groups of wines to be listed in order from the lighter wines to

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the more full wines. Table 5.16 on pp.172–3 gives examples of wines by type, by style, and
from light to full.
Listing wines by grape

If the wines are to be listed by grapes then one approach could be to list the grapes in
alphabetical order as follows:
White grapes
◗◗ Chardonnay
◗◗ Chenin blanc
◗◗ Gewürztraminer
◗◗ Pinot Blanc
◗◗ Pinot Gris/Pinot Grigio
◗◗ Riesling
◗◗ Sauvignon Blanc
◗◗ Sémillon
◗◗ Other white grapes

Red grapes
◗ Cabernet Sauvignon
◗ Gamay
◗ Merlot
◗ Pinot Noir
◗ Sangiovese
◗ Shiraz/Syrah
◗ Tempranillo
◗ Zinfandel
◗ Other red grapes

Under each heading the wines made with that grape are listed, as well as the principal
blends that are made with that grape as the predominant grape. When the wines are listed
under the headings ‘Other white grapes’ or ‘Other red grapes’, then the grape(s) of the
wine should also be listed next to the name of the wine.
Again, to help the customer choose a wine and to aid staff in making recommendations,
it is useful for each of the groups of wines to be listed in order from the lighter wines to
the more full wines (see Table 5.16, pp.172–5).

General information
It is usual to give information on wine and drink lists that help the customer in making
decisions and also the staff in making recommendations. This information is shown below.
Wines

◗◗ Bin number
◗◗ Name of wine
◗◗ Country and area of origin
◗◗ Quality indication (e.g. AOC,
Qmp etc.)
◗◗ Shipper
◗◗ Château/estate bottled







Varietal (grape type(s))
Vintage
Alcoholic strength
½ bottle, bottle, magnum
Price
Supplier
Descriptive notes as appropriate.

Other drinks

◗◗ Type of drink, for example, juices,

whisky, gin, sherry.
◗◗ Brand name if appropriate, for example

Martini.

◗◗ Style (sweet, dry, etc.).

Description, for example, for
cocktails.
Alcoholic strength as appropriate.
Descriptive notes as appropriate.

Alcoholic strength
The two main scales of measurement of alcoholic strength may be summarised as:
1 OIML Scale (European): range 0% to 100% alcohol by volume.

Cocktails and mixed drinks

2 American Scale (USA): range 0° to 200°. Similar to Sikes but has scale of 200° rather
than 175°. (90° is equal to 40% alcohol by volume.)
The Organisation Internationale Métrologie Légale (OIML) Scale, previously called Gay
Lussac Scale, is directly equal to the percentage of alcohol by volume in the drink at
20°C. It is the universally accepted scale for the measurement of alcohol. The by volume
measurement indicates the amount of pure alcohol in a liquid. Thus, a liquid measured
as 40% alcohol by volume will have 40% of the contents as pure alcohol. The alcoholic
content of drinks, by volume, is now almost always shown on the label. Table 5.5 gives the
approximate alcoholic strength of a variety of drinks
Table 5.5 Approximate alcoholic strength of drinks (OIML scale)
0%

non-alcoholic

not more that 0.05%

alcohol free

0.05–0.5%

de-alcoholised

0.5–1.2%

low alcohol

1.2–5.5%

reduced alcohol

3–6%

beer, cider, FABs* and ‘alcopops’** with any of these being up to 10%

8–15%

wines, usually around 10–13%

14–22%

fortified wines (liqueur wines) such as sherry and port, aromatised
wines such as vermouth, vin doux naturels (such as Muscat de
Beaumes-de-Venise) and Sake***

37.5–45%

spirits, usually at 40%

17–55%

liqueurs, very wide range

* FABs is a term used to describe flavoured alcoholic beverages, for example, Bacardi Breezer
(5.4%).
** ‘Alcopops’ is a term used to describe manufactured flavoured drinks (generally sweet and
fruity) which have had alcohol, such as gin, added to them. They are also known as alcoholic
soft drinks or alcoholic lemonade. Usually 3.5 to 5% but can be up to 10%.
*** Sake is a strong (18%), slightly sweet, form of beer made from rice.

●●5.6 Cocktails and mixed drinks
England, Mexico, America and France all claim to have originated the cocktail and while
there are many stories, no one knows their authenticity. However, it was in the USA that
cocktails first gained in popularity. At this stage, the cocktail was as much a pre-mixed
stimulant mixture for taking on sporting occasions as it was a bar drink. Figure 5.6 shows
some examples of cocktails.
A modern cocktail is normally a short drink of up to about 10 cl (3½–4 oz) – anything
larger often being called a ‘mixed drink’ or ‘long drink’. However, the term cocktail is
now generally recognised to mean all types of mixed drinks. Table 5.6 gives the range of
drinks that can be included under the heading cocktails.

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Figure 5.6 Cocktails (illustration courtesy of Six
Continents Hotels)

Table 5.6 Types of cocktails
Blended
drinks

Made using a liquidiser

Champagne
cocktails

For example, Bucks Fizz, which has the addition of orange juice

Cobblers

Wine and spirit based, served with straws and decorated with fruit

Collins

Hot weather drinks, spirit-based, served with plenty of ice

Coolers

Almost identical to the Collins but usually containing the peel of the fruit cut
into a spiral; spirit or wine-based

Crustas

May be made with any spirit, the most popular being brandy; edge of glass
decorated with powdered sugar and crushed ice placed in glass

Cups

Hot weather, wine-based drinks

Daisies

Made with any spirit; usually served in tankards or wine glasses filled with
crushed ice

Egg nogs

Traditional Christmas drink; rum or brandy and milk-based; served in tumblers

Fixes

Short drink made by pouring any spirit over crushed ice; decorated with fruit
and served with short straws

Fizzes

Similar to a Collins; always shaken and then topped with soda; must be
drunk immediately

Flips

Similar to Egg Noggs, containing egg yolk but never milk; spirit, wine or
sherry-based

Frappés

Served on crushed ice

Highballs

American; a simple drink that is quickly prepared with spirit and a mixer

Juleps

American; containing mint with claret, Madeira or bourbon whiskey base

Pick-Me-Ups

To aid digestion

Cocktails and mixed drinks

Pousse-Café

Layered mix of liqueurs and/or spirits using differences in the specific densities
of drinks to create layers – heaviest at the bottom, lightest at the top

Smashes

Smaller version of a julep

Smoothies

Blended, chilled, sometimes sweetened beverages, usually made from fresh
fruit or vegetables

Sours

Always made with fresh juices to sharpen the flavour of the drink

Swizzles

Take their name from the stick used to stir the drink; ‘swizzling’ creates a frost
on the outside of glass

Toddies

Refreshers that may be served hot or cold; contain lemon, cinnamon and
nutmeg

Making cocktails
A true cocktail is made by one of two methods: shaking or stirring. The art of making a
good cocktail is to blend all the ingredients together by shaking or stirring so that upon
tasting no one ingredient is predominant.
A rule of thumb to determine whether a cocktail should be shaken or stirred is that
if it contains a fruit juice as one of the ingredients, then it should be shaken, and if the
ingredients are wine based and clear, then it should be stirred.
The key equipment required when making a cocktail depends on the method being
used:
Shaken
◗◗ Cocktail shaker or Boston shaker with Hawthorn strainer.
◗◗ Blender (for mixes).
Stirred
◗◗ Bar mixing glass.
◗◗ Bar spoon with muddler.
◗◗ Hawthorn strainer.
Points to note in making cocktails
◗◗ Ice should always be clear and clean.
◗◗ Do not overfill the cocktail shaker.
◗◗ Effervescent drinks should never be shaken.
◗◗ To avoid spillage, do not fill glasses to brim.
◗◗ When egg white or yolk is an ingredient, first break the egg into separate containers
before use.
◗◗ Serve cocktails in chilled glasses.
◗◗ To shake, use short and snappy actions.
◗◗ Always place ice in the shaker or mixing glass first, followed by non-alcoholic and then
alcoholic beverages.
◗◗ To stir, stir briskly until blend is cold.
◗◗ As a general rule the mixing glass is used for those cocktails based on liqueurs or wines
(clear liquids).
◗◗ Shakers are used for cocktails that might include fruit juices, cream, sugar and similar
ingredients.
◗◗ When egg white or yolk is an ingredient then the Boston shaker should normally be used.

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◗◗ Always add the garnish after the cocktail has been made and to the glass in which the
cocktail is to be served.
◗◗ Always measure out ingredients; inaccurate amounts spoil the balance of the blend and
taste.
◗◗ Never use the same ice twice.
A comprehensive listing of cocktail and mixed drink ingredients and methods is given
in Annex B, pages 432–39. Examples of glasses for the service of cocktails are shown in
Section 3.11, Figure 3.12 (p.80).

●●5.7 Bitters
Bitters are used either as apéritifs or for flavouring mixed drinks and cocktails. The most
popular varieties are listed in Table 5.7.
Table 5.7 Popular varieties of bitters
Amer Picon:

A very black and bitter French apéritif. Grenadine or Cassis is often added
to make the flavour more acceptable. Traditionalists add water in a
proportion 2:1.

Angostura
bitters:

Takes its name from a town in Bolivia. However, it is no longer produced
there but in Trinidad. Brownish red in colour, it is used in the preparation of
pink gin and the occasional cocktail and may be regarded as mainly a
flavouring agent.

Byrrh:

(Pronounced beer.) This is a style of bitters made in France near the Spanish
border. It has a base of red wine and is flavoured with quinine and herbs
and fortified with brandy.

Campari:

A pink, bittersweet Italian apéritif that has a slight flavour of orange peel
and quinine. Serve in an 18.93 cl (62⁄3 fl oz) Paris goblet or Highball glass. Use
one measure on ice and garnish with a slice of lemon. Top up according to
the customer’s requirements with soda or water (iced).

Fernet Branca:

The Italian version of Amer Picon. Best served diluted with water or soda.
Good for hangovers!

Underberg:

A German bitter that looks like, and almost tastes like, iodine. It may be
taken as a pick-me-up with soda.

Other bitters:

Orange and peach bitters are used principally as cocktail ingredients.
Other well known bitters are Amora Montenegro, Radis, Unicum, Abbots,
Peychaud, Boonekamp and Welling. Many are used to cure that ‘morning
after the night before’ feeling. Cassis or Grenadine is sometimes added to
make the drink more palatable.

●●5.8 Wine
Wine is the alcoholic beverage obtained from the fermentation of the juice of freshly
gathered grapes. The fermentation takes place in the district of origin, according to local
tradition and practice.
Only a relatively small area of the world is wine producing. This is because the grape

Wine

will only provide juice of the quality necessary for conversion into a drinkable wine where
two climatic conditions prevail:
◗◗ sufficient sun to ripen the grape
◗◗ winters that are moderate yet sufficiently cool to give the vine a chance to rest and
restore its strength for the growing and fruiting season.
These climatic conditions are found in two main wine producing zones, which lie between
the latitudes 30° and 50° north of the equator and 30° and 50° south of the equator.
Three-quarters of the world’s wine is produced in Europe and just under half in the EU.
France and Italy produce the most wine, with Italy being the largest producer. Next in
order come Spain, USA, Australia, Argentina, Germany, Portugal, Chile and South Africa.

Vinification
The process central to vinification (wine making) is fermentation – the conversion of sugar
by yeast to alcohol and carbon dioxide. This process is also necessary to the making of all
alcoholic beverages – not only for still, sparkling and fortified wines, but also to spirits,
liqueurs and beers (although some variations and further processes will be applied for
different types of beverages).

Vine species
The vine species that produces grapes suitable for wine production, and which stocksmost
of the vineyards of the world, is named Vitis vinifera. Most varieties now planted in
Europeand elsewhere have evolved from this species through cross-breeding, to suit local
soils and climates. The same grape in different regions may be given a different name,
for example, Grenache in the Rhône region is also known as Garnacha, which produces
fine Spanish wines. There are a number of grapes that have become known as having
distinctive characteristics. Examples of these principal grapes of the world, and their
general characteristics, are given in Table 5.8.

The grape
The grape consists of a number of elements:
◗◗ skin – which provide tannins and colour
◗◗ stalk – which provides tannins
◗◗ pips – provide bitter oils
◗◗ pulp – contains sugar, fruit acids, water and pectins.
The yeast required for the fermentation process is found on the outside of the grape skin
in the form of a whitish bloom.
The colour in wine comes mainly from the skin of the grape, being extracted during
the fermentation process. Red wine can only be made from red grapes. However, white
wine can be made from white or red grapes, provided that, in the case of red grapes, the
grape skins are removed before fermentation begins.

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Table 5.8 Principal white and red grapes used for wine making
White grapes

Where grown

General characteristics of the wine

Chardonnay

Worldwide

The white grape of Burgundy, Champagne and the
New World. Aromas associated with chardonnay
include ripe melon and fresh pineapple. The fruity,
oaky New World wines tend to be buttery and
syrupy, with tropical fruits and richness. In Burgundy
the wines are succulent but bone-dry, with a nutty
intensity. Chablis, from the cooler northern Burgundy,
gives wines that have a sharp, steely acidity that
may also be countered by the richness of oak. Also
one of the three grapes for Champagne.

Chenin blanc

Loire, California and
South Africa (known
as Steen)

Variety of styles: bone-dry, medium-sweet, intensely
sweet or sparkling wines, all with fairly high
acidity making the wines very refreshing. Aroma
association tends to be apples.

Gewürztraminer

Alsace, Australia,
Chile, Eastern
Europe, Germany,
New Zealand, USA

One of the most pungent grapes, making wines
that are distinctively spicy, with aromas like rose
petals, grapefruit and tropical fruits such as lychees.
Wines are aromatic and perfumed and are
occasionally off-dry.

Muscat

Worldwide

Mainly sweet, perfumed wines, smelling and tasting
of grapes and raisins and made in styles from pale,
light and floral to golden, sweet and orangey, or
brown, rich and treacly. Often fortified (as in the
French vins doux naturels, e.g. Muscat des Beaumesde-Venise). Also principal grape for sparkling Asti.

Pinot Blanc/
Weissburgunder

Alsace, Eastern
Europe, northern
Italy, Germany, USA

Dry, neutral, fresh and fruity wines with the best
having appley and soft spicy and honeyed aromas.

Pinot Gris/
Pinot Grigio/
Ruländer/
Tokay-Pinot Gris

Alsace, Canada,
Germany, Hungary,
Italy, New Zealand,
Slovenia, USA

Generally full bodied spicy white wines, often high
in alcohol and low in acidity. Wines are crisp and
neutral in Italy and aromatic and spicy in Alsace
and elsewhere, with a hint of honey. Also used to
make golden sweet wines, especially from Alsace.

Riesling

Alsace, Australia,
Canada, Germany,
New Zealand, South
Africa, USA

Range of wines from the steely to the voluptuous,
always well perfumed, with good ageing potential.
Aromas tend towards apricots and peaches.
Germany makes the greatest Riesling in all styles.
Piercing acidity and flavours ranging from green
apple and lime to honeyed peaches, to stony and
slate-like. Styles can range from bright and tangy to
intensely sweet.

Sauvignon
Blanc

Worldwide

Common aroma association with gooseberries,
the wines are green, tangy, fresh and pungent.
When made with oak, it can be a different wine:
tropical fruits in the Californian examples, while
the Bordeaux classic wines are often blended with
Sémillon and begin with nectarine hints and then
become more nutty and creamy with age. May be
called Blanc Fumé.

Wine

Sémillon

Mainly Bordeaux
but also Australia
and New Zealand

Lemony, waxy dry whites; when oaked they can
gain flavours of custard, nuts and honey. Luscious
golden sweet wines when grapes are affected by
Botrytis Cinera (Noble Rot), e.g. Sauternes.

Viognier

Rhône Valley and
southern France,
Australia, USA

Rhône wines, e.g. Condrieu, are aromatic, with
hints of apricots and spring flowers; wines from other
areas tend to be less perfumed.

Red grapes

Where grown

General characteristics of the wine

Cabernet
Sauvignon

Worldwide

Principal grape of Bordeaux, especially in the
Médoc. New World wines deliver big wines with
upfront blackcurrant fruit; Bordeaux wines need
time to mature. Generally benefits from being
blended, e.g. with Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Syrah,
Tempranillo, Sangiovese. Also used to make
aromatic rosé wines.

Gamay

Beaujolais, Loire,
Savoie, Switzerland
and USA

The grape of Beaujolais, making light and juicy
wines. Characteristic pear drop aroma association
indicating wine made using macération
carbonique method. Makes lighter wine in the Loire
Valley in central France and in Switzerland and
Savoie. Known as ‘Napa Gamay’ in California.

Grenache/
Garnacha

Southern France
and Rhône,
Australia, Spain, USA

Makes strong, fruity but pale wines, and fruity rosé
wines. Important grape as part of blends, e.g.
for Châteauneuf-du-pape in the Rhône and for
Rioja in Spain. Characteristics of ripe strawberries,
raspberries and hints of spice.

Malbec

South-West
France, Argentina

French wines tend to be plummy and tannic. In
Bordeaux it is used for blending. The Argentinean
wines tend to be rich and perfumed.

Merlot

Worldwide

Principal grape of Saint-Emilion and Pomerol in
France. Aromas tend towards plums and damsons.
The wines are low in harsh tannins and can be
light and juicy, smooth and plummy or intensely
blackcurrant.

Nebbiolo

Italy

One of Italy’s best red grapes, used in Barolo
and Barbaresco. Fruity and perfumed wines with
a mixture of tastes and flavours of black cherry
and sloes, tar and roses. Aroma association tends
towards prunes. Traditionally tough and tannic when
young, with good plummy flavours as they develop.

Pinot Noir/
Spätburgunder/
Pinot Nero

Worldwide

Principal grape of Burgundy’s Côte d’Or. Aromas can
be of strawberries, cherries and plums (depending
on where grown). Silky and strawberry-like; simple
wines have juicy fruit; the best mature wines, such as
the great red wines of Burgundy, are well perfumed.
Loire and German wines are lighter. Also one of the
three grapes of Champagne and used elsewhere
(e.g. California and Australia) for making white,
sparkling or red and very pale pink wines.

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Red grapes
(cont.)

Where grown

General characteristics of the wine

Sangiovese

Italy, Argentina,
Australia, USA

Principal grape of Chianti. Also known as Brunello
and Moreluno. Mouth-watering, sweet-sour red fruit
in young wines, reminiscent of juicy cherries, which
intensifies in older wines.

Shiraz/Syrah

Worldwide

Warm, spicy, peppery wines with aromas of
raspberries; French Syrah tends to be smoky, herby
and packed with red fruits (raspberries, blackberries
or blackcurrants); Australian Shiraz has sweeter
black cherry fruit and often black chocolate or
liquorice aromas. Very fruity rosé wines are also
made.

Tempranillo

Spain, Portugal,
Argentina

Early ripening, aromatic Rioja grape (Ull de Liebre
in Catalonia, Cencibel in La Mancha, Tinto Fino in
Ribera del Duero, Tinta Roriz in Douro and Aragonez
in southern Portugal). Wines are light and juicy
with hints of strawberries and plums, silky and spicy
with hints of prunes, tobacco and cocoa. Wines
in cooler climates are more elegant and those in
warmer climates are more beefy.

Zinfandel
(Pimitivo in Italy)

California, Italy

Aromas of blackberries, bramble and spice. In
California wines have blackberry flavours, which
are sometimes slightly metallic. Can be structured
and lush and also used to make the pale pink
‘blush’ white wine. Genetically linked and known as
Primitivo in Southern Italy, where it makes big, rustic
wines.

Factors that influence the quality and final taste of wine
The same vine variety, grown in different regions and processed in different ways, will
produce wines of differing characteristics. The factors that affect the quality and final taste
of wines include:
◗◗ climate and microclimate

◗◗ nature of the soil and subsoil

◗◗ vine family and grape species

◗◗ method of cultivation – viticulture

◗◗ composition of the grape(s)

◗◗ yeast and fermentation

method of wine making –
vinification
luck of the year – vintage
ageing and maturing process
method of shipping or
transportation
storage temperature.

Pests and diseases
The vine is subject to pests and diseases in the form of birds, insects, fungi, viruses and
weeds. The main ones are given below:
Phylloxera vastatrix

A louse-like, almost invisible aphid, which attacks the roots of the vine. Phylloxera arrived

Wine

in Europe in the mid 1800s almost by accident, transported on American vines imported
into various European countries from the eastern states of North America. It ravaged many
of the vineyards of Europe at this time. The cure was to graft the European vine onto
resistant American rootstocks. This practice has since become standard throughout the
world wherever Vitis vinifera is grown.
Grey rot or Pourriture gris

This fungus attacks the leaves and fruit of the vine during warm damp weather. It is
recognisedby a grey mould. The fungus imparts an unpleasant flavour to the wine.
Noble rot or pourriture noble (Botrytis cinerea)

This is the same fungus in its beneficent form, which may occur when humid conditions
are followed by hot weather. The fungus punctures the grape skin, the water content
evaporates and the grape shrivels, thus concentrating the sugar inside. This process gives
the luscious flavours characteristic of Sauternes, German Trockenbeerenauslese and
Hungarian Tokay Aszu.

Faults in wine
Faults occasionally develop in wine as it matures in bottles. Nowadays, through improved
techniques and attention to detail regarding bottling and storage, faulty wine is a rarity.
Some of the more common causes of faulty wine are given below.
Corked wines

These are wines affected by a diseased cork caused through bacterial action or excessive
bottle age. TCA (trichloroanisole) causes the wine to taste and smell foul. This is not to be
confused with cork residue in wine, which is harmless.
Maderisation or oxidation

This is caused by bad storage leading to too much exposure to air, often because the cork
has dried out. The colour of the wine browns or darkens and the taste slightly resembles
that of Madeira, hence the name. The wine tastes ‘spoilt’.
Acetification

This is caused when the wine is over exposed to air. The vinegar microbe develops a
film on the surface of the wine and acetic acid is produced, making the wine taste sour,
resembling wine vinegar (vin vinaigre).
Tartare flake

This is the crystallisation of potassium bitartrate. These crystal-like flakes, sometimes seen
in white wine, may cause anxiety to some customers as they spoil the appearance of the
wine, which is otherwise perfect to drink. If the wine is stabilised before bottling, this
condition should not occur.
Excess sulphur dioxide (SO2)

Sulphur dioxide is added to wine to preserve it and keep it healthy. Once the bottle is
opened, the smell will disappear and, after a few minutes, the wine is perfectly drinkable.
Secondary fermentation

This happens when traces of sugar and yeast are left in the wine in the bottle. It leaves the
wine with an unpleasant, prickly taste that should not be confused with the pétillant or
spritzig characteristics associated with other styles of healthy and refreshing wines.

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Foreign contamination

Examples include splintered or powdered glass caused by faulty bottling machinery or
re-used bottles which previously held some kind of disinfectant.
Hydrogen sulphide (H2S)

The wine smells and tastes of rotten eggs and should be thrown away.
Sediment, lees, crust or dregs

This is organic matter discarded by the wine as it matures in the cask or bottle. It can be
removed by racking, fining or, in the case of bottled wine, by decanting.
Cloudiness

This is caused by suspended matter in the wine, which disguises its true colour. It may also
be caused by extremes in storage temperatures.

Classification of wine types
Still (or light) wine

This is the largest category. The alcoholic strength may be between 9% and 15% by
volume. The wines may be:
◗◗ Red: produced by being fermented in contact with grape skins (from which the wine
gets its colour). Normally dry wines.
◗◗ White: usually produced from white grapes, but the grape juice (must) is usually
fermented away from the skins. Normally dry to very sweet.
◗◗ Rosé: can be made in three ways – from black grapes fermented on the skins for up to
48 hours; by mixing red and white wines together; or by pressing grapes so that some
colour is extracted. Rosé wine may be dry or semi-sweet. Rosé wines are called ‘blush’
wines in the USA when made wholly from red grapes.
Sparkling wines

Sparkling wines are available from France, Spain (Cava), Italy (Prosecco), Germany (Sekt)
and many other countries.
Table 5.9 Key differences in methods of production of sparkling wines
Method

Fermentation
and maturation

Removal of sediment

Méthode traditionelle

In bottle

By the processes of remuage and
dégorgement (moving the sediment to the
neck of the bottle and then opening the bottle
to remove it, topping up the bottle with more
wine and then resealing).

Méthode transvasement
or transfer method

In bottle

By transfer under pressure to a vat and then
filtering before rebottling.

Charmat or méthode
cuve close

In tank

By filtration process.

Méthode gazifié or
carbonation method

Sometimes termed ‘impregnation’, where carbon dioxide is
injected into a vat of still wine that has been chilled and which is
then bottled under pressure. Least expensive method.

Wine

The most famous sparkling wine is Champagne. This is made by the méthode
champenoise (secondary fermentation in the bottle) in an area of north-eastern France.
Effervescent wines made outside this area are called vins mousseux or sparkling wines. A
summary of the four methods for making sparkling wines is given in Table 5.9.
Sweetness in sparkling wine

The dryness or sweetness of the wine is indicated on the label:
◗◗ Extra brut – very dry
◗◗ Brut – dry
◗◗ Sec – medium dry

◗ Demi-sec – medium sweet
◗ Demi doux – sweeter
◗ Doux – luscious

Other sparkling wine terms

French
◗◗ Vin mousseux: sparkling wine other than Champagne.
◗◗ Méthode traditionelle: sparkling, made by the traditional method.
◗◗ Pétillant/perlant: slightly sparkling.
◗◗ Crémant: less sparkling than mousseux.
German
◗◗ Spritzig: slightly sparkling.
◗◗ Flaschengarung nach dem traditionellen Verfahren: sparkling wine made by the
traditional method.
◗◗ Sekt: sparkling (also used to mean the wine itself).
◗◗ Schaumwein: sparkling of lesser quality than Sekt.
◗◗ Perlwein: slightly sparkling.
Italian
◗◗ Prosecco: name of the northern Italian village, where the grape is believed to have
originated; the term is now often used as the generic name for Italian sparkling wines.
◗◗ Frizzante: semi-sparkling.
◗◗ Spumante: sparkling.
◗◗ Metodo classico/tradizionale: sparkling wine made by the traditional method.
Portuguese
◗◗ Espumante: sparkling.
◗◗ Vinho verde: meaning ‘green wine’, slightly sparkling.
Spanish
◗◗ Espumosos: sparkling.
◗◗ Metodo tradicional: sparkling, made by the traditional method.
◗◗ Cava: sparkling, made by the traditional method, also used as generic name for Spanish
sparkling wines.
Organic wines

These wines, also known as ‘green’ or ‘environmentally friendly’ wines, are made from
grapes grown without the aid of artificial insecticides, pesticides or fertilisers. The wine
itself will not be adulterated in any way, save for minimal amounts of the traditional
preservative, sulphur dioxide, which is controlled at source.

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Alcohol-free, de-alcoholised and low alcohol wines

These wines are made in the normal way and the alcohol is removed either by hot
treatment – distillation – which unfortunately removes most of the flavour as well, or,
more satisfactorily, by a cold filtration process, also known as reverse osmosis. This removes
the alcohol by mechanically separating or filtering out the molecules of alcohol through
membranes made of cellulose or acetate. At a later stage, water and a little must are added,
thus attempting to preserve much of the flavour of the original wine.
The definitions for these wines are:
◗◗ alcohol free:
◗◗ de-alcoholised:
◗◗ low alcohol:

maximum 0.05% alcohol
maximum 0.50% alcohol
maximum 1.2% alcohol.

Vins doux naturels

These are sweet wines that have had their fermentation muted by the addition of alcohol
in order to retain their natural sweetness. Muting takes place when the alcohol level
reaches between 5% and 8% by volume. They have a final alcoholic strength of about
17% by volume. One of the best known is Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise, named after a
village in the Côtes du Rhône where it is made. The wine is fortified with spirit before
fermentation is complete so that some of the natural sugar remains in the wine. It is usually
drunk young.

Fortified (liqueur) wines
Fortified wines such as sherry, port and Madeira have been strengthened by the addition
of alcohol, usually a grape spirit. These are now known within the EU as liqueur wines
or vins de liqueur. Their alcoholic strength may be between 15% and 22% by volume.
Examples are:
◗◗ Sherry (from Spain) 15–18% – Fino (dry), Amontillado (medium), Oloroso (sweet).
◗◗ Port (from Portugal) 18–22% – ruby, tawny, vintage character, late bottled vintage,
vintage.
◗◗ Madeira (made on the Portuguese island of Madeira) 18% – Sercial (dry), Verdelho
(medium), Bual (sweet), Malmsey (very sweet).
◗◗ Marsala (dark sweet wine from Marsala in Sicily) 18%.
◗◗ Málaga (from Málaga, Andalusia, Spain) 18–20%.

Aromatised wines
These are flavoured and fortified wines.
Vermouths

The four main types of vermouth are:
◗◗ Dry vermouth: often called French vermouth or simply French (as in Gin and French). It
is made from dry white wine that is flavoured and fortified.
◗◗ Sweet vermouth/bianco: made from dry white wine, flavoured, fortified and sweetened
with sugar or mistelle.
◗◗ Rosé vermouth: made in a similar way to Bianco, but it is less sweet and is coloured with
caramel.
◗◗ Red vermouth: often called Italian vermouth, Italian or more often ‘It’ (as in Gin and It).

Wine

It is made from white wine and is flavoured, sweetened and coloured with a generous
addition of caramel.
Other aromatised wines

◗◗ Chamberyzette: Made in the Savoy Alps of France. It is flavoured with the juice of wild
strawberries.
◗◗ Punt-e-mes: From Carpano of Turin. This is heavily flavoured with quinine and has wild
contrasts of bitterness and sweetness.
◗◗ Dubonnet: Made in France and is available in two varieties: blonde (white) and rouge
(red) and is flavoured with quinine and herbs.
◗◗ St Raphael: Red or white, bittersweet drink from France flavoured with herbs and
quinine.
◗◗ Lillet: Popular French apéritif made from white Bordeaux wine and flavoured with
herbs, fruit peel and fortified with Armagnac brandy. It is aged in oak casks.
◗◗ Pineau des Charentes: Although not strictly an aromatised or fortified wine, Pineau des
Charentes has gained popularity as an alternative apéritif or digestif. It is available in
white, rosé or red and is made with grape must from the Cognac region and fortified
with young Cognac to about 17% alcohol by volume.

Quality control for wines
The majority of the world’s wine-makers must ensure that their products conform to strict
quality regulations covering such aspects as the location of the vineyards, what variety of
grape is used, how the wine is made and how long it is matured.
Many countries now give the name of grape varieties on the wine label. Within the EU,
if a grape variety is named on the label then the wine must contain at least 85 per cent of
that variety. For EU wines, any number of grapes may be listed as part of descriptive text,
but only a maximum of two may appear on the main label. For most countries outside
of the EU, the wine must contain 100 per cent of the named variety, although there are
exceptions. These include Australia and New Zealand who are permitted 85 per cent and
the USA who are permitted 75 per cent. Australia allows up to five varieties, provided
each is at least 5 per cent of the blend.
European Union

European Union directives lay down general rules for quality wines produced in specified
regions (QWPSR) or, in French, vin de qualité produit en regions determinés (VQPRD)
for example:
France
◗◗ Vin de table: this is ordinary table wine in the cheapest price range.
◗◗ Vin de pays: the lowest official category recognised. Wines of medium quality and price,
made from certain grapes grown within a defined area. The area must be printed on the
label. A minimum alcohol content is specified.
◗◗ Vin delimité de qualité supérieure (VDQS): a quality wine just below appellation-controlled
standard. Area of production, grape varieties, minimum alcohol content, cultivation
(viticulture) and wine making (vinification) methods are specified.
◗◗ Appellation d’origine contrôlée (AC or AOC): quality wine from approved areas. Grape
varieties and proportions, pruning and cultivation method, maximum yield per hectare,
vinification and minimum alcohol content are specified.

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Germany
◗◗ Deutscher Tafelwein: wine made from one of the four German wine regions designated
for table wine (Rhein and Mosel, Bayern, Neckar and Oberrhein). It is often blended.
A minimum alcohol content is specified.
◗◗ Landwein: quality wine from one of 19 designated districts. A minimum alcohol content
is specified.
◗◗ Qualitätswein bestimmter Anbaugebiete (QbA): quality wine in medium price range
(includes Liebfraumilch) from one of the 13 designated regions (Anbaugetieten). It must
carry an Amtliche Prüfungsnummer (control number).
◗◗ Qualitätswein mit Prädikat (QmP): quality wines with distinction. They have no added
sugar. The Prädikat (distinction) describes how ripe the grape was when it was harvested
– generally the riper the grape, the richer the wine. There are six categories:
1 Kabinett: Made from grapes harvested at the normal time, usually October, but in a
perfect state of ripeness.
2 Spätlese: Made from late harvested grapes.
3 Auslese: Made from selected bunches of ripe grapes.
4 Beerenauslese: Made from selected ripe grapes affected by noble rot.
5 Eiswein: Made from ripe grapes left on the vine to be picked and pressed when frozen.
6 Trockenbeeranauslese: Made from selected single grapes heavily affected by noble rot.
◗◗ Erstes Gewächs (first growth), Grosses Gewächs (great growth) and Erste Lage (top
site): newer, higher-level quality designations of wines from the finest vineyards. All
classifying regions use the same Verband Deutscher Prädikatsweingüter (VDP) logo for these
super-premium wines.
Some German wine labels use the terms Trocken (dry), Halbtrocken (medium dry) or Lieblich
(medium sweet) to classify the wine. The two newer classifications of dry wines are Classic
and Selection (which meets additional quality criteria).
Italy
◗◗ Vino da tavola: ordinary table wine, unclassified.
◗◗ Vino tipico/Vino da tavola con indicazione geographics (IGT): wine from a defined
area.
◗◗ Denominazione de origine contrallata (DOC): quality wine from an approved area. Grape
varieties, cultivation and vinification methods and maximum yields are specified.
◗◗ Denominazione di origine controllata e garantia (DOCG): guaranteed quality wines from
approved areas. Grape variety and proportions, maximum yield, vinification methods,
pruning and cultivation and minimum alcohol content are specified.
Spain
◗◗ Vino de mesa: ordinary table wine.
◗◗ Vino de tierra: wines from specified regions
◗◗ Denominación de origen (DO): quality wines from specified regions.
◗◗ Denominación de origin calficada (DOCa)
Spanish wines may also have the term Reserva on the label. For red wines this indicates a
wine that has aged for at least one year in oak casks and two years in the bottle; for white
and rosé wines this indicates a wine aged for at least two years, including six months in oak
casks. The other term is Gran reserva: for red wines this indicates a wine that has been aged
for at least two years in oak casks and three years in the bottle; for white and rosé wines

Wine

this indicates a wine that has been aged for at least four years, including at least six months
in oak casks.
Portugal
◗◗ Vinho de mesa: ordinary table wine from no particular region and may be a blend from
several regions.
◗◗ Vinho regional: quality table wine from a particular place within a specified region.
◗◗ Denominaçõo di origin controlada (DO): quality wines from specified regions. The quality
and authenticity of the wine is guaranteed.
Estate bottled

The following terms indicate that the wine was bottled on the estate.
◗◗ Mise en bouteille au domaine or Mise du domaine (France).
◗◗ Erzeugerabfullung or Aus eigenem Lesegut (Germany).
◗◗ Imbottligliato all’origine or Imbottigliato al’origine nelle cantine della fatoria dei: bottled at
source in the cellars of the estate of (Italy).
◗◗ Embottelado or Engarrafado de origen (Spain).
◗◗ Engarrafado na origem (Portugal).
Other terms used in France:
◗◗ Mise en bouteille au château: means the wine was bottled at the château (literally means
castle) printed on the label. It is seen mostly on wines from Bordeaux.
◗◗ Mise en bouteille dans nos caves: means the wine was bottled in the cellars of the company
or person (négociant) whose name usually appears on the label.
◗◗ Mise en bouteille par: indicates that the wine was bottled by the company, or individual,
whose name appears after these words.
Countries other than the EU

Developments in the international wine business, especially in the New World, have led to
a more marketing-led approach to wines. Simpler information is given on the labels and
also on detailed back labels, including the identification of grape varieties (or the use of the
Californian term ‘varietals’) and straightforward advice on storage, drinking and matching
the wine with food.
Although most countries have a category for wines that is similar to EU Table Wine,
this is mainly sold locally. On the international markets the wines are classified as Wine
with Geographical Description. Each country has its own system for dividing its vineyard
areas into regions, zones, districts and so on, and controlling the use of regional names.
Where regions, vintages and varieties are named on the label, these wines may also have a
small proportion of wine from other regions, vintages and varieties blended with them. All
countries have their own legislation covering production techniques and use of label terms
to prevent consumers from being misinformed.
Argentina
Argentina has a system of DOCs (Controlled Denominations of Origin) but it is common
for wines to be labelled by region.
Australia
The Label Integrity Scheme controls regional, varietal and vintage labelling. The
Authentication of Origin scheme denotes that if a wine region is mentioned then at

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least 80 per cent of the wine must come from that source. In addition, a system of
regional appellations is being established which is designed to lead to greater geographical
descriptions.
Chile
Chile has a system of regional DOs (denominations of origin) in which regions are divided
into sub-regions.
New Zealand
New Zealand does not have a hierarchical structure of regional terms, although some
regional names, for example, Wairau Valley or Gimblett Gravels, are more specific than
others such as Marlborough or Hawkes Bay.
South Africa
The Wine of Origin (WO) scheme in South Africa controls regional labelling of wines,
as well as varietal and vintage details on wine bottles. Estates are also included in the WO
scheme and estate wines must only include grapes grown by the named estate.
USA
The American Viticulture Areas (AVAs) is a guarantee of source – at least 85 per cent must
come from within that area – but not of quality or method of production. Regional terms
can range from naming a state or a single vineyard. One increasingly popular term used in
California is ‘coastal’, which allows for blending across almost all the Californian vineyards
lying up to 100 km inland of the Pacific.

Reading a wine label
The EU has strict regulations that govern what is printed on a wine bottle label. These
regulations also apply to wine entering the EU. In addition, standard sized bottles of light
(or still) wines bottled after 1988, when EU regulations on content came into force, must
contain 75 cl, although bottles from previous years, containing 70 cl for example, will still
be on sale for some years to come.
In addition to the various quality terms described on pp.148–50 and the sparkling wine
terms given on p.151, examples of taste and colour terms that appear on wine labels are
given in Table 5.10.
Table 5.10 Examples of wine label terms indicating colour and taste
Term

France

Germany

Italy

Spain

Portugal

Wine

vin

view

vino

vine

vinho

Dry

sec

trocken

secco

seco

seco

Medium

demi-sec

halbtrocken

abboccato

abocado

semi-seco

Sweet

doux/moelieaux

süß

dolce

dulce

doce

White

blanc

weißwein

bianco

blanco

branco

Red

rouge

rotwein

rosso

tinto

tinto

Rosé

rosé

rosé

rosato

rosado

rosado

Wine

The label on a bottle of wine can give a lot of useful information about that wine. The
language used will normally be that of the country of origin. The information always
includes:
◗◗ the name of the wine
◗◗ the country where the wine was made
◗◗ alcoholic strength in percentage by volume (% vol)
◗◗ contents in litres, cl or ml
◗◗ the name and address or trademark of the supplier.
It may also include:
◗◗ the varietal(s) (name of the grape(s) used to make the wine)
◗◗ the year the grapes were harvested, called the vintage, if the wine is sold as a vintage
wine
◗◗ the region where the wine was made
◗◗ the property where the wine was made
◗◗ the quality category of the wine
◗◗ details of the bottler and distributor.
An example of the kind of information that is
given on a wine label is shown in Figure 5.7.
This example shows a guide to a German wine
label.

PFALZ

Closures for wine bottles
There are now four main types of closures for
wine bottles. These are:
Natural corks
These closures are made from whole pieces
of cork. Each is individual and unique and
there can be quality variation. However,
natural cork has a high degree of elasticity and
compressibility and it can mould itself around
Figure 5.7 Guide to the German wine label
tiny imperfections in the neck of the bottle.
(source: The German Wine Information
It is well proven for the long-term storage of
Service)
wines. Natural cork is however susceptible to
trichloroanisole (TCA) (see corked wine in
Section 5.8, p.149). If the cork dries out or is loose fitting the bottle can leak and the wine
can become oxidised through being exposed to the air.
Technical (or composite) corks
These are agglomerate corks made from small pieces of natural cork moulded into a cork
shape and held with food-grade glue. The better quality closures are agglomerate with
solid cork discs at either end. The solid end is the only part that comes into contact with
the wine. However, as with natural cork, it is susceptible to TCA. The opening process is
similar to natural corks.

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Synthetics (plastics)
These are synthetic closures that may be used for wines that are to be drunk within about
18 months of bottling. After this time synthetic closures may lose their elasticity, resulting
in the risk of the seal being broken and the wine becoming oxidised through exposure to
the air. Although not susceptible to TCA, there are some risks of the closure taking up
fruit flavours from the wine or adding plastic flavours to the wine. The opening process is
similar to traditional corks, although this type of closure can be more difficult to extract
than cork and re-inserting the closure into the neck of the bottle is also difficult.
Screw caps
Various makes of screw cap and linings are used which are easy to open and reseal. The
closure provides a tight seal for the bottle and TCA is unlikely. However, these closures are
relatively new and the longer-term effects on wines for laying down (ageing) are yet to be
determined. The opening procedure is to hold the whole length of the seal in the opening
hand and to hold the base of the bottle in the other hand. The closure is held firmly in the
opening hand with more pressure, from the thumb and first finger, around the cap itself.
The bottle is then sharply twisted using the hand holding the base. There will be a click
and then the upper part of the screw top can be removed.

●●5.9 Spirits
Production
All spirits are produced by the distillation of alcoholic beverages. The history of distillation
goes back over 2,000 years when it is said that stills were used in China to make perfumes
and by the Arabs to make spirit-based drinks.
The principle of distillation is that ethyl alcohol vaporises (boils) at a lower temperature
(78°C) than water (100°C). Thus, where a liquid containing alcohol is heated in an enclosed
environment the alcohol will form steam first and can be taken off, leaving water and other
ingredients behind. This process raises the alcoholic strength of the resulting liquid.
There are two main methods of producing spirits: the pot still method, which is used
for full, heavy flavoured spirits such as brandy, and the patent still (Coffey) method, which
produces the lighter spirits such as vodka.

Bases for spirits
The bases used in the most common spirits are listed in Table 5.11. In each case the base is
made into a fermented liquid (alcoholic wash) before distillation can take place.
Table 5.11 Bases for spirits
Spirit

Base

Whisky, gin and vodka

Barley, maize or rye (i.e. beer)

Brandy

Wine

Calvados

Cider

Rum

Molasses

Tequila

Pulque

Spirits

Types of spirit
Aquavit

Made in Scandinavia from potatoes or grain and flavoured with herbs, mainly caraway
seeds. To be appreciated fully, Aquavit must be served chilled.
Arrack

Made from the sap of palm trees. The main countries of production are Java, India, Ceylon
and Jamaica.
Brandy

Brandy may be defined as a spirit distilled from wine. The word brandy is more usually
linked with the names Cognac and Armagnac, but brandy is also made in almost all wine
producing areas.
Eau de vie

Eau de vie (water of life) is the fermented and distilled juice of fruit and is usually waterclear in appearance. The best eau de vie comes from the Alsace area of France, Germany,
Switzerland and Eastern Europe. Examples are:
◗◗ Calvados: from apples and often known as apple brandy (France)
◗◗ Himbergeist: from wild raspberries (Germany).
◗◗ Kirschwasser: (Kirsch) from cherries (Alsace and Germany).
◗◗ Mirabelle: from plums (France).
◗◗ Quetsch: from plums (Alsace and Germany).
◗◗ Poire William: from pears (Switzerland and Alsace).
◗◗ Slivovitz: from plums (Eastern Europe).
◗◗ Fraise: from strawberries (France, especially Alsace).
◗◗ Framboise: from raspberries (France, especially Alsace).
Gin

The term ‘gin’ is taken from the first part of the word Genièvre, which is the French term
for juniper. Juniper is the principal botanica (flavouring agent) used in the production of gin.
The word ‘Geneva’ is the Dutch translation of the botanical, juniper. Maize is the cereal
used in gin production in the United Kingdom. However, rye is the main cereal generally
used in the production of Geneva gin and other Dutch gins.
Malted barley is an accepted alternative to the cereals mentioned above. The two
key ingredients (botanicals) recognised for flavouring purposes are juniper berries and
coriander seeds.
Types of gin are:
◗◗ Fruit gins: as the term implies, these are fruit flavoured gins that may be produced from
any fruit. The most popular are sloe, orange and lemon.
◗◗ Geneva gin: this is made in Holland by the pot still method alone and is generally known
as ‘Hollands’ gin.
◗◗ London Dry Gin: this is the most well known and popular of all the gins. It is
unsweetened.
◗◗ Old Tom: this is a sweet gin made in Scotland. The sweetening agent is sugar syrup. As
the name implies, it was traditionally used in a Tom Collins cocktail.
◗◗ Plymouth Gin: this has a stronger flavour than London Dry and is manufactured by

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Coates in Devon. It is most well known for its use in the cocktail Pink Gin, together
with the addition of Angostura Bitters.
Grappa

An Italian-style brandy produced from the pressings of grapes after the required must –
unfermented grape juice – has been removed for wine production. It is similar in style to
the French marc brandy.
Marc

Local French brandy made where wine is made. Usually takes the name of the region, for
example, Marc de Borgogne.
Mirabelle

A colourless spirit made from plums. The main country of origin is France.
Pastis

Pastis is the name given to spirits flavoured with anis and/or liquorice, such as Pernod.
The spirit is made in many Mediterranean countries and is popular almost everywhere. It
has taken over from absinthe, once known as the ‘Green Goddess’.
Quetsch

A colourless spirit with plums being the main ingredient. The key countries of production
are the Balkans, France and Germany. It has a brandy base.
Rum

This is a spirit made from the fermented by-products of sugar cane. It is available in dark
and light varieties and is produced in countries where sugar cane grows naturally, for
example, Jamaica, Cuba, Trinidad, Barbados, Guyana and the Bahamas.
Schnapps

A spirit distilled from a fermented potato base and flavoured with caraway seed. The main
countries of production are Germany and Holland.
Tequila

A Mexican spirit distilled from the fermented juice (pulque) of the agave plant. It is
traditionally drunk after a lick of salt and a squeeze of lime or lemon.
Vodka

A highly rectified (very pure) patent still spirit. It is purified by being passed through
activated charcoal, which removes virtually all aroma and flavour. It is described as a
colourless and flavourless spirit.
Whisk(e)y

Whisky or whiskey is a spirit made from cereals: Scotch whisky from malted barley; Irish
whiskey usually from barley; North American whiskey and Bourbon from maize and rye.
The spelling whisky usually refers to the Scotch or Canadian drink and whiskey to the Irish
or American.
Scotch whisky is primarily made from barley, malted (hence the term malt whisky) then
heated over a peat fire. Grain whiskies are made from other grains and are usually blended
with malt whisky.
Irish whiskey differs from Scotch in that hot air rather than a peat fire is used during
malting, thus Irish whiskey does not gain the smoky quality of Scotch. It is also distilled
three times (rather than two as in the making of Scotch) and is matured longer.

Beer

Canadian whisky is usually a blend of flavoured and neutral whiskies made from grains
such as rye, wheat and barley.
American whiskey is made from various mixtures of barley, maize and rye. Bourbon is
made from maize.
Japanese whisky is made by the Scotch process and is blended.

●●5.10 Liqueurs
Liqueurs are defined as sweetened and flavoured spirits. They should not be confused with
liqueur spirits, which may be whiskies or brandies of great age and quality. For instance, a
brandy liqueur is a liqueur with brandy as a basic ingredient, while a liqueur brandy may
be defined as a brandy of great age and excellence.

Production
Liqueurs are made by two basic methods:
1 Heat or infusion method: best when herbs, peels, roots, etc., are being used, as heat can
extract their oils, flavours and aromas.
2 Cold or maceration method: best when soft fruits are used to provide the flavours and
aromas.
The heat method uses a pot still for distillation purposes while the cold method allows the
soft fruit to soak in brandy in oak casks over a long period of time.
For all liqueurs a spirit base is necessary and this may be brandy, rum or a neutral spirit.
Many flavouring ingredients are used to make liqueurs and these include:
◗◗ aniseed
◗◗ apricots
◗◗ blackcurrants
◗◗ caraway seeds
◗◗ cherries
◗◗ cinnamon






coriander
kernels of almonds
nutmeg
rind of citrus fruit
rose petals
wormwood.

Types of liqueurs
Table 5.12 lists some of the more popular liqueurs. The service of liqueurs is discussed in
Section 6.6, p.223.

●●5.11 Beer
Beer in one form or another is an alcoholic beverage found in all bars and areas dispensing
alcoholic beverages. Beers are fermented drinks, deriving their alcoholic content from
the conversion of malt sugars into alcohol by brewers yeast. The alcoholic content of beer
varies according to type and is usually between 3.5% and 10% alcohol by volume.

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Table 5.12 Popular liqueurs
Liquer

Colour

Flavour/spirit base

Country of origin

Abricotine

Red

Apricot/brandy

France

Avocaat

Yellow

Egg, sugar/brandy

Holland

Anisette

Clear

Aniseed/neutral spirit

France, Spain,
Italy, Holland

Amaretto

Golden

Almonds

Italy

Archers

Clear

Peaches/Schnapps

UK

Arrack

Clear

Herbs, sap of palm trees

Java, India, Sri
Lanka, Jamaica

Bailey’s Irish
Cream

Coffee

Honey, chocolate, cream,
whiskey

Ireland

Benedictine Dom

Yellow/green

Herbs/brandy

France

Chartreuse

Green (45% abv)
Yellow (55% abv)

Herbs, plants/brandy

France

Cherry Brandy

Deep red

Cherry/brandy

Denmark

Cointreau

Clear

Orange/brandy

France

Crème de cacao

Dark brown

Chocolate, vanilla/rum

France

Disaronno

Amber

Almonds with herbs and fruits
soaked in apricot kernel oil

Italy

Drambuie

Golden

Heather, honey, herbs/whisky

Scotland

Galliano

Golden

Herbs/berries/flowers/roots

Italy

Frangelico

Golden

Hazelnut

Italy

Grand Marnier

Amber

Orange/brandy

France

Glayva

Golden

Herbs, spice/whisky

Scotland

Kahlúa

Pale chocolate

Coffee/rum

Mexico

Kümmel

Clear

Caraway seed/neutral spirit

East European
countries

Malibu

Clear

Coconut/white rum

Caribbean

Maraschino

Clear

Maraschino cherry

Italy

Parfait amour

Violet

Violets, lemon peel, spices

France/Holland

Sambuca

Clear

Liquorice/neutral spirit

Italy

Southern Comfort

Golden

Peaches/oranges/whiskey

United States

Strega (The Witch)

Yellow

Herbs/bark/fruit

Italy

Tia Maria

Brown

Coffee/rum

Jamaica

Van der hum

Amber

Tangerine/brandy

South Africa

Beer

Types of beer
Bitter

Pale, amber-coloured beer served on draft. May be sold as light bitter, ordinary bitter
or best bitter. When bottled it is known as pale ale or light ale depending on alcoholic
strength.
IPA (India Pale Ale)

Heavily hopped strong pale ale, originally brewed in the UK for shipping to British
colonies. The modern style is a light-coloured, hoppy, ale.
Abbey-style

Ale brewed in the monastic tradition of the Low Countries but by secular brewers, often
under license from a religious establishment.
White beer

Traditional beers made with a high proportion of wheat, sometimes known as wheat beers.
Mild

Can be light or dark depending on the colour of the malt used in the brewing process.
Generally sold on draft and has a sweeter and more complex flavour than bitter.
Burton

Strong, dark, draft beer. This beer is also popular in winter when it is mulled or spiced and
offered as a winter warmer.
Old ale

Brown, sweet and strong. Can also be mulled or spiced.
Strong ale

Colour varies between pale and brown and taste between dry and sweet. Alcoholic content
also varies.
Barley wine

Traditionally an all-malt ale. This beer is sweet and strong and sold in small bottles or nips
(originally 1⁄3 of a pint, now 190 ml).
Stout

Made from scorched, very dark malt and generously flavoured with hops. Has a smooth
malty flavour and creamy consistency. Sold on draft or in bottles and was traditionally not
chilled (although today it often is). Guinness is one example.
Porter

Brewed from charred malt, highly flavoured and aromatic. Its name comes from its
popularity with market porters working in Dublin and London.
Lager

The name comes from the German lagern (to store). Fermentation takes place at the
bottom of the vessel and the beer is stored at low temperatures for up to six months and
sometimes longer. Sold on draft, in a bottle or can.
Trappist beer

Beer brewed in Trappist monasteries, usually under the supervision of monks. Six Belgian
breweries produce this beer, which is strong, complex and un-pasteurised, and often
includes candy sugar in the recipe.

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Pilsner

Clear, pale lagers (originally from Pilsen, hence the name). Modern styles are characterised
by a zesty hop taste and bubbly body.
Smoked beers

Beers made with grains that have been smoked as part of the malting process. Various
woods are used, including alder, cherry, apple, beech or oak. Sometimes the process uses
peat smoke.
Fruit beers and flavoured beers

Variety of beers with additional flavourings such as heather or honeydew, or fruit beers,
which have fresh fruits such as raspberry or strawberry introduced during the making
process to add flavour.
Reduced alcohol beer

There are two categories of beer with reduced alcohol levels:
1 Non-alcoholic beers (NABs) which, by definition, must contain less than 0.5% alcohol
by volume.
2 Low alcohol beers (LABs) which, by definition, must contain less than 1.2% alcohol by
volume.
The beer is made in the traditional way and then the alcohol is removed.
Conditioning

Cask-conditioned ale is ale that has its final fermentation in the cask (or barrel) from which
it is dispensed.
Bottle-conditioned beers

Also known as sediment beers, bottle-conditioned beers tend to throw a sediment in the
bottle while fermenting and conditioning takes place. These beers need careful storage,
handling and pouring. Available in bottles only.
Draught beer in cans

These draft-flow beers have an internal patented system that produces a pub-style, smooth
creamy head when poured from the can. A range of beers are available in this format.

Faults in beer
Although thunder has been known to cause a secondary fermentation in beer, thereby
affecting its clarity, faults can usually be attributed to poor cellar management. The
common faults are given below.
Cloudy beer

This may be due to too low a temperature in the cellar or, more often, may result from the
beer pipes not having been cleaned properly.
Flat beer

Flat beer may result when a wrong spile has been used – a hard spile builds up pressure, a
soft spile releases pressure. When the cellar temperature is too low, beer often becomes dull
and lifeless. Dirty glasses, and those that have been refilled for a customer who has been
eating food, will also cause beer to go flat.

Cider and perry
Sour beer

This may be due to a lack of business resulting in the beer being left on ullage for too
long. Sourness may also be caused by adding stale beer to a new cask or by beer coming in
contact with old deposits of yeast that have become lodged in the pipeline from the cellar.
Foreign bodies

Foreign bodies or extraneous matter may be the result of production or operational
slip-ups.

Mixed beer drinks
A selection of beverages based on beer is given below:
◗◗ mild and bitter

◗◗ stout and mild
◗◗ brown and mild

◗◗ light and mild
◗◗ shandy: draught bitter or

lager and lemonade or

ginger beer

black velvet: Guinness and
champagne
black and tan: half stout
and half bitter
lager and lime
lager and blackcurrant.

●●5.12 Cider and perry
Cider is an alcoholic beverage obtained through the fermentation of apple juice, or a
mixture of apple juice and up to 25 per cent pear juice. Perry is similarly obtained from
pear juice and up to 25 per cent apple juice.
Cider and perry are produced primarily in England and Normandy, but may also
be made in Italy, Spain, Germany, Switzerland, Canada, the USA, Australia and New
Zealand. The English areas of production are the counties of Devon, Somerset, Gloucester,
Hereford, Kent and Norfolk where the best cider orchards are found.

Cider
The characteristics of the apples that are required for making cider are:
◗◗ the sweetness of dessert apples
◗◗ the acidity of culinary apples
◗◗ the bitterness of tannin to balance the flavour and help preserve the apple.

Main types of cider
Draught

This is unfiltered. Its appearance, while not cloudy, is also not ‘star-bright’. It may have
sugar and yeast added to give it condition. Draught cider may be completely dry (known
as ‘scrumpy’) or sweetened with sugar. It is marketed in oak casks or plastic containers.
Keg/bottled

This cider is pasteurised or sterile filtered to render it star-bright. During this stage, one or
more of the following treatments may be carried out:
◗◗ it may be blended
◗◗ it may undergo a second fermentation, usually in a tank, to make it sparkling

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◗◗ it may be sweetened
◗◗ its strength may be adjusted
◗◗ it will usually be carbonated by the injection of carbon dioxide gas.
The characteristics of keg and bottled ciders are:
◗◗ Medium sweet (carbonated): 4% vol alcohol.
◗◗ Medium dry (carbonated): 6% vol alcohol.
◗◗ Special (some carbonated): 8.3% vol alcohol – some special ciders undergo a second
fermentation to make them sparkling.

Perry
Perry is usually made sparkling and comes into the special range. It may be carbonated
or the sparkle may come from a second fermentation in sealed tanks. In the production
of perry the processes of filtering, blending and sweetening are all carried out under
pressure.
Perries were traditionally drunk on their own, chilled and in saucer-shaped sparkling
wine glasses. Today the tulip-shaped sparkling wine glass is more commonly used.

●●5.13 Tasting techniques
The wine waiter, or sommelier, must have an extensive knowledge of the contents of
the wine list. In addition, he or she should have a good knowledge of the characteristics
of the different wines and other drinks offered. To develop these skills and knowledge a
professional approach to tasting must be adopted. The details below mainly relate to wine
tasting but the techniques are similar for a range of other drinks.

Professional tasting
The tasting, or evaluation, of wine and other drinks is carried out to:
◗◗ develop learning from experience
◗◗ help in the assessment of the quality of a wine in terms of value (the balance between
price and worth) when making purchasing decisions
◗◗ monitor the progress of a wine which is being stored, to determine the optimum selling
time and as part of protecting the investment
◗◗ assist in the description of a wine when explaining its qualities or deficiencies to
customers
◗◗ provide a personal record of wines tasted, which helps to reinforce the experience and
the learning.
To appreciate the tasting of wine to the full it should be carried out in an environment that
supports the wine evaluation process. That is with:
◗◗ no noise to distract the taster
◗◗ good ventilation to eliminate odours
◗◗ sufficient light (daylight rather than artificial if possible), preferably north facing in the
northern hemisphere (south facing in the southern hemisphere), as the light is more
neutral

Tasting techniques

◗◗ a white background for tables so as not to affect the perception of the
colour of the wine
◗◗ a room temperature of about 20°C (68°F).
The tool of the taster is the glass, which must be the correct shape.
A wine glass with a stem and of sufficient capacity should be chosen
(see Figure 5.8). The glass should be fairly wide but narrowing at
the top. This allows the elements making up the bouquet to become
concentrated and thus better assessed. The wine tasting glass should
never be filled to more than one-third capacity. This allows the taster to
swirl the wine round the glass more easily. It goes without saying that
the tasting glass should be spotlessly clean.

Professional approach
The purpose of the wine tasting is to attempt to identify characteristics
that describe the wine, which are then used to assess its quality. When
undertaking professional tasting it is important to be logical in the
approach and to always follow the same sequence. The professional
tasting, or evaluation, of wines includes three key stages:

Figure 5.8 Wine
taster’s glass
(International
Standards
Organisation)

1 Recording the details of each individual wine.
2 Looking at, smelling and tasting the wine.
3 Recording the findings.
Approaching the process in this way ensures the development of confidence and the ability
to make sound judgements.
Recording wine details

To ensure a complete record of the tasting of each wine, it is important to record the
following details:
◗◗ name of wine
◗◗ country and area of origin
◗◗ quality indication (e.g. AOC,
Qmp etc.)
◗◗ shipper
◗◗ château/estate bottled






varietal(s) (grapes)
vintage
alcohol level
½ bottle, bottle, magnum
price
supplier.

Looking at, smelling and tasting the wine

When tasting the wines there are two sets of factors to be considered. The first are to do
with assessing and evaluating the characteristics of the wine and making a judgement about
its quality. The second are to do with identifying taste and aroma associations.
Professional wine tasting is really an analysis and evaluation of qualities of the wine by
the senses. This includes:
◗◗ looking at the wine to assess its clarity, colour and intensity, and the nature of the colour
by identifying the specific shade of white, rosé or red
◗◗ smelling, or nosing, the wine to assess the condition of the wine, the intensity of aroma
or bouquet, and to identify other aroma characteristics. Taste is 80 per cent smell!
◗◗ tasting the wine to assess the sweetness/dryness, acidity, tannin, body, length and other
taste characteristics

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◗◗ touch, to feel the weight of the wine in the mouth, the temperature, etc.
◗◗ hearing, to create associations with the occasion
◗◗ drawing conclusions about the evaluation (summing up) and making a judgement of the
quality of the wine (poor, acceptable, good, outstanding).
Examples of the terms that might be used as part of the evaluation of the wine are given in
Table 5.13.
Table 5.13 Examples of wine evaluation terms
Sight

Clarity: clear, bright, brilliant, gleaming, sumptuous, dull, hazy, cloudy
Colour intensity: pale, subdued, faded, deep, intense
White wine: water clear, pale yellow, yellow with green tinges, straw,
gold, deep yellow, brown, Maderised
Rosé wine: pale pink, orange-pink, onion-skin, blue-pink, copper
Red wine: purple, garnet, ruby, tawny, brick-red, mahogany

Smell (nose,
aroma, bouquet)

Condition: clean – unclean
Intensity: weak – pronounced
Other aroma descriptors: fruity, perfumed, full, deep, spicy, vegetal, fine,
rich, pleasant, weak, nondescript, flat, corky

Taste

Sweetness/dryness: bone dry, dry, medium dry, sweet, medium sweet,
sweet, luscious
Acidity: low – high
Tannin: low – high
Body: thin, light, medium, full-bodied
Length: short – long
Other taste descriptors: fruity, bitter, spicy, hard, soft, silky, floral, vegetal,
smooth, tart, piquant, spritzig/petillant (slightly sparkling)

Conclusion

Summing up: well-balanced, fine, delicate, rich, robust, vigorous, fat,
flabby, thick, velvety, harsh, weak, unbalanced, insipid, for laying down,
just right, over the hill
Overall quality/value: poor – acceptable – good – outstanding

Tasting technique

After assessing the clarity, colour and the smell, take a small amount of the wine in the
mouth together with a little air and roll it around so that it reaches the different parts of
the tongue. Now lean forward so that the wine is nearest the teeth and suck air in through
the teeth. Doing this helps to highlight and intensify the flavour. (Fortified wines, spirits
and liqueurs are often assessed by sight and smell without tasting.)
When tasting the following should be considered:
◗◗ The taste-character of the wine is detected in different parts of the mouth but especially
by the tongue: sweetness at the tip and the centre of the tongue, acidity on the upper
edges, saltiness on the tip and at the sides, sour at the sides and bitterness at the back.
◗◗ Sweetness and dryness will be immediately obvious.
◗◗ Acidity will be recognised by its gum-drying sensation, but in correct quantities acidity
provides crispness and liveliness to a drink.
◗◗ Astringency or tannin content, usually associated with red wines, will give a dry coating
or furring effect, especially on the teeth and gums.

Tasting techniques

◗◗ Body, which is the feel of the wine in your mouth, and flavour, the essence of the wine
as a drink, will be the final arbiters as to whether or not you like it.
◗◗ Aftertaste is the finish the wine leaves on your palate.
◗◗ Overall balance is the evaluation of all the above elements taken together.
Note: It is important that you make up your own mind about the wines you taste. Do not be too
easily influenced by the observations of others.

General grape and wine characteristics

There are a number of grapes that have distinctive characteristics. Examples of these grapes
are listed in Table 5.8 (pp.146–8) and information on their general characteristics is also
given. The type and style of various specific wines is identified, and listed from light to
full, in Table 5.16 on pp.172–5.
As well as describing and assessing the quality of the wine, many people also find it
useful to apply a range of aroma and taste associations. Some examples of common aroma
and taste associations are given in Table 5.14.
Table 5.14 Common aroma and taste associations
White grapes

Red grapes

Chardonnay

ripe melon, fresh
pineapple, tropical
fruits, nutty

Cabernet
Sauvignon

blackcurrants

Chenin Blanc

apples

Nebbiolo

roses, prunes, black
cherries, sloes

Gewürztraminer

rose petals, grapefruit,
tropical fruits, e.g.
lychees

Merlot

plums, damsons,
blackcurrants

Muscat

grapes/raisins

Pinot Noir

strawberries, cherries,
plums (depending on
where grown)

Riesling

apricots, peaches, lime,
stony

Syrah/Shiraz

raspberries,
blackberries,
blackcurrants

Sauvignon Blanc

gooseberries, tropical
fruits (when sweet –
grapes, custard, nuts,
honey)

Zinfandel

blackberries, bramble,
spice

Other aroma and taste associations can include: pine trees, resin, vanilla, coffee, tea, herbs,
smoke, toast, leather, cloves, cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger, mint, truffles, oak, figs, lilac and
jasmine.

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Recording the findings

Whenever wine is being evaluated a written record should be kept. These notes should
be made at each stage of the process, otherwise it is possible to become muddled and
confused. The process of writing down the findings helps to reinforce the discipline of the
approach and leads, over time, to the development of greater confidence and skill, and also
provides a record of wine tastings over time.

●●5.14 Matching food with wine and other
drinks

Food and its accompanying wine/drink should harmonise well together, with each
enhancing the other’s performance. However, the combinations that prove most successful
are those that please the individual.
When considering possible food and wine partnerships there are no guidelines to which
there are not exceptions. For example, although fish is usually served with white wine,
some dishes, for example heavily sauced salmon, red mullet, or a fish such as lamprey
(which is traditionally cooked in red wine) can be successfully accompanied by a slightly
chilled red Saint-Emilion, Pomerol or Mercury. The key issue in not having red wine
with fish comes from the reaction of oily fish, such as mackerel, with red wine to produce
a metal taste in the mouth. The general guidelines on matching wine and food are
summarised in Table 5.15.
Table 5.15 General guidelines for matching wine and food
Characteristic

Food considerations

Acidity

Can be used to match, or to contrast, acidity in foods, for example, crisp
wines to match lemon or tomato, or to cut through creamy flavours.

Age/maturity

As wine ages and develops it can become delicate with complex and
intricate flavours. More simple foods, such as grills or roasts, work better
with older wines than stronger tasting foods, which can overpower the
wines.

Oak

The more oaked the wine then the more robust and flavoursome the foods
need to be. Heavily oaked wines can overpower more delicate foods.

Sweetness

Generally the wine should be sweeter than the foods or it will taste flat or
thin. Sweet dishes need contrast for them to match well with sweeter wines,
for example, acids in sweeter foods can harmonise with the sweetness in
the wines. Savoury foods with sweetness (e.g. carrots or onions) can match
well with ripe fruity wines. Blue cheeses can go well with sweet wines. Also
sweeter wines can go well with salty foods.

Tannin

Tannic wines match well with red meats and semi-hard cheeses (e.g.
cheddar). Tannic wines are not good with egg dishes and wines with high
tannin content do not work well with salty foods.

Weight

Big, rich wines go well with robust (flavoursome) meat dishes, but can
overpower lighter flavoured foods.

Matching food with wine and other drinks

Some general guidelines when selecting and serving wines are given below.
◗◗ Dry wines should be served before sweeter wines.
◗◗ White wines should be served before red wines.
◗◗ Lighter wines should be served before heavier wines.
◗◗ Good wines should be served before great wines.
◗◗ Wines should be at their correct temperature before serving.
◗◗ Wine should always be served to customers before their food.
In addition, when making recommendations, it is useful to be able to identify the type and
style of the wine required and the extent to which the wine should be light or full. Table
5.16 sets out a range of wines by type and style and also from light at the top of the chart
to full towards the bottom of the chart.

Beers and food
Recently there has been an increasing trend to offer beers with food, either alongside or as
an alternative to wines. As with wines it is a question of trial and error to achieve harmony
between particular beers and foods. Generally the considerations for the pairing of beers
and foods are similar to those for matching wines with foods, as shown in Table 5.15, and
in particular, taking account of acidity, sweetness/dryness, bitterness, tannin, weight and
the complexity of the taste.

Making recommendations to customers
A few general pointers are set out below that may be followed when advising the customer
on which beverage to choose to accompany a meal. However, it must be stressed that
customers should at all times be given complete freedom in their selection of wines or
other drinks.
◗◗ Apéritifs are alcoholic beverages that are drunk before the meal. If wine will be
consumed with the meal, then the apéritif selected should be a grape (wine-based) rather
than a grain (spirit-based) apéritif, since the latter can potentially spoil or dull the palate.
◗◗ The apéritif is usually a wine-based beverage. It is meant to stimulate the appetite and
therefore should not be sweet. Dry and medium dry sherries, dry vermouths and Sercial
or Verdelho Madeira are all good examples of apéritifs.
◗◗ Starter courses are often best accompanied by a dry white or dry rosé wine.
◗◗ National dishes should normally be complemented by the national wines of that
country, for example, Italian red wine with pasta dishes.
◗◗ Fish and shellfish dishes are often most suited to well chilled dry white wines.
◗◗ Red meats such as beef and lamb blend and harmonise well with red wine.
◗◗ White meats such as veal and pork are acceptable with medium white wines.
◗◗ Game dishes require the heavier and more robust red wines to complement their full
flavour.
◗◗ Sweets and desserts are served at the end of the meal and here it is acceptable to offer
well chilled sweet white wines that may come from the Loire, Sauternes, Barsac or
Hungary. These wines harmonise best with dishes containing fruit.
◗◗ The majority of cheeses blend well with port and other dry robust red wines. Port is the
traditional wine harmonising best with Stilton cheese.
◗◗ The grain- and fruit-based spirits and liqueurs all harmonise well with coffee.

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LIGHT

Table 5.16 Examples of wines by type, by style, and from light to full

FULL

172

Sparkling

White wines

White

Grapy whites

Grassy-fruity
whites

Richer whites

Dry Champagne;
Saumur;
Vouvray;
Touraine

Yugoslav Riesling;
Tafelwein;
Liebfraumilch;
Grüner Veltliner

Frascati;
Soave;
Muscadet

Bordeaux and Loire
Sauvignon

Clairette de Die;
Frizzante

Alsace; Bulgarian and
Hungarian Riesling;
Mosel Kabinett;
German Trocken

Orvieto;
Muscadet sur
lie;
Van de Pays
de Gascogne

Sancerre; Pouilly
Blanc Fumé;
New Zealand
Sauvignon

Cuve Close;
Deutsche Sekt

Australian Dry Muscat;
Alsace Muscat;
Alsace Pinot Blanc

Pinot Blanco;
Italian
Chardonnay;
Pinot Grigio

Lighter Californian
and New Zealand
Chardonnay;
St Veran

Crémant d’Alsace;
Cava;
Blanquette de Limoux

English wines;
Rhine Kabinett;
Mosel Spätlese

Chenin Blanc
(South Africa
and France);
Mâcon Blanc;
Chablis;
Penedès White

Pouilly Fussé;
St Aubin;
Top class dry white
Bordeaux

Crémant de
Bourgogne;
Champagne Blanc
de Blancs

Australian, Californian,
Alsace and New
Zealand Riesling;
Alsace and
New Zealand
Gewürztraminer

Rioja (new
style);
Mâcon Villages
(Lugny, etc.)

Grand Cru Chablis;
Puligny and
Chassagne
Montrachet;
Mersault;
Californian Fumé;
Gavi

Saumur demi-sec;
Cava semi-secco;
demi-sec
Champagne

Rhine Spätlese and
Auslese
Alsace Verdange
Tardive

Vouvray
(medium);
Vinho Verde

White Rhône;
Dão;
White Rioja (old
style);
Retsina

Vintage
Champagne;
Australian and
Californian sparkling

Trockenbeerenauslese;
Eiswein;
Muscat de Beaumesde-Venise

Californian
medium white;
French
medium white

Corton
Charlemagne;
Australian Sémillon;
Le Montrachet

Rich Champagne;
Mocasto;
Asti Spumanti

Tokay;
Setúbal;
Australian Muscats

Barsac;
Sauternes;
Australian
late picked
Sémillon

Australian
Chardonnay;
Richer Californian
Chardonnay

Matching food with wine and other drinks

Fruity reds

Claret-style reds

Herby-spicy reds

Anjou Rosé;
Cabernet d’Anjou

Beaujolais Nouveau;
Côtes du Rhône
Nouveau;
Vino Novello

Red Loire
(Cabernet Franc);
Grave de Friuli;
Yugoslav Cabernet

Valpolicella;
Bardolino;
Chianti

Spanish Rosé; Rosé
de Provence;
Chiaretto di Bardolino

Beaujolais;
Beaujolais Villages;
Mâcon Rouge

Southern French
Cabernet
Sauvignon;
Côtes du Duras;
Côtes de Buzet;
Bergerac

Côtes du
Rhône;
Vins de Pays;
Syrah de
l’Ardeche

Chilean Rosé;
Rosé de la Loire;
Bordeaux Rosé

Bourgogne Rouge;
Bourgogne Passe tout
grains;
Cru Beaujolais

Bordeaux Rouge;
Bulgarian Cabernet
Sauvignon

Gigondas;
Dolcetto;
Brunello de
Montalcino;
Chianti
Classico

Alsace Pinot Noir;
Sancerre Rosé;
Jura Rosé

Sancerre Rouge;
Côtes de Beaune;
Beaune Villages; Rioja

Médoc;
New Zealand
Cabernet;
Côtes du Bourg

Dão;
Barbera;
Barberesco;
Bairrada

Portuguese Rosé

Beaune;
Côtes de Nuits
Villages;
Navarra

Bordeaux Crus
Classés;
Spanish, Italian
and the lighter
Californian
Cabernet
Sauvignon

Châteauneufdu-Pape;
Australian
Cabernet
Sauvignon;
Cabernet
Shiraz;
Zinfandel;
Cahors;
Barolo

Rosé Champagne;
Rosé Saumur;
Rosé Cava

Volnay;
Reserva Rioja;
Gran Reserva Rioja

Californian and
Bulgarian Merlot;
Saint-Emilion;
Pomerol

Traditional East
European,
Greek and
North African
wines

Blanc de Noirs;
Californian Blush

Pomard;
Aloxe Corton;
Nuits St Georges

Chilean, South
African and
Lebanese Cabernet
Sauvignon

Côte Rôtie;
Nebbiolo
d’Alba

Tavel Rosé;
Lirac Rosé;
Californian Rosé

Gevery Chambertin;
Californian and
Australian Pinot Noir

Australian and
fuller Californian
Cabernet
Sauvignon

Hermitage;
Australian
Shiraz;
Amarone della
Valpolicella

LIGHT

Red wines

FULL

Rosé

173

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Chapter 5
Beverages – non-alcoholic and alcoholic
Food and wine/drink combinations
Appetisers
Hors-d’oeuvre

Sometimes combinations can be difficult because of overpowering
dressings on salad items. However, fino or manzanilla sherry,
Sancerre, Pinot Grigio, Sauvignon Blanc or Gewürztraminer can be
tried. Depending on the dishes, the lighter red wines may make a
good combination with the foods. Beers that might be considered
include smoked beers and Japanese beers

Soups

These do not really require a liquid accompaniment but sherry or
dry port or Madeira could be tried, as can traditional English ales.
Consommés and lobster or crab bisque can be enhanced by
adding a glass of heated sherry or Madeira before serving

Terrines, pâtés and
foie gras

Beaujolais or a light, young red wine, white wines from Pinot Gris
or Sauvignon Blanc grapes and also some sweet white wines,
especially Sauternes or demi-sec Champagne for foie gras. Fruit
beers and English porters might also be tried

Omelettes and
quiches

Difficult for wine but an Alsatian Riesling or Sylvaner could be tried, as
could white (wheat) beers

Farinaceous dishes
(pasta and rice)

Classically Italian red wines such as Valpolicella, Chianti, Barolo,
Santa Maddalena or Lago di Caldaro; most lagers or IPA (India Pale
Ale)

Fish
Oysters and shellfish

Dry white wines: Champagne, Chablis, Muscadet, Soave and
Frascati; also white beers, Guinness or other stouts

Smoked fish

White Rioja, Hock, white Graves, Verdicchio, smoked beers and
Japanese beers

Fish dishes with
sauces

Fuller white wines such as Vouvray, Montrachet or Yugoslav Riesling;
white beers

Shallow fried or grilled
fish

Vinho Verde, Moselle, Californian Chardonnay, Australian Sémillon
or Chardonnay; most lagers or IPA and English porter, especially with
scallops

White meats
The type of wine/drink to serve is dependent on whether the white meat (chicken, turkey,
rabbit, veal or pork) is served hot or cold.
Served hot with a
sauce or savoury
stuffing

Either a rosé such as Anjou, or light reds like Beaujolais, New Zealand
Pinot Noir, Californian Zinfandel, Saint-Julien, Bourg and Burgundy
(e.g. Passe-tout-grains) and Corbières; white beers

Served cold

Fuller white wines such as Hocks, Gran Viña Sol, Sancerre and the
rosés of Provence and Tavel; white beers

Other meats
Duck and goose

Big red wines that will cut through the fat: Châteauneuf-du-Pape,
Hermitage, Barolo and the Australian Cabernet Shiraz; most beers

Roast and grilled
lamb

Medoc, Saint-Emilion, Pomerol and any of the Cabernet Sauvignons;
most beers

Safe, sensible drinking

Roast beef and
grilled steaks

Big red Burgundies, Rioja, Barolo, Dão and wines made from the
Pinot Noir grape; most beers and especially flavoured beers (e.g.
heather or honeydew)

Meat stews

Lighter reds, Zinfandel, Côtes du Rhône, Clos du Bois, Bull’s Blood,
Vino Nobile di Montepulciano; Belgian Abbey-style and Trappist
beers, flavoured beers (e.g. heather or honeydew), darker beers

Hare, venison and
game

Reds with distinctive flavour: Côte Rôtie, Bourgeuil, Rioja, Chianti,
Australian Shiraz, Californian Cabernet Sauvignon, Chilean Cabernet
Sauvignon, and also fine red Burgundies and Bordeaux reds; Belgian
Abbey-style and Trappist beers

Oriental foods,
Peking duck, mild
curry, tandoori
chicken, shish kebab

Gewürztraminer, Lutomer Riesling, Vinho Verde, Mateus Rosé or Anjou
Rosé; most lagers and IPA

Cheese
The wine from the main course is often followed through to the cheese course, although it is
also worth considering the type of cheese being served.
Light, cream cheeses

Full-bodied whites, rosés and light reds; beers generally

Strong, pungent
(even smelly) and
blue-veined varieties

Big reds of Bordeaux and Burgundy, or tawny, vintage or vintagestyle ports and also the luscious sweet white wines; beers generally,
especially fruit beers

Sweets and puddings

Champagne works well with sweets and puddings. Others to try
are the luscious Muscats (de Beaumes-de-Venise, de Setúbal, de
Frontignan, Samos), Sainte-Croix-du-Mont, Sauternes, Banyuls,
Monbazillac, Tokay, wines made from late-gathered individual
grapes in Germany, and also the Orange Muscats and speciality
drinks such as Vin de Frais (fermentation of fresh strawberries) both
of which can go well with chocolate. Fruit beers (which can also be
especially good with chocolate), porters, and Belgian-style strong
golden ales can all pair well with various sweets and puddings

Dessert (fresh fruit
and nuts)

Sweet fortified wines, sherry, port, Madeira, Málaga, Marsala,
Commandaria; white beers

Coffee

Cognac and other brandies such as Armagnac, Asbach, Marc,
Metaxa, Grappa, Oude Meester, Fundador; good aged malt
whiskies; Calvados, sundry liqueurs and ports; Champagne; white
beers

●●5.15 Safe, sensible drinking
The majority of the population who drink alcohol do so for many reasons: to quench a
thirst, as a relaxant or simply because it is enjoyable. A small amount of alcohol does no
harm and can even be beneficial. However, the more you drink and the more frequently
you drink, the greater the health risks. Alcohol depresses the brain and nerve function
thereby affecting one’s judgement, self-control and skills.
Most of the alcohol consumed passes into the bloodstream from where it is rapidly
absorbed. This absorption may be slowed down somewhat if drink is accompanied by food

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Beverages – non-alcoholic and alcoholic

but the amount of alcohol consumed will be the same. The liver must then burn up almost
all the alcohol consumed, with the remainder being disposed of in urine or perspiration. It
takes approximately one hour for the liver to burn up one unit of alcohol; if it has to deal
with too much alcohol over a number of years, it will inevitably suffer damage.
Sensible limits

So what are the sensible limits to avoid damaging our health? Of course, not drinking
alcohol cuts out any risk. However, medical opinion in the UK has set the limit at 21 units
spread throughout the week for men and 14 units spread throughout the week for women
(excluding pregnant women). Drinking in excess of these limits is likely to be damaging to
health.
One unit of alcohol is equal to 10 millilitres (liquid) or 8 grams (weight) of alcohol. This
is roughly equivalent to:
◗◗ ½ pint of ordinary beer or lager
◗◗ one glass of wine (125 ml)
◗◗ one glass of sherry (50 ml)
◗◗ one measure of vermouth or other apéritif (50 ml)
◗◗ one measure of spirits (25 ml).
It is important to note the following, however:
◗◗ Some extra strength lagers and beer have two or three times the strength of ordinary
beers. Remember too that many low calorie drinks contain more alcohol than their
ordinary equivalents.
◗◗ The number of units required to reach the maximum permitted levels for driving varies
between individuals but it can be as little as three units.
◗◗ Some alcohol remains in the bloodstream for up to 18 hours after consumption. This
should be considered in relation to the legal limits for alcohol in the blood when
driving.
◗◗ There are about 100 calories in a single unit of alcohol. The amount of calories quickly
adds up and can lead to weight gain. Replacing food with alcohol as a source of calories
denies the body essential nutrients and vitamins.
Calculating alcohol intake

The amount of alcohol being consumed is a measure of both the strength of the alcoholic
drink and the amount or volume of the drink being consumed.
To calculate the alcohol unit intake for wines:
Wine at a specific percentage of alcohol by volume multiplied by the amount in litres
equals the units of alcohol per bottle. For example:
Wine at 12% alcohol by volume 3 0.75 cl bottle 5 9 units per 0.75 cl bottle.
This 0.75 cl bottle of wine will give 6 3 125 ml individual glasses of wine and each glass will
therefore contain 1.5 units of alcohol (9 units in the whole bottle divided by the 6 glasses).
Further examples for calculating the alcohol unit intake for other drinks are:
Lager at 5% alcohol by volume 3 50 cl measure 5 2.5 units per half litre measure
Spirit at 40% alcohol by volume 3 25 ml measure 5 1 unit per 25 ml measure
Sherry at 18% alcohol by volume 3 50 ml measure 5 0.9 unit per 50 ml measure.

Chapter 6

The service sequence (table service)

6.1 Taking bookings

178

6.2 Preparation for service

179

6.3 The order of service
(table service)

201

6.4 Taking customer food
and beverage orders

204

6.5 Service of food

211

6.6 Service of alcoholic
beverages

215

6.7 Service of non-alcoholic
beverages

224

6.8 Clearing during service

228

6.9 Clearing following service 235

178

Chapter 6
The service sequence (table service)

●●6.1 Taking bookings
Bookings may be taken by post, by email, via the internet, by telephone and in
person. Booking a table is often the first contact that a potential customer has with the
establishment and it is therefore important to give the right impression.

The booking sheet
Most establishments use some form of booking sheet, either manual or electronic. An
example of the information that might be required on a booking sheet is given in Figure
6.1. This form gives the maximum number of covers to be booked for a service period
and enables a running total of pre-booked covers to be kept. The form also has space for
the customer’s telephone number. Depending on the policy of the establishment, written
confirmation of bookings may be required or credit card details taken. Other information
that might be sought includes whether the occasion of the meal is for special event, or
customer preferences about the size, shape and location of a table.
Restaurant..................................
Name

Tel. No.

Covers

Day..........
Arrival time

Date..........
Running total

Maximum covers....................
Special requirements

Signature

Figure 6.1 Example of a booking sheet

If party bookings require special menus, the booking should be referred to the supervisor.
Procedures similar to event booking will then be adopted (see Section 11.3, p.336).

Procedure for taking bookings
When taking a booking by telephone the procedure shown below might be used.
◗◗ When the telephone rings, lift the receiver and say: ‘Good morning (state the name of
the establishment). May I help you?’
◗◗ If the customer is making the booking in person then say ‘Good morning Sir/Madam,
how may I help you?’
◗◗ When taking a booking the essential information required is as follows:
– the customer’s name
– the day and date the booking is required
– the number of covers

Preparation for service

– the time the booking is required.
– any special requests.
◗◗ When you have received this information from the prospective customer it is advisable
to repeat all of the details back to the customer as a means of confirmation.
◗◗ If a cancellation is being received then again confirm the cancellation with the customer
by repeating his/her request over the telephone and then ask if you can take a booking
for any other occasion in place of the cancellation.
◗◗ At the end of a telephone call for a booking one should say: ‘Thank you for your
booking, we shall look forward to seeing you.’
The procedures for taking a booking in person are similar to those for taking a booking
via the telephone. When taking bookings by mail the information required is the same
as that identified above. Confirmation is normally sent back to the customer by the same
method as the booking was received, for example, by email or post. See also Section 11.3,
pp.336–39.

●●6.2 Preparation for service
The term ‘mise-en-place’ (literally ‘put in place’ but also meaning preparation for service)
is the traditional term used for all the duties that must be carried out in order to ready the
room for service. A duty rota showing the tasks and duties to be completed before service
and the member of staff responsible is drawn up (see Section 12.4, p.372).

Order of working
The duties should proceed in a certain order so that they may be carried out effectively
and efficiently. For example, dusting should be done before the tables are laid and
vacuuming should be completed before the tables and chairs are put in place. A suggested
order of work might be as follows:
1 Dusting
  7 Accompaniments
2 Stacking chairs on tables
  8 Hotplate
3 Vacuuming
  9 Stillroom
4 Polishing
10 Sideboards/workstations
5 Arrange tables and chairs
11 Silver cleaning
according to the table plan
12 Other duties such as preparing
6 Linen trolleys
Some of these duties will be carried out at the same time and the supervisor must ensure
they are all completed efficiently. As the necessary preparatory work is completed the staff
should report back to the supervisor, who will check that the work has been carried out
in a satisfactory mannerand then re-allocate the member of staff to other work involved in
the setting-up of the service areas.
Using white gloves

In some establishments members of staff wear white cotton gloves when carrying out
preparation tasks such as:
◗◗ handling linen and paper
◗◗ clothing up tables

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◗◗ making napkin folds
◗◗ handling clean crockery, cutlery and glassware
◗◗ laying tables.
The gloves help to prevent the soiling of clean service items and finger marks on cleaned
and polished service equipment. For each separate task carried out clean gloves should be
used. They should not be reused for further tasks as this may present a hygiene risk.

Preparation duties
The duties to be carried out before the service commences are many and varied according
to the particular food and beverage service area concerned. A list of the possible tasks and
duties is shown below, but not all of these are applicable to every situation and there may
be some jobs not listed which are specific to a particular establishment.
Supervisor

Duties might include:
◗◗ check the booking diary for reservations
◗◗ make out the seating plan for the day and allocate customers accordingly
◗◗ make out a plan of the various stations and show where the staff will be working
◗◗ go over the menu with staff immediately before service is due to commence
◗◗ check that all duties on the duty rota are covered and that a full team of staff is present.
Housekeeping duties

Housekeeping duties include the reception area and may involve the following:
◗◗ every day, vacuum the carpet and brush surrounds
◗◗ clean and polish doors and glass
◗◗ empty waste bins and ashtrays
◗◗ perform one of the following daily tasks, as appropriate:
– Monday: brush and dust tables and chairs
– Tuesday: polish all sideboards, window ledges and cash desk
– Wednesday: polish all brasses
– Thursday: clean and polish the reception area
– Friday: commence again as Monday
◗◗ each day, on completion of all duties, line up tables and chairs for laying up.
Linen/paper

This applies not only to table, buffet and slip cloths and glass and waiter cloths, but also to
paper slip cloths and napkins plus dish papers and doilies. Duties might include:
◗◗ collecting the clean linen from the housekeeping department, checking items against list,
distributing them to the various service points, laying tablecloths and folding napkins.
Spare linen should be folded neatly into the linen basket
◗◗ ensuring that stocks are sufficient to meet needs
◗◗ ensuring that glass cloths and waiters’ cloths are available
◗◗ providing dish papers and doilies as required
◗◗ the preparation of the linen basket for return to the linen room.

Preparation for service
Hotplate

Duties might include:
◗◗ switching on the hotplate
◗◗ ensuring all doors are closed
◗◗ placing items in the hotplate according to the menu offered, for example:
– soup plates
– consommé cups
– fish plates
– joint plates
– sweet plates
◗◗ stocking up the hotplate after each service with clean and polished crockery in readiness
for the next meal service.
Cutlery

Duties might include:
◗◗ collection of cutlery from the storage area (sometimes called a silver room) and polishing
and sorting on to trays the following items in quantities agreed with the supervisor:
– service spoons
– joint/service forks
– soup spoons
– fish knives
– fish forks
– joint knives
– side knives
– sweet spoons
– sweet forks
– tea/coffee spoons
– specialist service equipment as required for the menu
◗◗ identifying broken items or those in need of replacing.
Crockery

Duties might include:
◗◗ checking and polishing side plates ready for lay-up
◗◗ checking and polishing crockery for the hotplate according to menu and service
requirements
◗◗ preparation of service plates for sideboards/workstations
◗◗ preparation of stocks of crockery for sideboards/workstations, such as
– fishplates
– side plates
– coffee and tea saucers.
Glassware

Duties might include:
◗◗ collection of the required glassware from the glass pantry (store)
◗◗ checking and polishing glassware needed for the general lay-up
◗◗ checking and polishing glassware needed for any special events

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Chapter 6
The service sequence (table service)

◗◗ checking and polishing glassware required for the liqueur trolley and any special menu
dishes, for example goblets for prawn cocktails, tulip glasses for sorbets and liqueur, port
and brandy glasses for the liqueur trolley
◗◗ stacking the cleaned and polished glassware onto trays or placing into glass racks in
readiness for setting up.
Cruets, table numbers and butter dishes

Duties might include:
◗◗ the collection of cruets, table numbers and butter dishes from the silver room
◗◗ checking, filling and polishing the cruets
◗◗ the laying on tables of cruets, table numbers and butter dishes with butter knives,
according to the headwaiter’s instructions.
Stillroom

Duties might include:
◗◗ the ordering of stores requirements (including bar and accompaniment requirements)
◗◗ the preparation of:
– beverage service items
– butter scrolls/butter pats and alternatives
– bread items
◗◗ polishing and refilling oil and vinegar stands, sugar basins and dredgers, peppermills and
cayenne pepper pots
◗◗ preparing all accompaniments such as tomato ketchup, French and English mustard,
ground ginger, horseradish sauce, mint sauce, Worcestershire sauce and Parmesan cheese
◗◗ distributing the accompaniments to the sideboards
◗◗ checking with the headwaiter the number of accompaniments and sets of cruets to
prepare and the number of sideboards/workstations and tables that will be in use during
the service period.
Sideboards/workstations

After ensuring that the sideboard/workstation is clean and polished it can be stocked up.
Figure 6.2 gives an example of a sideboard lay-up including:
  1 water jug
  2 butter dish
  3 check pad on service plate
  4 assorted condiments
  5 hotplate
  6 side knives
  7 joint knives
  8 fish knives and forks
  9soup spoons, tea and coffee
spoons
10 sweet spoons and forks

11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

service spoons and forks
bread basket
service salver/plate
underflats
coffee saucers
side plates
sweet/fish plates
joint plates
trays

Other items might include:
◗◗ specialist cutlery according to the menu, for example, soup and sauce ladles
◗◗ various crockery according to the menu, such as saucers for consommé cups.

Preparation for service

Guéridons may also have to be laid up in conjunction with the sideboards, according to
the type of service offered.

1

4

3

5

2

6

7

8

16

10

11

14

13

12

15

9

18

17

19

Figure 6.3 Laid sideboard

Figure 6.2 Example of a sideboard lay-up

Bar

Duties may include:
  1 Open the bar.
  2 Bar silver requiring cleaning to be taken to the silver person.
  3 Clear any debris left from the previous day.
  4 Wipe down bar tops.
  5 Clean shelves and swab the bar floor.
  6 Check optics.
  7 Restock the bar with beverage items as required.
  8 Prepare ice buckets, wine coolers, service trays and water jugs.
  9 Check pads and wine lists; line up, clean and polish apéritif glasses.
10 Prepare and check the liqueur trolley for glasses, stock and bottle presentation.
11 Prepare the bar service top according to the standards of the establishment which may
include:
◗◗ cutting board
◗◗ fruit knife
◗◗ fruit: lemons, oranges, apples
◗◗ cucumber
◗◗ fresh eggs (for cocktails)
◗◗ mixing glass and spoons
◗◗ Hawthorn strainer







Angostura bitters
peach bitters
Worcestershire sauce
cocktail sticks
cherries in glass
straws in sherry glass
tea strainer

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Chapter 6
The service sequence (table service)

◗◗ wine funnel
◗◗ olives, cocktail cherries
◗◗ cocktail shaker strainer
◗◗ nuts and crisps
◗◗ coloured sugar




wine coasters
spirit measures
soda syphon
ice bucket and tongs.

Display buffet

Duties may include:
◗◗ the preparation of the buffet table to the supervisor’s instructions
◗◗ the display of:
– butter dishes and butter knives
– accompaniments
– food items
– special cutlery and tableware as required (e.g. grapefruit spoons)
– underplates for large butter dishes
– service spoons and forks
– sauce and soup ladles, draining spoons, etc.
– side plates with doilies or dish papers if necessary
– water jugs and joint knives for pâtés or mousses
– cold fish/joint plates
– carving knife, fork, steel and stand
– spare joint plates to place used service gear on.
Trolleys

Carving trolley:
◗◗ Check the trolley for cleanliness.
◗◗ Check and refill burners.
◗◗ Fill the water reservoir with boiling water from the still.
◗◗ Ensure the sauce and gravy reservoirs are in place under cover. They should be sited
beside the plate platform.
◗◗ Lay up for the bottom shelf service plate, to include:
– service spoons and forks
– sauce ladles
– service plate with carving knife, fork and steel.
For a photograph of a carving trolley, see Chapter 10 Enhanced service techniques, Figure
10.2 (p.289).
Sweet trolley:
◗◗ Check trolley for cleanliness and ensure it is polished.
◗◗ Place doilies or cloths on top tiers.
◗◗ Place the following items on the bottom shelf on a folded slip cloth:
– sweet plates/bowls
– gâteau slice, pastry tongs (in the drawer or on a service plate)
– service spoons and forks
– joint knives
– sauce ladles (in a folded napkin)
– joint plate for dirty service items.

Preparation for service

Cheese trolley:
◗◗ Check the trolley for cleanliness.
◗◗ The top and bottom shelves may be laid up as follows:
◗◗ Top shelf:
– various cheeses on a cheese board
– knives and forks for cheese service
– salt and pepper
– caster sugar
– flat or dish with assorted biscuits or breads
– celery glass on underplate.
◗◗ Bottom shelf:
– side plates
– side knives.
For an example of a sweet/cheese trolley, see Section 6.5, Figure 6.33 (p.215).
Additional service equipment:
Duties might include:
◗◗ Daily cleaning and checking level of fuel where appropriate:
– spirit and electric heaters
– flare lamps, spirit and gas.

Clothing-up
Nothing is more attractive in the room than tables clothed-up with clean, crisp and well
starched linen tablecloths and napkins. The tablecloth and napkins should be handled as little
as possible, which will be ensured by laying the tablecloth quickly and properly first time.
Laying the tablecloth

Before laying the tablecloth the table and chairs should be in their correct position. The
tabletop should be clean and the table level, with care being taken to ensure that it does
not wobble. If the table wobbles slightly, a disc sliced from a cork can be used to correct
the problem.
Next, the correct size of tablecloth should be collected. Most tablecloths are folded in
what is known as a screen fold.
The waiter should stand between the legs of the table while the tablecloth is being laid,
to ensure that the corners of the cloth cover the legs of the table once the clothing-up has
been completed.
The screen fold should be opened out across the table in front of the waiter with the
inverted and two single folds facing him, ensuring that the inverted fold is on top.
The cloth should then be laid in the following manner:
1 Place the thumb on top of the inverted fold with the index and third fingers either side
of the middle fold (see Figure 6.4(a)).
2 Spread out your arms as close to the width of the table as is possible and lift the cloth so
that the bottom fold falls free.
3 This should be positioned over the edge of the opposite side of the table from where
you are standing (see Figure 6.4(b)).

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4 Now let go of the middle fold and open the cloth out, drawing it towards you until the
table is covered with the cloth.
5 Check that the fall of the cloth is even on all sides (see Figure 6.4(c)).
6 Any adjustments should be made by pulling from the edge of the cloth (see Figure
6.4(d)).
(a)

(b)

c)

(d)

Figure 6.4(a)–(d) Laying the tablecloth

If the tablecloth is laid correctly the following should be apparent:
◗◗ the corners of the tablecloth should be over the legs of the table
◗◗ the overlap should be even all round the table: 30–45 cm (12–18 in)
◗◗ the creases of the tablecloth should all run the same way in the room.
If two tablecloths are necessary to cover a table for a larger party, then the overlap of the
two tablecloths should face away from the entrance to the room. This is for presentation
purposes of both the room and the table.

Preparation for service

Napkin folds
There are many forms of napkin (or serviette) fold to be found in use in the food and
beverage service area. Some are intricate in their detail while others are simpler.
The simpler folds are used in everyday service and some of the more complex and
difficult folds may only be used on special occasions, such as luncheons, dinners and
weddings.
There are three main reasons why the simple folds are better than the more complex
ones.
1 The napkin, if folded correctly, can look good and add to the general appearance of the
room, whether it is a simple or complex fold.
2 A simpler fold is perhaps more hygienic as the more complex fold involves greater
handling to complete. In addition, its appearance, when unfolded to spread over the
customer’s lap, is poor as it often has many creases.
3 The complex fold takes much more time to complete properly than a very simple fold.
Many of the napkin folds have special names, for example:
◗◗ Cone
◗◗ Bishop’s mitre
◗◗ Rose
◗◗ Cockscomb
◗◗ Triple wave
◗◗ Fan
◗◗ Candle.
The seven napkin folds shown in Figure 6.5 are, in the main, those used every day in the
food and beverage service area and for special occasions. These are simpler folds that may
be completed more quickly, requiring less handling by the operator and are therefore more
hygienic.
The rose fold of a napkin is one in which rolls or Melba toast may be presented for the
table. It is not often used for a place setting. The triple wave is an attractive fold that may
also be used to hold the menu and a name card.

(a)

(b)

(c)

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(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

Figure 6.5(a) Cone; Figure 6.5(b) Bishop’s mitre; Figure 6.5(c) Rose; Figure 6.5(d) Cockscomb;
Figure 6.5(e) Triple wave; Figure 6.5(f) Fan and Figure 6.5(g) Candle

Napkin folding

Shown below are the methods for folding the seven napkin folds identified in Figure 6.5.
These are: Cone: Bishop’s mitre; Rose; Cockscomb; Triple wave; Fan; and Candle. Once
you become competent at these, you should learn the art of folding others to extend your
repertoire.
Note: The napkins must be clean and well starched. Run the back of your hand over every fold
to make the creases firm and sharp.

Cone
1 Open the napkin out lengthways in front of you (see Figure 6.6(a)).
2 Take the top left corner and fold it diagonally on to the right end of the centre line (see
Figure 6.6(b)).
3 Fold the bottom square on to the top triangle (see Figure 6.6(c)).
4 Take the two points at the top right corner, by placing your hand inside the napkin, and
fold them back towards you as far as possible (see Figure 6.6(d)).
5 Pull the base out so that it is circular and place it in the centre of the cover (see Figure
6.6(e)).

Preparation for service

(c)

(a)

(e)

(b)
(d)

Figure 6.6 Cone

Bishop’s mitre
1 Lay the napkin out flat in front of you (see Figure 6.7(a)).
2 Fold it in half, straight side to straight side (see Figure 6.7(b)).
3 Take the top right corner and fold it down to the centre of the bottom line (see Figure
6.7(c)).
4 Take the bottom left corner and fold it up to meet the centre of the top line (see Figure
6.7(d)).

(a)

(b)

(d)

(g)

(c)

(e)

(f)

(h)

(i)

Figure 6.7 Bishop’s mitre

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5 Turn the napkin over so that the folds are now facing down (see Figure 6.7(e)).
6 Take the top line (edge) and fold it down to meet the base line (bottom edge), leaving
the two peaks pointing away from you (see Figure 6.7(f)).
7 Take the bottom right hand side and fold it under the flap on the left side. Make sure it
tucks right under the flap for a snug fit (see Figure 6.7(g)).
8 Turn it completely over (see Figure 6.7(h)).
9 Again take the bottom right-hand side and fold it under the flap on the left side. Now
stand the napkin up by pulling the sides of the base out until it is circular in shape (see
Figure 6.7(i)).
Rose
1 Unfold the napkin and lay it out in a square (see Figure 6.8(a)).
2 Fold the corners into the centre of the napkin (see Figure 6.8(b)).
3 Fold the corners into the centre of the napkin for a second time (see Figure 6.8(c)).
4 Turn the whole napkin over so that all the corners folded into the centre are underneath
(see Figure 6.8(d)).
5 Fold the corners into the centre once more (see Figure 6.8(e)).
6 Hold the four centre points down by means of an upturned wine goblet (see Figure
6.8(f)).
7 Holding the Paris goblet steady, place your hand under each corner and pull up a folded
corner of the napkin (petal) on to the bowl of the glass. You now have four petals
showing. Now place your hand under the napkin, but between each of the petals, and
raise a further four petals. Place on an underplate (see Figure 6.8(g)).

(a)

(d)

Figure 6.8 Rose

(b)

(e)

(f)

(c)

(g)

Preparation for service

Cockscomb
  1 Open the napkin into a square shape (see Figure 6.9(a)).
  2 Fold it in half (see Figure 6.9(b)).
  3 Fold it in half again to make a square (see Figure 6.9(c)).
  4 Rotate the square so that it now forms a diamond shape in front of you. Make sure the
four single folds are at the bottom of the diamond (see Figure 6.9(d)).
  5 Fold the bottom corner of the diamond to the top corner. You will then have a
triangular shape in front of you, with the four single folds on top (see Figure 6.9(e)).
  6 Take the right side of the triangle and fold it over on to the centre line (see Figure
6.9(f)).
  7 Do the same with the left hand side (see Figure 6.9(g)).
  8 Tuck the two lower triangles (A and B) under the main triangle (see Figure 6.9(h)).
  9 Fold the two triangles (C and D) down from the centre line and hold it together. The
four single folds should now be on top and at the peak of this fold (see Figure 6.9(i)).
10 Hold this narrow fold firmly, ensuring the four single folds are away from you. In turn,
pull each single fold up and towards you (see Figure 6.9(j)).

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)
(f)

(a)

(j)
A B

C
(g)

D

(h)

(i)

Figure 6.9 Cockscomb

Triple wave (French fold)
1 Unfold the napkin and lay it out in a square.
2 Fold the napkin in three along the dotted lines to form a rectangle, as in Figure 6.10(a).
NB. For napkins that are already folded in three and then three again, just open the
napkin out so that it is in the rectangle shape.
3 Turn the napkin so the narrow side is towards you (see Figure 6.10(b)).
4 Fold each end of the rectangle, A and B, towards the centre of the napkin, but only
one third of the length of the longer side of the rectangle, i.e. along the dotted lines as
shown in Figure 6.10(b).
5 Fold B over once more (see Figure 6.10(c)).
6 Turn edge A over so that it meets the edge of the top fold B (Figure 6.10(d)).

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7 Turn edge C under so that B is now the top. The final form for this napkin is also
shown in Figure 6.10(e).
8 The triple wave fold is laid with the steps of the folds away from the customer. A name
card or menu or both may be placed in between the steps of the fold.

B

A

D
B

A
(a)

(b)

B

(e)

C
(d)
A
(c)

Figure 6.10 Triple wave

Fan
1 Unfold the napkin and lay out as a square (see Figure 6.11 (a)).
2 Fold the square over in two (see Figure 6.11(b)).
3 Now pleat evenly from the bottom to about two-thirds of the way up, leaving section A
on top of the pleated folds (see Figure 6.11(c)).
4 Fold in half by raising both sides up towards you (see front view in Figure 6.11(d)).
5 Fold triangle (A) down over the dotted line as indicated in the side view (see Figure
6.11(e)). Any excess from triangle A fold under the fan support.
6 Open out and evenly spread the pleated fan (see Figure 6.11(f)).

Preparation for service

A

B

Front
view

B

C
C
a

b

c

d

A
Side view

e

f

Figure 6.11 Fan

Candle
1 Open out the napkin and set on the table forming a diamond shape (see Figure 6.12
(a)).
2 Fold in half from bottom to top to form a triangle and fold along the dotted line (see
Figure 6.12 (b)).
3 Turn over so the fold lies underneath (see Figure 6.12(c)).
4 Now roll the napkin evenly from right to left (see Figure 6.12(d)).
5 When almost completed tuck in the end to hold the napkin fold together.
6 Turn down the peaks at the tip of the candle except the top one (see Figure 6.12(e)).

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(a)

(c)

(b)

(d)

(e)

Figure 6.12 Candle

Laying covers for table service and assisted service
Cover

One of the technical terms often used in the foodservice industry is a ‘cover’ (couvert).
The term originates from the custom, up to the fifteenth century, of serving ‘under cover’
(couvert). This meant to cover the courses and dishes with a large white napkin in order
to indicate that all precautions had been taken to avoid the poisoning of guests. In modern
foodservice operations, the term cover has two definitions, according to the context in
which it is being used:
1 When discussing how many customers a restaurant or dining room will seat, or how
many customers will be attending a cocktail party, we refer to the total number of
customers concerned as so many covers. For example, a restaurant or dining room will
seat a maximum of 85 covers (customers); there will be 250 covers (customers) at a
cocktail party; this table will seat a party of six covers (customers).
2 When laying a table in readiness for service there are a variety of place settings that may
be laid according to the type of meal and service being offered. We refer to this place
setting as a certain type of cover being laid. In other words, a cover refers to all the
necessary cutlery, crockery, glassware and linen required to lay a certain type of place
setting for a specific dish or meal.
When deciding on the laying of covers there are two basic service considerations. The first
is when cutlery for the meal is to be laid before each course is served. The second is when
the cutlery for the meal is to be laid prior to the start of that meal and for all the courses

Preparation for service

that are to be served. The first approach is known as the à la carte cover, and the second is
known as the table d’hôte cover.
À la carte cover

The à la carte cover follows the principle that the cutlery for each course will be laid just
before each course is served. The traditional cover, given below (and shown in Figure
6.13) therefore represents the cover for hors-d’oeuvre, which is the first course in a classic
menu sequence (see Section 4.2 Classic menu sequence, p.90).
◗◗ fish plate (centre of cover)
◗◗ fish knife
◗◗ fish fork
◗◗ side plate




side knife
napkin
water glass
wine glass.

Figure 6.13 À la carte cover

Where an à la carte cover has been laid, the cutlery required by the customer for the dishes
he or she has chosen will be laid course by course. In other words, there should not, at any
time during the meal, be more cutlery on the table than is required by the customer at that
time.
Classic or basic lay-up

There are now a variety of approaches to what is laid for the à la carte form of service.

Figure 6.14 Classic or basic
cover

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This can include using large decorative cover plates and a side plate and knife only, or
replacing the fish knife and fork with a joint knife and fork. This is sometimes known as a
classic or basic lay-up. An example of this type of lay-up is shown in Figure 6.14.
Note: If decorative cover plates are used for an à la carte cover it is common for the first course
plates to be placed on this plate. The first course and the cover plate are then removed when
the first course is cleared.

Table d’hôte cover

The table d’hôte cover follows the principle that the cutlery for the whole meal will be
laid before the first course is served. The traditional cover is as follows.
◗◗ joint knife
◗◗ fish knife
◗◗ soup spoon
◗◗ joint fork
◗◗ fish fork
◗◗ sweet fork






sweet spoon
side plate
side knife
napkin
water glass
wine glass.

Again, there are some possible variations to this approach. The sweet spoon and fork may
be omitted, for example, or the fish knife and fork replaced with a side knife and small/
sweet fork.

Figure 6.15 Table d’hôte cover

Where a table d’hôte cover has been laid the waiter should remove, after the order has
been taken, any unnecessary cutlery and relay any extra items that may be required. This
means that before the customer commences the meal he or she should have all the cutlery
required for the dishes chosen, set out as their place setting or cover.
Laying the table

Once the table is clothed-up it should be laid in readiness for service. Cutlery must be laid
consistently. This is often at 1.25 cm (½ in) from the edge of the table (usually about 1.25
cm (½ in)). An alternative to this is to line up the tops of all cutlery. Crockery that has a
badge or crest is laid so that the badge is at the head or top of the cover. After polishing the
glasses should be placed at the top right hand corner of the cover. Once the covers have

Preparation for service

been laid the table accompaniments should
be placed on the table according to the
custom of the establishment.
Cutlery should be laid from a service salver
or service plate. When handling cutlery it
is most often held between the thumb and
forefinger in the centre at the sides to reduce
the risk of finger marks. An alternative to
this is to use a service cloth and to hold the
items being laid in the service cloth, giving
a final polish before setting the items on the
table. In some establishments the service staff Figure 6.16 Traditional restaurant ready for
wear white gloves when laying cleaned and
service (Image courtesy of Le Columbier
Restaurant, London)
pre-polished tableware onto the tables in
order to avoid finger marks.
When laying a cover, the cutlery should be
laid from the inside to the outside of the cover. This ensures even spacing of the cover and
lessens the need to handle the items laid more than is necessary.
If an à la carte cover is being laid then the first item set on the table should be the fish
plate in the centre of each cover.
If a table d’hôte cover is being laid then the first item to be set on the table should be
the napkin or side plate in the centre of each cover. If the side plate is laid in the centre of
each cover it will be moved to the left hand side of the cover once all the cutlery has been
laid. The purpose of initially placing something in the centre of the cover is to ensure that
the covers are exactly opposite one another and that the cutlery of each cover is the same
distance apart.
The order of laying these covers is as follows:
À la carte:

Table d’hôte:

◗◗ fish plate at the centre of the
cover
◗◗ fish knife
◗◗ fish fork
◗◗ side plate
◗◗ side knife
◗◗ napkin
◗◗ water glass
◗◗ wine glass.













side plate at centre of cover
joint knife
fish knife
soup spoon
joint fork
fish fork
sweet fork
sweet spoon
move side plate to the left of cover
side knife
napkin
water glass
wine glass.

In some operations a trolley is used for storing cutlery. When laying-up, without customers
in the restaurant, this trolley is pushed around the tables and the cutlery items are laid after
a final polish with the waiter’s cloth.

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Table accompaniments

The table accompaniments required to complete the table lay-up are the same whether an
à la carte or table d’hôte cover has been laid:
◗◗ cruet: salt, pepper, mustard and mustard spoon
◗◗ table number
◗◗ floral table centre.
These are the basic items usually required
to complete the table lay-up. In some
establishments certain extra items will be
placed on the table immediately prior to the
service to complete its lay-up. These may
include:
◗◗ roll basket
◗◗ Melba toast
◗◗ gristicks
◗◗ peppermill
◗◗ butter and alternatives.

Figure 6.17 Formal restaurant ready for service
(Image courtesy of FCSI UK)

Polishing glassware
The following equipment is required to carry out this technique:
◗◗ a container of near-boiling water
◗◗ a clean, dry teacloth
◗◗ the required glassware.
1 Using the base of the glass to be cleaned, hold the wine goblet over the steam from the
boiling water so that the steam enters the bowl of the glass (see Figure 6.18(a)).
2 Rotate the wine goblet to allow the steam to circulate fully within the bowl of the glass
and then hold the base of the glass over the steam.
3 Now hold the base of the wine goblet in the clean, dry teacloth.
4 Place the other hand underneath the teacloth in readiness to polish the bowl of the glass.
5 Place the thumb of the polishing hand inside the bowl of the glass and the fingers on the

Figure 6.18(a) Polishing glasses – allowing
steam to enter the bowl of the glass

Figure 6.18(b) Polishing while rotating the glass

Preparation for service

outside, holding the bowl of the wine goblet gently but firmly. Rotate the wine goblet
with the hand holding the base of the glass (see Figure 6.18(b)).
6 When fully polished, hold the wine goblet up to the light to check that it is clean.
7 Ensure that the base of the glass is also clean.
The process described here is for single glasses. Larger quantities of glassware may be
polished by first placing a glass rack full of inverted glasses over a sink of very hot water in
order to steam the glasses. A number of people would then work together to polish the
glassware.

Preparing a simple floral table decoration
A simple centre table display can be made in a small shallow bowl using oasis – a greencoloured sponge-like material that holds moisture and is soft enough for greenery and
flower stems to be pushed into it and to hold them secure.
Preparation

  1 Using a sharp knife cut the oasis to size (unless it comes already cut and shaped as a
round posy oasis). The oasis must be at least 5 cm higher than the rim of the bowl.
This will allow enough room to fill it with greenery and flowers both on the top and
round the side.
  2 Soak the oasis (or foam) in water by placing it on the water and allowing it to sink of
its own accord. Never push the oasis under, as this will leave air pockets in it and it will
not fill with water properly. The oasis will be ready when bubbles stop forming and it
has sunk to the bottom of the container.
  3 Secure the moistened oasis into the posy bowl with oasis tape (green coloured,
waterproof sticky tape) – if the bowl and secured oasis can be turned upside down
without it moving then it is done correctly.
Foliage/greenery

  4 ‘Greening up’ the posy will help to make sure there are no gaps or holes in the
arrangement.
  5 The greenery used is often leather leaf, a type of fern, or sometimes Cupresses, known
commonly as conifer. When using leather leaf it usually needs to be cut in half, making
sure that the top half is left with a stem
that can be inserted into the oasis.
  6 Use the top sections of the greenery to
create a skirt around the bowl, making
sure the foliage is facing up to show the
correct side. Leave at least a couple of
centimetres for the stem (which needs
to be free and clean) to create a good
anchor so that the greenery does not
come free. Make sure that the foliage
is angled down to cover the bowl and
continue to fill with the remainder of
the foliage.
Figure 6.19(a)
  7 Allow room for the flowers (see
Figure 6.19(a)). When dressing the

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arrangement remember to keep turning the arrangement as this will help to keep its
shape round.
Flowers

  8 The first step in using flowers is to grade them. This means choosing the flowers that
will form the focal point of the arrangement (normally the largest in size or the most
expensive). Examples are roses, large carnations, irises and lilies.
  9 Prepare all flowers by stripping excess leaves to create clean stems, throwing away any
marked or damaged flowers, and placing them in a size order, starting with the largest.
Keeping the work area clear from cut stems and general mess will allow the full effect
and shape of the arrangement to be seen as work progresses.
10 Decide which of the flowers will be used as a focal point from any of the flowers
above, then use four of them. Place one in the posy as the central flower, with a height
of usually two-thirds the width of the bowl, including the height of the oasis. Add on
at least 5 cm and cut. Now push this into the centre of the arrangement.
11 With the three focal flowers that are left, angle these out at around 45o and at half the
height of the top central flower.
12 Remember to leave a couple of centimetres for anchorage and cut the three focal
flowers to the same height. Place them at equal distances around the top flower.
13 Once the focal flowers are in place, the hard work is done and all that is needed is to
neatly fill the gaps.
14 Depending on the flower choice,
proceed by using for example spray
carnations around and through the
arrangement. Always use buds for
the outskirts and open, larger flowers
further in and closer to the oasis.
15 Again, gauge one spray carnation from
the oasis to the tip of the foliage, then
cut a few to the same length (don’t forget
to leave some excess stem for anchorage).
Place these at equal points around the
base of the arrangement. Always work
in odd numbers, otherwise the posy will
look square (Figure 6.19(b)).
16 Continue to fill. There may be a few
buds poking between the focal flowers
Figure 6.19(b)
but never have these any higher than
the top central flower. It is also useful to
place a few open spray carnations,
for instance, close to the oasis around the
top section.
17 Repeat this process with the other flowers. Whether using for example,
chrysanthemums, alstromeria or other flowers, the same principle of using buds
towards the outside and larger open flowers towards the top central section applies.
Always remember to keep within the round dome shape (Figure 6.19(c)).
Consider using filler flowers such as yellow Solidaster, blue or white September flower,

The order of service (table service)

gypsophilla, statice or limonium. These are
very small flowers that don’t have one head,
but have branch-like stems. These can be
used to fill gaps all over a posy, making sure
thatthey are displayed the right side up
and that the stems are clean. Leave enough
to anchor into the oasis and stay within
the intended shape. Again, gauge one
againstthe arrangement and cut more to
the same length as this will help to keep the
arrangement within the shape.
Figure 6.19(c)

Note: The oasis should be kept moist to maximise the life of the flowers. Moisture content can
be checked by lightly pressing the oasis – it should feel wet. The flowers can also be kept moist
by lightly spraying them from time to time with a water gun.

Many establishments, as an alternative to the posy arrangement, purchase blooms, often
single stem, on a daily basis or as required. These are presented in a stem vase on the table.
This approach is cheaper, less time consuming and equally effective in providing floral
décor for tables.

●●6.3 The order of service (table service)
Food and beverage service staff should be on duty with sufficient time before the service is
due to commence in order to:
◗◗ check the sideboards/workstations have all the equipment necessary for service
◗◗ check that tables are laid correctly
◗◗ check the menu and have a full understanding of the dishes, methods of cooking,
garnishes, the correct covers, accompaniments and mode of service
◗◗ ascertain the allocation of stations/work areas and other duties, if these are not already
known
◗◗ enable the headwaiter/supervisor to check that all staff are dressed correctly in a clean
and well presented uniform of the establishment.

Procedure for plated or silver service of a meal
Many restaurants now offer a plated service rather than full silver service, although the
overall standard or level of service between establishments offering silver service or plated
service may vary very little. In the example for the order of service given below, customers
are having a starter, main course and sweet, to be accompanied by apéritifs, wine with the
meal and liqueurs.
  1 Greet customers at the entrance to the restaurant. Check to see if they have a
reservation. If not, allocate a table if available. Assist with the customers’ coats if
required.

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  2 Ask customers if they would like an apéritif in the lounge or reception area, or prefer
to have one at the table.
  3 Assuming they are to have the apéritif at their table the customers are led to the
allocated table and introduced to the server who will be looking after them. The
customers are then helped to be seated and each customer’s napkin is placed over his or
her lap.
  4 The order for any apéritifs is taken and the order is then served.
  5 Menus are presented to each customer, open. Guests first and host last.
  6 Bread is offered, butter and alternatives are placed on the table and any chilled water
ordered is poured.
Note: At this point all the customers at the table will have something to read, drink and eat, so
they can be left for a while to allow them time to make their selection.

  7 Explanations and advice of specific menu items are given on request. The food order is
then taken from the host. Once taken it will be read back to the host to confirm all the
items ordered together with degrees of cooking and sauces ordered.
  8 Immediately after the food order has been taken and dispatched to the kitchen, the
server or the sommelier will check with the host to see if wine is required to accompany
the meal. Again, the order is taken from the host and advice as to suitable wines to
accompany certain dishes is given on request. The glassware will also be adjusted for the
wine to be served. Sometimes the food and wine orders will be taken at the same time.
  9 The covers will be adjusted or laid for the first course. In more casual establishments
the covers are laid for the first and main course at the beginning of the meal.
10 The wine ordered will be presented to the host to confirm that the correct bottle of
wine is about to be opened.
11 The wine is always served before the food. The wine will be opened, decanted if
necessary, and the host will be asked to taste the wine to assess the quality of the
contents and that the serving temperature is correct. (The host may taste the wine or
designate another customer to taste the wine; in either case the person tasting the wine
always has their glass topped up last.)
12 The plated first course(s) will now be served, cold before hot, and the accompaniments
offered. Once all plates are on the table, explanations of the dishes are given to
the customers. For silver service the first course plates will be laid in front of each
customer, the dish(es) to be served will be presented to the table and an explanation
of the dishes given. The first course(s) will be silver served to the customers from their
left hand side and any accompaniments will be offered.
13 The server will now check the table to ensure everything is satisfactory and the
customers have all they require.
14 Wine and water glasses will be topped up as necessary. Used or empty glasses will be
removed from the table.
15 When the customers have finished their first courses, clear the first course plates and
remove any accompaniments using correct stacking techniques.
16 If a different wine is to be served with the main course, the correct glasses should be
placed on the table and the wine then served before the food in the same way as the
previous wine. If a bottle of the same wine is to be served then this is normally offered
with a clean glass for tasting the wine.

The order of service (table service)

17 If necessary the covers should be laid for the main course.
18 The server will now check that the correct main course covers are set on the table, any
accompaniments required are to hand and any other drinks ordered have been served.
19 Empty or used glasses will be removed from the table.
20 The plated main course(s) will now be brought to the table and served from the right
hand side of the customer, cold before hot, and the accompaniments offered. Once
all plates are on the table, explanations of the dishes are given to the customers. For
silver service the main course plates will be laid in front of each customer, the dish(es)
to be served will be presented to the table and an explanation of the dishes given. The
main course(s) will be silver served to the customers from their left hand side, and any
accompaniments will be offered.
21 The server will now check the table to ensure everything is satisfactory and the
customers have all they require.
22 Wine and water glasses will be topped up as necessary.
23 When the customers have finished eating their main courses, the main course plates
and cutlery are cleared. Side plates and side knives, all accompaniments, butter and the
cruet set are also cleared using the correct clearing techniques.
24 The table is then crumbed down.
25 Present the sweet menu. Give customers time to make their choice. Explanations and
advice of specific menu items are given on request. The food order for the sweet will
then be taken through the host. Once taken it will be read back to the host to confirm
all the items ordered.
26 Covers for the sweet course are laid.
27 Empty or used wine glasses and bottles are cleared away.
28 If wine is to be served with the sweet course, the correct glasses should be placed on
the table and the wine then served before the food in the same way as for the previous
wine(s).
29 The plated sweet course(s) will now be brought to the table and served from the right
hand side of the customer, cold before hot, and the accompaniments offered. Once all
plates are on the table, explanations of the dishes are given to the customers. For silver
service the sweet course plates will be laid in front of each customer. The dish(es) to
be served will be presented to the table and an explanation of the dishes given. The
sweet course(s) will be silver served to the customers from their left hand side, and any
accompaniments will be offered.
30 Clear the sweet course and remove accompaniments.
31 The server will now take the hot beverage order for tea, coffee or other beverages.
32 While the hot beverages are being prepared a drink order for digestives, such as
liqueurs, brandy or port will be taken.
33 The drink order will then be served.
34 Tea and coffee or other beverages will be served.
35 Offer petits fours/friandises to the customers or place the tray on the table.
36 When required the bill will be presented to the host. The server will receive payment
from the host. (For billing see Section 12.6, p.381.)
37 The server will see the customers out, assisting with their coats if required.
38 The table is cleared down and then re-laid if required.

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Removal of spare covers
In many instances the number of customers in a party is less than the table is laid for. The
waiter must then remove the spare cover(s) laid on the table. Judgement must be used as
to which cover is removed – this may depend on the actual position of the table. General
considerations are that customers, where possible, should face into the room. The cover
should be removed using a service plate or a service salver. When this has been done the
position of the other covers should be adjusted if necessary and the table accompaniments
re-positioned. The spare chair should also be removed. Where there is an uneven number
of customers each side of a table, the covers should be positioned so that the full length of
the table is used for both sides, by spacing the covers out on each side. This ensures that
one customer is not left facing a space on the other side of the table.

Re-laying of tables
It is very often the case in a busy restaurant or dining room that a number of the tables
have to be re-laid in order to cope with the inflow of customers. Where this is the case the
table should first be completely cleared of all items of equipment and then crumbed down.
At this stage, if the tablecloth is a little soiled or grubby a slip cloth should be placed over
it, or if necessary the tablecloth may be changed. The table may then be re-laid.

●●6.4 Taking customer food and beverage
orders

Methods of order taking
Essentially there are four methods of taking food and beverage orders from customers.
These are summarised in Table 6.1.
Table 6.1 Main methods of taking food and beverage orders
Method

Description

Triplicate

Order is taken; top copy goes to the supply point; second copy
is sent to the cashier for billing; third copy is retained by the
server as a means of reference during service

Duplicate

Order is taken; top copy goes to the supply point; second copy
is retained for service and billing purposes

Service with order

Order is taken; customer is served and payment received
according to that order, for example, bar service or takeaway
methods

Pre-ordered

a) Individually, for example, room service breakfast (see Section
9.2, p.000)
b) Hospital tray system (see Section 9.4, p.276)
c) Events (see Chapter 11, p.333)

All order taking methods are based upon these four basic concepts. Even the most
sophisticated electronic system is based upon either the triplicate or duplicate method.
Checks can be written on check pads or keyed in on handheld terminals. The order is

Taking customer orders

then communicated by hand or electronically to visual display units (VDUs) or printout
terminals in the food production or beverage provision areas. The main systems used are
described in Section 12.6, p.384.

Remote
receiver

POS touchscreen with bill
and receipt printer
Hand-held
order pad

Network controller

Back-office management tools

Kitchen printers

Bar printer

• Stock control
• Reservation system
• Sales analysis
• Revenue control
• Customer database

Figure 6.20 Radio-controlled electronic system for order taking and communication to food
production and bar areas

Triplicate checking method

This is an order taking method used in the majority of medium and large first class
establishments. As the name implies, the food check consists of three copies. To ensure
efficient control the server must fill in the following information in the four corners of the
check:
◗◗ table number
◗◗ number of covers
◗◗ date
◗◗ signature of server taking the order.
On taking the food order it is written from top to bottom of the food check. Where only
a table d’hôte menu is in operation the customers would initially only order their first and
main courses. The set price charged for this menu would be entered on the food check
and circled.
A second new food check is written out for the sweet course, this being taken after
the main course is finished. A third new check will be completed if any beverages such as
coffee, tea or tisanes are required.
The operation for an à la carte menu is similar, although customers may order course by
course according to their requirements.

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All checks should be legible. Abbreviations may
be used when taking the order as long as everyone
understands them and they are not misinterpreted by the
kitchen, as the wrong order may be prepared.
When taking orders a note should be taken of who
is having what order. This ensures that specific orders
are identified and that they are served to the correct
customer. A system for ensuring that the right customer
receives the correct food is to identify on the order
which customer is having which dish. A check pad
design that might be used for this is shown in Figure
6.21. An electronic handheld order taking system is
show in Figure 6.22.
The food check

◗◗ The top copy of the food order goes to the kitchen
and is handed to the aboyeur at the hotplate.
◗◗ The duplicate goes to the cashier who makes out the
customer’s bill.
◗◗ The flimsy, or third copy, is retained by the waiter at
his or her workstation for reference.
◗◗ Any checks or bills that have to be cancelled should
have the signature of either the headwaiter or
supervisor on them, as should checks and bills which
have alterations made on them.
Duplicate checking method

This is a control system that is more likely to
be found in the smaller hotel, popular price
restaurant and cafés and department store
catering. It is generally used where a table
d’hôte menu is in operation and sometimes
a very limited à la carte menu.
As the name implies, there are two copies
of each of these food checks, each set being
serial numbered. A check pad, or bill pad
as it is sometimes termed, usually contains a
set of 50 or 100 food checks. The top copy
of the food check is usually carbon-backed
but, if not, a sheet of carbon must be placed
between the top and duplicate copy every
time a fresh order is taken.
For control purposes the top copy may
have printed on it a server’s number or
letter. This should be the number or letter
given to a waiter on joining the staff. The
control and accounts department should
be informed of the person to whom the

Figure 6.21 Check pad design
enabling the waiter to identify
specific orders (image courtesy of
National Checking Co)

Figure 6.22 Handheld electronic pad for
order taking (image courtesy of Uniwell
Systems (UK) Ltd/Palm TEQ UK)

Taking customer orders

number applies, and he or she retains it
throughout their employment. On each set
of food checks there should also be printed
a serial number.
Sometimes the top copy of the set of
food and drink checks is made up of a
number of perforated slips, usually 4–5 in
number. There is a section at the bottom
of the food and drink check for the table
number to be entered. The top copy
sometimes has a cash column for entering
the price of a meal or the dishes ordered,
but if this is not the case, the waiter must
enter them independently on the duplicate
copy against the particular dishes ordered.
When writing out a customer’s order a
different perforated slip should be used for
each course. The server must remember
to write out the number of covers and the
price of the meal or dish concerned on
each slip. Before sending each slip to the
hotplate, check that the details are entered
correctly on the duplicate copy together
Figure 6.23 Example of a duplicated order pad
with the price. Since the duplicate copy
with perforated sections
acts as the customer’s bill, the waiter must
ensure that everything ordered and served
is listed on the duplicate copy, charged and paid for at the conclusion of the meal.
As the service of a meal commences, the waiter tears off from the top copy of the food
and drink check the perforated slip showing the first course ordered. This is taken to the
hotplate and the required dish is put up. As soon as this happens the aboyeur will tear
off the server’s number on the end of the slip and place it with the dish concerned. This
then shows which waiter the dish is for. If there is no server number at the end of the
perforated slip, then the perforated slip itself is left with the order until collected by the
appropriate waiter. The aboyeur will then retain the slip showing the course just served.
As soon as the first course is served (and allowing time for this course to be consumed),
the second perforated slip showing the main course ordered is taken to the hotplate by the
waiter. Similar procedures as with the first course are followed and this dish will then be
collected when required. This same procedure is carried on throughout the meal.
It may happen that there are insufficient perforated slips on the top copy of the food and
drink check for a particular customer’s requirements. Very often the waiter does his or her
own drink service and thus takes the drink order and enters it on a separate perforated slip.
When there are insufficient perforated slips, a supplementary check pad is used.
Special checks

In certain instances it is necessary to write out special checks. For example:
◗◗ Where it is necessary to write out more than one food check for a meal. For instance
where a sweet check is written out after the first and main course has been cleared. At

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the head of this check should be written the word ‘suivant’ which means ‘follow on’ and
shows that one check has already been written out for that particular table (see Figure
6.24).
◗◗ When an extra portion of food is required because insufficient has been sent from the
kitchen, a special check must be written out headed ‘supplement’ (see Figure 6.25). This
means the food is a supplement to what has already been previously sent and should
be signed by the headwaiter or supervisor. Normally there is no charge (n/c), but this
depends on the policy of the establishment concerned.
◗◗ Where a wrong dish has been ordered and has to be sent back to the kitchen and
replaced, a special check must again be made out (see Figure 6.26). If the service being
carried out is from an à la carte menu then the prices of the two dishes concerned must
be shown. Two main headings are used on this special check, ‘retour’ (or ‘return’) and
the name of the dish going back to the kitchen, and ‘en place’ (or ‘in its place’) and the
name of the new dish to be served.

Name of Establishment
Table No.4

No of covers 2

Follow on
2 Peach flambé

Date 2/2/10

Signed CEH

Figure 6.24 Food check: suivant/
follow on
Name of Establishment
Table No.4

No of covers 2

Return
1 Roast chicken

Name of Establishment
Table No.4

No of covers 2

Supplement
1 Peas N/C

Date 2/2/10

Signed CEH

Figure 6.25 Food check: supplement

Name of Establishment
Table No.4

No of covers 2

Accident
2 vegetables N/C

In place
1 Poached Chicken

Date 2/2/10

Signed CEH

Figure 6.26 Food check: return/in its
place

Date 2/2/10

Signed CEH

Figure 6.27 Food check: accident

Taking customer food and beverage

◗◗ It occasionally happens that the waiter may have an accident in the room and perhaps
some vegetables are dropped. These must be replaced without any extra charge to
the customer. Here a check must be completed headed ‘accident’ (see Figure 6.27). It
will show the number of portions of vegetables required and should be signed by the
headwaiter or supervisor in charge. No charge (n/c) is stated on the check to ensure that
no charge is made to the customer.

Other checking methods
Menu order and customer bill

This shows the menu order and customer’s bill combined on one sheet and would
be allocated to each party of customers. When the order is taken each customer’s
requirements would be written down in the column next to the price column. Thus, if a
party of two customers requested two cream soups, one mushroom omelette and chips and
one fried cod and chips, it would be noted down as shown in Figure 6.28.
Soup
Cream soup
Hot dishes
Omelette served with chips and salad
Plain
Cheese
Ham
Mushroom
Tomato
Fried cod and chips

2.60

2

4.50

1

4.75

1

Figure 6.28 Quick service menu order and customer bill

Single order sheet

A further simple form of checking is used in cafés, quick turnover restaurants and
department stores. It is a simple form of ordering which may be used, or adapted for use,
in various forms of operation.
The menu is normally very limited. The server takes the order and marks down the
customer’s requirements, calls for the order verbally over the hotplate and, when the
customer requests the bill, prices the order sheet and hands it to him/her. The customer
then hands it to the cashier on leaving and pays the required amount. There is only one
copy of this order and bill combined, and the cashier retains this for control purposes, after
the customer has made the necessary payment.
Customer self-complete order

A more modern trend is to ask customers to take their own food and drink order. This
method is often found in bar operations and it allows staff to concentrate on the service of
food (plate service) and beverages, and to accept payments. The customer order form may
take the format shown in Figure 6.29.
The order for the food and drink requirements, once complete, is taken by the customer

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Figure 6.29 Example of customer self-complete order sheet (not full size)

to the food till and sent electronically by a member of staff to the kitchen where a printed
copy is processed for the kitchen staff to produce the dishes required.
After submitting the initial food and beverage order at the food till, an account will be
opened, under the table number and by processing the customer’s credit card. This is so
any additional items such as sweets, coffee or alcoholic beverages may be added to the bill.
The customer may then pay the total bill at the conclusion of their meal. These additional
items required may be ordered at the food till or at the customer’s table.

Taking orders for beverage service
An efficient system must operate here to ensure that:
◗◗ the correct wine and other drinks are served at the right table
◗◗ the service rendered is charged to the correct bill
◗◗ a record is kept of all wine and other drinks issued from the bar
◗◗ management is able to assess sales over a financial period and make comparisons.
The usual system of control is a duplicate check pad. The colour of the check pad may be
pink or white, but is generally pink or some other
colour to distinguish it from a food check. This acts
top copy to dispense bar
as an aid to the cashier and the control and accounts
department in differentiating quickly between food
Name of Establishment
(white) and drink (pink) checks (see Figure 6.30).
When the wine order is taken it is written in
Table No.10
Covers 3
duplicate. The wine service staff must remember to
2 sweet sherries
fill in the four items of information required, one in
each corner of the check. These are as follows:
1 pale ale
◗◗ table number or room number
◗◗ number of covers
◗◗ date
◗◗ signature.
Abbreviations are allowed when writing the order
as long as they are understood by the bar staff and
the cashier. When wines are ordered only the
bin number, together with the number of bottles

1/2 x 16
1 x 40

Date 2/2/10

Signed CEH

Figure 6.30 Wine check

Service of food

required, should be written down. The bin number is an aid to the bar staff and cellar staff
in finding, without delay, the wine required by a customer. Each wine in the wine list will
have a bin number printed against it.
On taking the order the wine staff should hand both copies to the bar staff, who retain
the top copy, put up the order and leave the duplicate copy with the order. This enables
the wine staff to see which their order is when they come to collect their wines and
drinks. After serving the wines and drinks the duplicate copy is handed to the cashier.

Taking children’s orders
Staff should pay special attention when taking orders for children. Staff need to be aware
of:
◗◗ the availability and choice of children’s meals
◗◗ what the children’s meals consist of
◗◗ portion size, for example, the number of sausages
◗◗ the cost per head
◗◗ the need to make a special note of any specific requests, such as no baked beans
◗◗ the need to serve young/small children first as they often become agitated when
everyone else has been served and their meal is still to come
◗◗ the importance of not overfilling cups, bowls or glasses
◗◗ the need to always ensure children’s plates are warm rather than hot to avoid mishaps
◗◗ providing children with the establishment ‘give aways’ in order to keep them occupied,
for example, a place mat to be coloured in. This can also encourage sales.

Customers with additional needs
Customers with additional needs may require particular attention. These are customers
who may be hearing impaired, blind or partially sighted (see Section 2.5, p.47). In these
instances consider the following:
◗◗ Where applicable, when taking the order, face the customer so they see you full face.
◗◗ Speak normally but distinctly.
◗◗ Keep descriptions to a minimum.
◗◗ Indicate precisely any modifiers that are available with a specific dish, for example, a
choice of dips being available with a starter, or the different degrees of cooking available
for a grilled steak.
◗◗ Read back the order given for confirmation.
Other additional needs may relate to vegetarians, those with particular religious or cultural
restrictions and those with special dietary needs (see Section 4.4, p.97).

●●6.5 Service of food
In table and assisted service the general convention is to serve all food items from the left
and to clear from the right. All beverages (both alcoholic and non-alcoholic) are served
from the right. With the increase in plated service, it has become common to serve plated
foods from the right. This is done for the same reason that dirties are cleared from the
right: the left hand (normally) is used to stack dirties while the right clears the plates. This

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ensures that the stack of dirties is behind the customer. If a dirty plate falls, it will fall on
the floor and not on the customer. With plated service, the additional plates of food are
similarly held behind the seated customer.
It is also a convention to always serve cold food before hot food (irrespective of the
host). This ensures that, once the hot food is served, the customers may eat immediately
without having to wait while the cold food is collected and served. This allows all
customers to receive their food at the correct serving/eating temperature.
For a more comprehensive listing of service conventions see Section 2.3, pp.30–4.

Service of soup
Soup may be served pre-plated, from a tureen at the sideboard, at a guéridon or from an
individual tureen as shown in Figure 6.31. The waiter ensures that the soup is poured away
from the customer. The underflat acts as a drip plate to prevent any spillage from going on
the tablecloth.

Figure 6.31 Silver service of soup from an individual tureen

Service of food

Consommé is traditionally served in a consommé cup on a consommé saucer with a
fishplate underneath. It is traditional for this type of soup to be eaten with a sweet spoon.
This is because consommé was originally taken before going home, after a function, as a
warming beverage. It was originally drunk from this large cup. The garnish was eaten with
the sweet spoon. The tradition of the sweet spoon has continued, but a soupspoon would
also be acceptable.

Silver service from flats (meat/fish)
◗◗ The correct cover is laid prior to the food item ordered being served.
◗◗ The service cloth is folded neatly and placed on the palm of the hand as a protection
against heat from the serving dish.
◗◗ The fold of the cloth should be on the tips of the fingers.
◗◗ The dish is presented to the customer so they may see the complete dish as it has come
from the kitchen. This is to show off the chef ’s artistry in presentation.
◗◗ The serving dish should be held a little above the hot joint plate with the front edge
slightly overlapping the rim of the hot joint plate.
◗◗ The portion of food is placed in the 6 o’clock position (i.e. nearest to the customer) on
the hot joint plate.
◗◗ When moving to serve the second portion, the flat should be rotated on the service
cloth so the next meat portion to be served will be nearest the hot main course plate.
◗◗ Note that the portion of food served, on the plate nearest to the customer, allows
ample room on the plate to serve and present the potatoes and other vegetables
attractively.
◗◗ If vegetables are being served onto separate plates, then the main food item (meat or
fish) is placed in the middle of the hot main course plate.

Silver service of potatoes and vegetables
◗◗ The general rule is for potatoes to be served before vegetables.
◗◗ When serving either potatoes or vegetables, the vegetable dish itself should always be
placed on an underflat with a napkin on it. This is for presentation purposes.
◗◗ The purpose of the napkin is also to prevent the vegetable dish slipping about on the
underflat while the service is being carried out.
◗◗ A separate service spoon and fork should be used for each different type of potato and
vegetable dish to be served.
◗◗ Note again the use of the service cloth as protection against heat and to allow the easier
rotation of the vegetable dish on its underflat. This ensures the items to be served are
nearest the hot main course plate.
◗◗ With the serving dish in its correct position the potato dish nearest the hot joint plate
should be served.
◗◗ The potato dish served is placed on the hot joint plate on the far side in the 2 o’clock
position, allowing the server to work towards himself as he serves the remaining food
items ordered and making it easier to present the food attractively. Any vegetables to
be served are therefore placed on the hot joint plate nearer to the server and in the 10
o’clock position.
◗◗ Creamed potato is served by placing the service fork into the service spoon and then
taking a scoop of the creamed potato from the vegetable dish. This is then carried to the

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hot main course plate and the fork moved slightly. The potato should then fall off onto
the plate.

Figure 6.32 Silver service of potato and vegetables

Note: Figure 6.32 shows the use of an underflat under the potato and vegetable dishes. It also
indicates:
●● how a variety of potatoes and vegetables can be served at one time by using a large
underflat
●● the use of a service cloth for protection from heat and to prevent the underflat from slipping
●● the correct handling of the service spoon and fork
●● the separate service spoon and fork for each different potato and vegetable dish to be
served.
●● service from the left hand side of the customer.

Service of accompanying sauces
◗◗ The sauce should be presented in a sauceboat on an underplate, with a sauce ladle.
◗◗ A ladleful of sauce should be lifted clear of the sauceboat.
◗◗ The underside of the sauce ladle should then be run over the edge of the sauceboat to
avoid any drips falling on the tablecloth or over the edge of the hot joint plate.
◗◗ The sauce should be napped over the portion of meat already served or at the side of the
meat depending on the customer’s preference.

Service enhancements
Service enhancements include service from trolleys, at buffets and counters. Various forms
of tray service are considered throughout Chapter 9. Guéridon service is discussed in
Section 10.1 (p.283) and buffet and counter service in Section 7.1 (p.238).
The main standard to be achieved in these forms of food service is that the server’s hands
should not touch the food. The food trolley should be positioned between the staff and

Service of alcoholic beverages

customer as if it were in a shop. Note that the food is not normally served by the spoon
and fork technique. Instead, service is with one implement in one hand and another in
the other hand with the service either on to plates on the buffet or on to a plate that the
customer is holding.
Sweet and cheese trolleys

These should be attractively presented from
the customer’s point of view and well laid
out from behind for the server. Plates for
dirty service equipment should therefore
be to the back of the trolley. Staff should
explain food items to customers, either from
behind the trolley, to the side of the trolley
or standing by the table, but not in front of
the trolley.
When the customer makes a selection,
a plate should be positioned near the item
to be served. Then, with a service spoon in
one hand and a service fork in the other (or
a gâteau slice, etc.) food should be portioned
and transferred neatly to the plate. The
plate should then be placed in front of the
Figure 6.33 Cheese trolley (image courtesy of
customer from the right. For larger parties,
Steelite International)
two people will be required – one to take
the orders and place the plate with food in
front of the customer, the other to stand at the trolley and portion and plate the foods.
Some sweet trolleys have a plate holding ring within their design. In this instance the
dish holding the food item ordered must be placed next to this holding ring. Thus when
the food item is portioned it may be transferred easily and safely onto the customer’s sweet
plate, there being minimum distance between the dish holding the food item ordered and
the customer’s sweet plate.
For temperature control purposes many sweet trolleys now come with ice pack
compartments, which should be replenished before each service. For notes on the service
of cheese and sweets see Section 4.13 (p.110) and Section 4.14 (p.116) respectively.

●●6.6 Service of alcoholic beverages
The bar areas may be said to be the shop window of an establishment as they are often a
meeting point for customers prior to business and social events. The first impressions given
here are therefore of prime importance in gaining further sales. The presentation of the bar
personnel, together with a well-stocked, organised and efficiently run bar, are essential for
good customer service. Bar personnel must have good technical skills, product knowledge
and social skills and be able to work as part of a team, in order to meet the needs of
customers.

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Service of apéritifs
The term apéritif covers a wide range of drinks that may be served before a meal. Apéritifs
may be offered at the table once customers have been seated, or may be offered in the
lounge/reception area.
Table 6.2 Examples of popular bar drinks and their service
Drink

Service

Baileys

Either chilled or with crushed ice as frappé

Brandy

No additions to good brandies. Popular mixers for lesser brandies are
lemonade or peppermint, together with ice

Campari

Soda water or lemonade together with ice and a slice of orange

Dark rum

Lemonade or cola with ice and slice of lemon/lime or with blackcurrant
and no ice

Sherries

Served chilled

Fruit juices

Served chilled or served with lemonade, tonic water or sparkling mineral
water. Also served with ice and a slice of lemon, orange or other fruit

Gin

Angostura Bitters and ice (Pink Gin) or with tonic water or bitter lemon
together with ice and a slice of lemon/lime

Liqueurs

May be served naturally or on crushed ice as frappé

Mineral water

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Properly served chilled only, but can be with ice and lemon/lime at the
request of the guest. Sometimes served with cordials or fruit juices

Aerated waters
(e.g. cola)

Served chilled or with ice and a slice of lemon/lime or orange. Sometimes
served with cordials

Pernod

Water and with ice offered and sometimes with cordials or lemonade

Pimm’s

Lemonade, ice and slice of lemon, cucumber, apple, orange and a sprig
of mint. Sometimes also topped up with ginger ale, soda or tonic water

Port (white)

Serve chilled, sometimes with ice and a slice of lemon/lime

Port (ruby)

Good port served naturally. Lesser port either by itself or with lemonade
and ice

Sambucca

Coffee bean and set alight (for safety reasons this should be done at
the table and the flame extinguished as soon as the oil from the bean is
released into the drink)

Vermouths

With ice and a slice of lemon/lime or sometimes with lemonade. Dry
vermouths may alternatively be served with an olive; sweeter vermouths
with a cocktail cherry

Vodka

Tonic water or lemonade, ice and a slice of lemon/lime; orange cordial,
ice and a slice of orange; lime cordial, ice and a slice of lemon/lime;
tomato juice, ice, a slice of lemon and Worcestershire sauce, sometimes
with salt offered and also celery sticks

Whisk(e)y

Natural or with water (often still mineral water), with ice offered or with dry
ginger or Canada Dry or soda water and with ice offered

Wine

By the glass and sometimes, for white wine, with soda water or sparkling
mineral water or lemonade, as spritzer

White rum

Natural with ice or with cola, ice and a slice of lemon/lime

Service of alcoholic beverages

An indication of the glassware for a variety of beverages is given in Section 3.11, p.79.
The service of examples of popular bar drinks is shown in Table 6.2.
Many establishments now serve bar drinks onto a glass coaster (often paper) at the point
of sale.

Service of cocktails
Cocktails should always be served well chilled in an appropriately sized glass with the
correct garnish, straw and umbrella, according to the policy of the establishment. Many
cocktails are served in the traditional V-shaped cocktail glass but, if the cocktail is a long
drink, then a larger glass such as a Slim Jim will be better suited. The key consideration
here should be the total presentation of the cocktail as seen visually by the customer. For
further information on cocktails see Section 5.6, p.141 and Annex B, pp.432–39.

Service of wines
The sommelier or wine waiter should be able to advise and suggest wines to the host
as required. This means that the wine waiter must have a good knowledge of the wines
contained within the wine list and be able to identify examples of wines that will pair well
with the menu dishes. Immediately the food order has been taken the wine list should
again be presented to the host so that he or she may order wine to accompany the meals
that the guests have ordered.
There are seven key aspects to be taken into account when serving wines.
1 The wine waiter must be able to describe the wines and their characteristics honestly –
bluffing should be avoided.
2 Always serve the wine before the food. Avoid any delay in serving the food once the
wine has been served.
3 Serve wine at the correct temperature – it is better to tell the customer that the wine
is not at the right temperature for service, rather than resorting to quick heating or
cooling methods as these can damage the wine.
4 Treat wine with respect and demonstrate a high level of technical skill, supported by the
use of high quality service equipment. As the customer is paying for the wine and the
service they have the right to expect their chosen wine to be treated with care.
5 When pouring wine, the neck of the bottle should be over the glass but not resting
on the rim in case of an accident. Care should be taken to avoid splashing the wine
and when pouring is complete, the bottle should be twisted and raised as it is taken
away. This prevents drops of wine falling on the tablecloth or on a customer’s clothes.
Any drops on the rim of the bottle should be wiped away with a clean service cloth or
napkin.
6 Do not overfill glasses. Fill glasses to the right level, usually to the widest part of the
bowl or to two-thirds full, whichever is the lesser. Sparkling wine served in a flûte is
usually filled to about two-thirds to three-quarters of the glass. Doing so helps the wine
to be better appreciated and looks better too.
7 Avoid unnecessary topping up – it does not sell more wine and it often irritates
customers. Another reason for being cautious about topping up wine glasses is that the
customer may be driving. If wine is constantly topped up the customer may not notice
how much they are consuming. In general, it is preferable to ask the customer about
topping up their wine.

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Serving temperatures for wines

◗◗ Red wines: 15.5–18°C (60–65°F). Some young red wines may also be drunk cool at
about 12.5–15.5°C (55–60°F).
◗◗ White wines: 10–12.5°C (50–55°F).
◗◗ Dessert wines, Champagne and other sparkling white wines: 4.5–10°C (40–50°F).
Wine glasses

Wines may be served in the types of glasses indicated below:
◗◗ Champagne and other sparkling wines: flûte or tulip-shaped glass.
◗◗ German and Alsace wines: traditionally long-stemmed German wine glass but nowadays a
medium-size wine glass.
◗◗ White wines: medium-size wine glass.
◗◗ Rosé wines: flûte or medium-size wine glass.
◗◗ Red wines: large wine glass.
For examples of glassware see Section 3.11, p.79.
Service of white wines

  1 Obtain the wine from the bar or storage area. Check that the order is correct and that
the wine is clear and properly temperatured.
  2 Take to the table in an ice bucket and place the ice bucket in a stand.
  3 Present the bottle to the host with the label showing – this allows him or her to check
that the correct wine is to be served (see Figure 6.34(a)).
  4 Ensure the correct glasses are placed on the table for the wine to be served.
  5 Make sure a clean napkin is tied to the handle of the ice bucket – this is used to wipe
away condensation and water from the outside of the bottle before pouring the wine.
  6 Using a wine knife, cut the foil all the way round, below or above the bottle rim at
the top of the bottle (some bottles have small caps rather than foils). The top of the
foil only is then removed and the top of the cork is wiped with the napkin (see Figure
6.34(b)).
  7 Remove the cork using a wine knife (see Figure 6.34(c)). Smell the cork in case the
wine is ‘corked’.
  8 Place the cork in the ice bucket. If the wine is a high quality vintage wine then the
cork would generally be placed on a side plate at the head of the host’s cover. This
cork should have the name and year of the wine printed on it.
  9 Wipe the inside of the neck of the bottle with the napkin.
10 Wipe the bottle dry.
11 Hold the bottle for pouring so that the label may be seen. Use the waiter’s cloth in the
other hand, folded, to catch any drips from the neck of the bottle (see Figure 6.34(d)).
12 Give a taste of the wine to the host, pouring from the right hand side. He or she
should acknowledge that the wine is suitable, i.e. that it has the correct taste, bouquet
and temperature.
13 Serve ladies first, then gentlemen and the host last, always commencing from the
host’s right. However, nowadays service often follows from one customer to the next,
anti-clockwise.
14 Fill each glass two-thirds full or to the widest part of the bowl – whichever is the
lower. This leaves room for an appreciation of the bouquet.
15 Replace the remaining wine in the wine bucket and refill the glasses when necessary.

Service of alcoholic beverages

16 If a fresh bottle is required, then fresh glasses should be placed upon the table, and the
host asked to taste the new wine before it is served.
17 On finishing pouring a glass of wine, twist the neck of the bottle and raise it at the
same time to prevent drops from falling on the tablecloth.

Figure 6.34(a) Service of white wine – presenting the bottle; Figure 6.34(b) Removing the foil;
Figure 6.34(c) Removing the cork; Figure 6.34(d) Pouring the wine

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Note: For bottles with screw caps, the opening procedure is to hold the whole length of the
seal in the opening hand and to hold the base of the bottle in the other hand. The closure is
held firmly in the opening hand with more pressure, from the thumb and first finger, around the
cap itself. The bottle is then sharply twisted using the hand holding the base. There will be a
click and then the upper part of the screw top can be removed.

Service of red wine

The basic procedure for the opening and serving of red wines is the same as for white
wines described above. If the red wine to be opened is young the bottle may stand on
an underplate or coaster on the table and be opened from this position. This adds to the
overall presentation of the bottle and may prevent drips of red wine from staining the
tablecloth. Although there is no technical reason why red wine should be served with the
bottle in a wine basket or wine cradle, these are used in a number of establishments for
display/presentation purposes. They also assist in retaining the sediment, found in some
older red wines, in the base of the bottle.
The cork should be removed from the bottle of red wine as early as possible so that
the wine may attain room temperature naturally. If the wine is of age and/or is likely to
have a heavy sediment, then the wine should be decanted. It should be placed in a wine
basket and first presented to the customer. Placing the bottle in a wine basket helps to
keep the bottle as horizontal as possible, comparable to its storage position in the cellar, in
order to prevent the sediment from being shaken up. The wine should then be decanted.
Alternatively, if the wine is ordered in advance it can be left standing for a few days before
opening (see Figure 6.35(a)).
There is a trend nowadays to decant younger red wines, simply because exposure to
air improves the bouquet and softens and mellows the wine. Decanting also enhances the
appearance of the wine, especially when presented in a fine wine decanter. However, the
permission of the host should always be sought before decanting a wine in the restaurant.
Decanting is the movement of wine from its original container to a fresh glass
receptacle, leaving the sediment behind.
1 Extract the cork carefully. The cork may disintegrate because of long contact with
alcohol, so be careful.
2 Place a single point light behind the shoulder of the bottle, a candle if you are decanting
in front of customers, but a torch, light bulb or any light source will do (see Figure
6.35(b)).
3 Carefully pour the wine into an absolutely clean decanter. The light will reveal the first
sign of sediment entering the neck of the bottle (see Figure 6.35(c)).
4 As soon as sediment is seen, stop pouring into the decanter but continue pouring into a
glass (see Figure 6.35(d)). The latter wine, when it settles, can be used as a taster or for
sauces in the kitchen.
5 The wine should always be checked to make sure that it is clear before being presented
at the table for service.
6 If the wine is not clear after decanting then it should be decanted again into a fresh
decanter, but this time using a wine funnel which has a piece of fine muslin in the
mouth of the funnel. If the wine is still not clear it should not be served and a new
bottle of the wine selected. It is more common now for a wine funnel to be used as part
of the decanting process generally, as shown in Figure 6.35.

Service of alcoholic beverages

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Figure 6.35 Decanting wine

Very old red wine can break up with too much exposure to air. Such wines can be left to
stand for a few days to allow the sediment to settle in the bottom of the bottle. The bottle
is then opened before the meal is served and the wine is poured very carefully straight
into the glass, with the bottle held in the pouring position as each glass is approached.
This prevents the wine slopping back to disturb the sediment. Sufficient glasses should be
available to finish the bottle, thereby ensuring that the wine does not re-mingle with its
sediment during the pouring process.
Service of Champagne and sparkling wine

The same method is used for opening all sparkling wines. The wine should be served
well chilled in order to obtain the full effect of the secondary fermentation in the bottle,
namely, effervescence and bouquet. The pressure in a Champagne bottle, due to its
maturing and secondary fermentation, will be about 5 kg per cm2 (about 70 lb per sq in).
Great care must therefore be taken not to shake the bottle otherwise the pressure will build
up and could cause an accident.
1 After presenting the bottle to the host the wine is ready for opening.
2 The neck of the bottle should be kept pointed towards a safe area in the restaurant
during the opening process, in order to avoid any accidents to customers should the
cork be released suddenly.
3 The thumb should be held over the cork with the remainder of the hand holding the
neck of the bottle.

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4 The foil around the top of the cork is separated from the foil around the neck of the
bottle by pulling on the tab on the foil, or by using a wine knife to cut it. The foil is not
removed.
5 The wine cage is carefully loosened, but not removed.
6 Then, holding the cork and the cage in one hand, the bottom of the bottle should be
twisted with the other hand to slowly release the cork.
Sparkling wine should be served in flûtes or tulip-shaped glasses, from the right hand side
of each customer. It is also worth considering lifting the glass from the table so as to pour
the wine more easily and quickly, and to reduce the frothing of the wine.
Service of wine by the glass

Many establishments offer a range of wines for sale by the glass. Wines are mostly offered
in 125 ml or 175 ml measures. With the exception of sparkling wines, it is often better to
serve the wine in a glass larger than the measure. This allows the aroma to develop in the
glass and the wine to be better appreciated. Many establishments now also pour a measure
of wine into a small carafe for the service of wine by the glass. This then allows the
customer to pour into their glass the wine as required.
Storage of open wine

Once a bottle is opened the wine can deteriorate quite quickly as it reacts with the air and
oxidises. There are various methods of keeping wines once they have been opened. Some
work by creating a vacuum within the bottle and then sealing the bottle with a removable
closure, either manually or mechanically. Another system involves putting a layer of carbon
dioxide gas (CO2) on the surface of the wine, thus preventing air getting to it.

Service of beer
Beer should be served at a temperature of 12.5–15.5°C (55–60°F), with lagers generally
cooler than other beers at 8.0–10.5°C (48–51°F). Many different varieties of bottled beers
are also served chilled. Draught beer, on its route from the keg/cask to the pump, often
passes through a chilling unit.
Types of beer glasses

All glasses used should be spotlessly clean with no finger marks, grease or lipstick on them.
Pouring beer into a dirty glass will cause it to go flat very quickly.
The main types of beer glass are:
◗◗ half pint/pint tankards for draught beer
◗◗ pint tumblers for draught beer
◗◗ tumblers for any bottled beer
◗◗ short-stemmed 34.08 cl (12 fl oz) beer glass for Bass/Worthington/Guinness
◗◗ lager glass for lager
◗◗ Paris goblets in various sizes including 22.72, 28.40, 34.08 cl (8, 10, 12 fl oz) for brown/
pale/strong ales.
Increasing sales of beers to be consumed with restaurant meals has encouraged changes in
styles of glassware used. Generally these beer glasses, although often based on the listing
above, are more elegant in style and made of higher quality glass.

Service of alcoholic beverages
Pouring beers

Draft or bottled beer should be poured slowly down the inside of the glass, with the glass
held at a slight angle. This is especially important where a beer may produce a large head if
it is not poured slowly and carefully, for example, Guinness or stouts.
Draught beers should have a small head on them, and the bar person should ensure that
he or she serves the correct quantity of beer with a small head, and not a large head to
make up the quantity required. A beer in a good condition will have the head, or froth of
the beer, clinging to the inside of the glass as the beer is drunk. This is sometimes called
lace on the glass.
For bottled beers, the neck of the bottle should not be placed in the beer when
pouring, especially where twobottles are being held and poured from the same hand. If a
bottled beer has a sediment, a little beer must be left in the base of the bottle to ensure that
the sediment does not go into the poured beer.

Service of liqueurs
Liqueurs (sweetened and flavoured spirits)
are generally offered from a liqueur
trolley at the table. The wine butler
should present the trolley immediately
the sweet course is finished to ensure
that any liqueurs required will be on the
table by the time the coffee/tea is served.
Again, the wine butler must have a good
knowledge of liqueurs, their bases and
flavours, and their correct mode of service.
Traditionally all liqueurs were served in
an Elgin-shaped liqueur glass but many
alternatives are now used.
If a customer asks for a liqueur to be
served frappé, for example Crème de
Menthe frappé, it is served on crushed ice
and a larger glass will be needed. The glass
should be two-thirds filled with crushed
ice and then the measure of liqueur poured
over the ice. Two short drinking straws
should be placed into the glass before the
liqueur is served.
Figure 6.36 Bar trolley for the service of liqueurs
If a liqueur is requested with cream, for (image courtesy of Euroservice UK)
example Tia Maria with cream, then the
cream is slowly poured over the back of a
teaspoon to settle on the top of the selected
liqueur.
Basic equipment required on the liqueur trolley:
◗◗ assorted liqueurs
◗ teaspoons
◗◗ assorted glasses –
◗ drinking straws (short
liqueur/brandy/port stemmed)

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◗◗ draining stand
◗◗ 25 and 50 ml measures
◗◗ service salver
◗◗ jug of double cream.
Other items served from the liqueur trolley include brandies and fortified (liqueur) wines
such as Port or Madeira.

●●6.7 Service of non-alcoholic beverages
Service of bar beverages (non-alcoholic)
Non-alcoholic bar beverages are categorised into five main groups:
1 aerated waters
2 natural spring water or mineral waters
3 squashes
4 juices
5 syrups.
Their correct service is essential in order that the customer may enjoy the beverage to the
full. This is where experienced bar personnel come into their own, ensuring that the drink
ordered has the correct garnish, and is served at the correct temperature and in the correct
glass.
Aerated waters

Aerated waters may be served on their own, chilled, in either Slim Jim tumblers, Paris
goblets, Highball glasses or 34.08 cl (12 fl oz) short-stemmed beer glasses, depending on
the requirements of the customer and the policy of the establishment. They may also
accompany other drinks as mixers, for example:
◗◗ whisky and dry ginger
◗◗ gin and tonic
◗◗ vodka and bitter lemon
◗◗ rum and cola.
Natural spring waters/mineral waters

Natural spring or mineral waters are normally drunk on their own for medicinal purposes.
However, as has been previously mentioned, some mineral waters may be mixed with
alcoholic beverages to form an appetising drink. In all cases they should be drunk well
chilled, at approximately 7–10°C (42–48°F). If drunk on their own, they should be served
in an 18.93 cl (6⅔ fl oz) Paris goblet or a Slim Jim tumbler. Examples include Apollinaris,
Buxton, Malvern, Perrier, Saint Galmier and Aix-la-Chapelle.
Squashes

Service from the bar: A measure of squash should be poured into a tumbler or 34.08 cl (12 fl
oz) short-stemmed beer glass containing ice. This is topped up with iced water or the soda
syphon. The edge of the glass should be decorated with a slice of fruit where applicable
and drinking straws added.
Service from the lounge: The wine butler or lounge waiter must take all the items

Service of non-alcoholic beverages

required, to give efficient service, on a service salver to the customer. Such items will
include:
◗◗ a measure of squash in a tumbler or 34.08 cl (12 fl oz) short-stemmed beer glass
◗◗ straws
◗◗ jug of iced water (on an underplate to prevent the condensation running onto the table)
◗◗ small ice bucket and tongs (on an underplate because of condensation)
◗◗ soda syphon
◗◗ a coaster on which to place the glass in the lounge.
The coaster should be placed on the side table in the lounge and the glass containing the
measure of squash placed on the coaster. The waiter should then add the ice and enquire
whether the customer wishes iced water or soda to be added. The drinking straws should
be placed in the glass at the last moment if required. It may be necessary to leave the iced
water and ice bucket on the side table for the customer. If this is the case they should be
left on underplates.
Juices

All juices should be served chilled in a 14.20 cl (5 fl oz) goblet or alternative glass.
◗◗ Tomato juice: Should be served chilled in a 14.20 cl (5 fl oz) goblet or other glass, on a
doily on an underplate with a teaspoon. The Worcestershire sauce should be shaken,
the top removed, placed on an underplate and offered as an accompaniment. The goblet
may have a slice of lemon placed over the edge as additional presentation.
◗◗ Fresh fruit juice: If fresh fruit juice is to be served in the lounge, then the service should
be similar to the service of squash described above, except that a small bowl of caster
sugar on an underplate with a teaspoon should be taken to the table.
Syrups

Syrups are never served as drinks in their own right but generally as flavourings in such
items as cocktails, fruit cups, long drinks and milk shakes.
Further information on non-alcoholic bar beverages may be found in Section 5.4,
p.134.

Coffee and tea
Tray service

The following equipment is required for the tray service of coffee or tea:
Coffee tray:
◗◗ tray or salver

◗◗ tray cloth/napkin
◗◗ teacup and saucer
◗◗ teaspoon

sugar basin and tongs or a
teaspoon according to the type
of sugar offered
coffee pot
jug of cream or hot milk
stands for the coffee pot and
hot milk jug.

Tea tray:
◗◗ tray or salver
◗ tea strainer
◗◗ tray cloth/napkin
◗ stands for teapot and hot water
◗◗ teapot jug

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◗◗ hot water jug
◗◗ jug of cold milk
◗◗ slop basin

◗ sugar basin and tongs
◗ teacup and saucer
◗ teaspoon.

Variations of this basic equipment will depend on the type of coffee or tea that is being
served. General points to note in laying up a coffee or tea tray are given below.
◗◗ Position the items to ensure an evenly balanced tray for carrying.
◗◗ Position the items for the convenience of the customer: beverage on the right with
spouts facing inwards, and handles outwards and towards the customer for ease of
access.
◗◗ Ensure the beverage is placed on the tray at the last moment so that it is served hot.
Service of tea and coffee for table and assisted service

Tea is not usually served but the teapot is placed on the table, on a stand, and to the right
hand side of the person who ordered. The customers will now help themselves. The cold
milk and sugars (and alternatives) are also placed onto the table.
Coffee may be silver served at the table from a service salver. This traditional method
of serving coffee however is not so common today and generally other speedier methods
are used, such as placing the cafètiere on the table together with milk and sugars (and
alternatives) for customers to help themselves.
Other methods of serving tea and coffee are:
◗◗ Service from a pot of tea or a pot of hot black coffee held on the sideboard on a
hotplate. Cold milk, hot milk or cream and sugars are placed on the table.
◗◗ Service of both cold milk and hot milk or cream together with the tea and coffee from
pots, one held in each of the waiter’s hands. Sugars are placed on the table for customers
to help themselves.
◗◗ In event catering where larger numbers often have to be served, the cold milk, hot milk
or cream and sugars are often placed on the table for customers to help themselves. The
tea and coffee is then served from a one litre plus capacity vacuum flask, which may be
kept on the waiters’ sideboard in readiness for replenishment should the customers require
it. This method of holding and serving tea and coffee ensures that it remains hot at all
times. (For examples of vacuum jugs for tea or coffee see Section 5.2, Figure 5.4, p.132.)
Note: When serving tea and coffee from multi-portion pots/urns it is usual to remove the tea
leaves, coffee grounds or tea/coffee bags once the beverage has brewed, so that the tea
and coffee does not become stewed. See Section 5.1, p.000, for the various types of tea and
their service. Also see Section 5.2, Table 5.2 (p.000) for a list of modern by-the-cup coffee styles.

Placement of tea and coffee cups

◗◗ Figure 6.37(a) shows the beverage equipment required, positioned on the service salver,
and assuming a table of four customers is to be served. Using this method the server
only has to make one journey from the sideboard/workstation to the restaurant or
lounge table.
◗◗ Note the beverage service for each customer is made up of a teacup on its saucer, with a
teaspoon resting in the saucer and at right angles under the handle of the cup, all set on
a side plate.

Service of non-alcoholic beverages

◗◗ The beverage service is placed on the table from the customer’s right hand side, as the
beverage ordered will be served from the right.
◗◗ The beverage service is positioned on the right hand side of the customer with the
handle to the right and the teaspoon set at right angles under the handle of the cup.
◗◗ While moving to the right hand side of the second customer, the server will place a
teacup upon the tea saucer and the teaspoon in the saucer and at right angles under the
handle of the cup, all set on a side plate. This beverage service is then ready to place on
the right hand side of the second customer (see Figure 6.37(b)).
◗◗ This procedure is then repeated until all the beverage services have been placed on the
table for those customers requiring tea or coffee.

Figure 6.37(a) Service salver before service

Figure 6.37(b) Service salver by the time the second customer is reached

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Note: When coffee is served after lunch or dinner, teacups are more commonly used. The use
of the small coffee cups (demi-tasse) has declined for conventional coffee service although
they are still sometimes used in event catering. These cups are also used for espresso.

●●6.8 Clearing during service
The main method of clearing in a plated and table service operation, and with customers
in the room, is indicated by the techniques shown below.
The ability to clear correctly ensures speed and efficiency around the table, avoids
the possibility of accidents and creates minimum inconvenience to customers. It also
allows dirties to be stacked neatly and correctly on the sideboard. Use of the correct
clearing techniques allows more to be cleared, in less time and in fewer journeys between
sideboard/workstation and the customers’ table.

Clearing tables
Clearing techniques

All clearing techniques stem from the two main hand positions shown in Section 2.4,
Figure 2.2(a) and Figure 2.2(b) on p.36. Then, depending on what is being cleared, the
technique is built up from there. Remember, expertise comes with practice – so practice
regularly.
◗◗ Dirties should always be cleared from the right hand side of the customer.
◗◗ The waiter should position himself, taking up a sideways stance at the table.
Clearing soup plates

◗◗ The waiter having positioned himself correctly will then pick up the first dirty soup
plate on its underplate. This stance allows the waiter to pass the dirty soup service from
the clearing hand to the holding hand.
◗◗ Using this procedure ensures the dirty plates are held away from the table and customers,
reducing the likelihood of accidents.

Figure 6.38(a) Clearing soup plates: first soup plate is cleared

Clearing during service

◗◗ Figure 6.38(a) shows one of the two main hand positions previously mentioned, and the
first dirty soup plate cleared.
◗◗ This dirty soup plate should be held firmly on its underplate with the latter pushed up
firmly between the thumb and the first and second fingers.
◗◗ It is important that this first dirty soup plate is held firmly as succeeding dirties are built
up on this one, meaning there is a considerable weight to be held.
◗◗ Figure 6.38(b) shows the second dirty soup plate on its underplate cleared and
positioned on the holding hand.

Figure 6.38(b) First stage of clearing the second soup plate

◗◗ Figure 6.38(c) shows the position of the second dirty soup plate on the holding hand.
The soup spoon is taken from the lower soup plate to be placed in the upper soup plate.

Figure 6.38(c) Second stage of clearing the second soup plate

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◗◗ Figure 6.38(d) shows the upper soup plate with its two soup spoons now placed in the
lower soup plate, leaving the upper underplate behind.

Figure 6.38(d) Second soup plate is cleared in preparation for the next dirty soup plate

◗◗ The third dirty soup plate with its underplate is now cleared from the right and placed
on the upper underplate on the holding hand. The above procedure is then repeated
each time a dirty soup plate on its underplate is cleared.
Clearing joint plates

◗◗ Figure 6.39(a) shows one of the two main hand positions previously shown in Section
2.4, p.36), and the first dirty joint plate cleared.
◗◗ The dirty joint plate should be held firmly pushed up to the joint between the thumb
and the first and second finger.

Figure 6.39(a) Clearing joint plates: First joint plate is cleared

Clearing during service

◗◗ Note the position of the cutlery: the fork held firmly with the thumb over the end of its
handle and the blade of the joint knife placed under the arch in the handle of the fork.
◗◗ Any debris or crumbs will be pushed into the triangle formed by the handles of the
joint knife and joint fork and the rim of the plate. This is nearest the holding hand.
◗◗ Figure 6.39(b) shows the second dirty joint plate cleared and positioned on the holding
hand.

Figure 6.39(b) Second joint plate is cleared

◗◗ Figure 6.39(c) shows the second dirty joint knife positioned correctly and debris being
cleared from the upper joint plate on to the lower joint plate using the second dirty joint
fork cleared. This procedure is carried out as the waiter moves on to his next position in
readiness to clear the third dirty joint plate.

Figure 6.39(c) Clearing debris from the upper plate

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◗◗ Figure 6.39(d) shows the holding hand with the already cleared items held correctly and
ready to receive the next dirty joint plate to be cleared.

Figure 6.39(d) Preparing to clear the next dirty plate

◗◗ Figure 6.40 shows the dirty joint plates and cutlery correctly stacked, and with the
side plates and side knives also being cleared in one journey to the table. This is an
alternative to clearing the joint plates and then the side plates in two phases.

Figure 6.40 Clearing joint and side plates in one journey

Clearing side plates

◗◗ Side plates are cleared using a service salver or service plate. The reason for this is to
allow a larger working surface on which to clear the dirty side knives and any debris
remaining.

Clearing during service

◗◗ Figure 6.41(a) illustrates the method of clearing debris from the upper dirty side plate
and on to the service salver/plate.

Figure 6.41(a) Clearing sideplates: Clearing debris from the side plate to the service plate

◗◗ Figure 6.41(b) shows the holding hand having cleared four place settings with the dirty
items and debris stacked correctly and safely.

Figure 6.41(b) Hand position having cleared four sideplates

◗◗ This method generally allows the waiter to clear more dirty side plates and side knives
in one journey between sideboard/workstation and table and is especially useful when
working in a banqueting situation.

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Crumbing down

The process of crumbing down usually takes place after the main course has been cleared
and before the sweet order is taken and served. The purpose is to remove any crumbs or
debris left on the tablecloth at this stage of the meal.
The items of equipment used to crumb down are:
◗◗ a service plate (a joint plate with a napkin on it)
◗◗ the waiter’s cloth or service cloth.
Alternatively a small pan and brush or metal crumber may be used.
On the assumption that a table d’hôte cover has previously been laid, the sweet spoon
and fork, prior to crumbing down, should normally be positioned at the head of the cover.
However, if an à la carte cover has initially been laid, then, after the main course has been
cleared, there should be no tableware on the table prior to crumbing down.
◗◗ To freshen up the appearance of a table after the main course had been consumed and
all the dirty items of equipment cleared from the table, a procedure known as ‘crumbing
down’ is used. The waiter brushes any crumbs and other debris lying on the tablecloth
onto the service plate,with the aid of either the folded service cloth or a small brush
designed for the purpose. There are also
metal crumbers that can be used.
◗◗ Crumbing down commences from the
left hand side of the first customer.
The service plate is placed just beneath
the lip (edge) of the table. Crumbs are
brushed towards the plate using a folded
napkin, a specialist crumber brush or a
metal crumber.
◗◗ This having been completed, the sweet
fork is moved from the head of the place
setting to the left hand side of the cover. Figure 6.42 Crumbing down (note the neatly
◗◗ The waiter now moves to the right hand folded service cloth)
side of the same customer and completes
the crumbing down of this place setting.
◗◗ The sweet spoon is then moved from the head of the place setting to the right hand side
of the cover.
◗◗ While the sweet spoon and sweet fork are being moved to their correct positions, the
service cloth is held under the service plate by the fingers of the holding hand.
◗◗ Having completed the crumbing down procedure for one place setting the waiter is now
correctly positioned to commence again the crumbing down of the next place setting,
i.e. to the left of the next customer.
This method of crumbing down ensures that the waiter does not, at any time, stretch
across the front of a customer to complete a place setting in readiness for the sweet course,
and does not interrupt any conversation between guests.

Clearing following service

●●6.9 Clearing following service
At the end of service a range of duties need to be completed, as shown below. These
duties are carried out without customers in the service areas.
◗◗ Clear the cold buffet to the larder. Collect and wash all carving knives and assist
generally in clearing the restaurant.
◗◗ Collect all linen, both clean and dirty, and check that the correct quantities of each item
of linen are returned. Used napkins should be tied in bundles of ten. All linen should
be placed in the linen basket and returned with the linen list to the linen room or
according to the establishment policy.
◗◗ Switch off the hotplate. Clear away any service silver or other service dishes remaining
and restock the hotplate with clean crockery.
◗◗ Return cutlery and hollowware, together with the flatware and trolleys to their
appropriate storage areas.
◗◗ Collect all cruets and accompaniments and return them to their correct storage place.
Where appropriate, return sauces, etc., to their original containers.
◗◗ Check all the sideboards/workstations are completely empty. Hotplates should be
switched off and the dirty linen compartment emptied.
◗◗ Empty the liqueur trolley. Return stock and glassware to the bar.
◗◗ Restock the bar from the cellar.
◗◗ Clear down the bar top, put all the equipment away and wash and polish used glasses.
These should be put away in their correct storage place. Remove all empty bottles, etc.
Complete consumption and stock sheets. Bar shutters and doors should be made secure.
◗◗ Empty all beverage service equipment, wash and put away. All perishable materials
should be put away in their correct storage places. Still sets and milk urns should be
emptied, washed out and then left standing with cold water in them.
◗◗ Empty and clean all trolleys and return them to their storage places. Any unused food
items from the trolleys should be returned to the appropriate department. Any service
equipment used on the trolleys should be cleaned and returned to storage areas.
◗◗ Reset duties should be completed in readiness for the next service period. This might
include both table lay-ups and sideboard/workstation lay-ups. In many contemporary
establishments this process is ongoing.
◗◗ At all times consideration should be given to environmental issues, including the
recycling of used items, the management of waste and the control of energy.

Specific after service duties
At the completion of service certain after service duties will need to be carried out
by different members of the food and beverage service staff. The allocation of specific
responsibilities helps to ensure that all areas are left safe, clean and replenished in readiness
for the next service. Examples of what might be involved for specific members of staff are
shown in the checklists below.
Headwaiter/supervisor

  1 Ensure gas and electrical appliances are switched off and plugs removed from sockets.
  2 Return any special equipment to the appropriate work/storage area.
  3 Secure all windows and check fire exits.

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  4 Check that all tasks are completed in a satisfactory manner prior to staff completing
their shift.
Station waiter/server

  1 Replace all equipment in the sideboard according to the sideboard checklist.
  2 Wipe down the sideboard and trolleys, clearing all dirty equipment to the wash-up
area.
  3 Clear down tables and crumb down. Relay tablecloths and slip cloths as appropriate.
  4 Reset tables and sideboards/workstation if required.
  5 Switch off and clean sideboard hotplates.
  6 Return special equipment to work/storage areas.
  7 Return to store cupboards any surplus crockery and silver.
  8 Remove plugs, having switched off all electrical sockets.
  9 Return food/drink check pads and menus to the drawer in the headwaiter’s desk.
10 Check area of responsibility with the head waiter/supervisor.
Bar person

  1 All working surfaces to be wiped down.
  2 Ensure that all equipment is washed, dried and put away in its correct place for future
use.
  3 Make sure all glassware is washed, rinsed, dried and then stored correctly.
  4 Empty the bottle trolley and waste bin. Replace the bin liner in the waste bin.
  5 Place surplus orange/lemon slices on to plates and cover with cling film. Store in the
chilling unit or fridge.
  6 Sweep and mop the floor.
  7 Return the liqueur trolley to the bar.
  8 Drain the glass-washing machine.
  9 Turn off the chiller lights.
10 Complete the control system.
11 Replenish bar stock.
12 Make the bar secure.
13 Check area of responsibility with headwaiter/supervisor.
Stillroom staff

  1 Ensure the correct storage of such food items as bread, butter, milk, teabags and
ground coffee.
  2 Wipe down all working surfaces.
  3 Clean and tidy the stillroom fridge and check its working temperature.
  4 Check that all equipment is left clean and stored in its correct place.
  5 Leftover foods to be placed into clean containers and stored correctly.
  6 All surplus accompaniments to be stored correctly in proprietary jars and their lids to
be wiped down.
  7 Switch off applicable electrical appliances.
  8 Make sure all carrying trays are wiped down and stacked correctly.
  9 All surplus teapots/coffee pots, etc., to be stored in the appropriate storage area.
10 Check area of responsibility with the head waiter/supervisor, or the person taking over
the area, prior to leaving.

Chapter 7

The service sequence (self service, assisted
service and single point service)
7.1 Methods of service

238

7.2 Preparation for service

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7.3 The order of service

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7.4 Clearing during service

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7.5 Clearing following service 252

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●●7.1 Methods of service
The three groups of service methods discussed in this chapter are:
1 Self-service: where the customer is required to help him or herself from a counter or
buffet.
2 Assisted service: where the customer is served part of the meal at a table and is required to
obtain part through self-service from some form of display or buffet.
3 Single point service: where the customer orders, pays and receives the food and beverages
at one point.
For these three groups of service methods, the customer comes to where the food and
beverage service is offered and the service is provided in areas primarily designed for that
purpose. In these groups of service methods, the customers can be involved in:
◗◗ viewing the menu and beverages on offer
◗◗ making a selection
◗◗ being served with the food and beverage items selected/ordered
◗◗ paying for the items
◗◗ collecting ancillary items (cutlery, seasonings, sauces, napkins) as required
◗◗ selecting a table where their food and beverage order may be consumed or leaving the
establishment if the order is for takeaway
◗◗ disposing of dirties as appropriate.
The customer processes for these three groups of service methods are summarised,
together with the other two groups of service methods, in Section 1.5, Table 1.9 (p.18).
For the full identification of the five groups of service methods, see Section 1.5
(p15).
Self-service

The main form of self-service is found in cafeterias. In this form of service customers
collect a tray from the beginning of the service counter, move along the counter to select
their meal, pay and then collect the required cutlery for their meal, together with any
ancillary items. Some ‘call order’ (cooked to order) food production may be included in
cafeterias.
Menus should be prominently displayed at the entrance to the cafeteria or foodservice
area so that customers may decide as far as possible what meal they will purchase before
arriving at the service points. This saves time later and ensures that the customer turnover
is as quick as possible.
The menu offered may show a wide range of dishes from simple hot and cold snacks and
beverages to full meals. Account will also be taken of the nature of the clientele, customer
preferences, regional preferences, nutritional values, ethnic requirements, local produce
available, vegetarian choice and the cost factor to ensure profitability on the dishes offered.
Cafeterias often have a straight-line counter where customers queue in line formation past
a service counter and choose their menu requirements in stages before loading them on
to a tray and then proceeding to a payment point at the end of the counter. The layout of
the counter may include a carousel – a revolving stacked counter, in order to save display
space.
Where customer turnover is particularly high in a short period of time, and when space

Preparation for service

is limited, then a variation on the cafeteria straight-line counter type service may operate.
Examples of these are:
◗◗ Free-flow: Selection from a counter (as above) but in food service area where customers
move at will to random service points; customers usually exit area via a payment point.
◗◗ Echelon: Series of counters at angles to the customer flow within a free-flow area, thus
saving space.
◗◗ Supermarket/shopping mall: Island service points within a free-flow area.
Each of the service points may offer a different main course dish, together with the
potatoes, vegetable dishes, sauces and accompaniments as appropriate. Other service
points offer hot and cold sweets, beverages, sandwiches, pastries, confectionery items and
miscellaneous foods. On entering the foodservice area, the customer can check the menu
to see what they require and then go immediately to the appropriate service point. The
advantage of this system is those selecting a full meal do not hold up a customer who
requires just a sandwich and a hot drink.
Assisted service

The main form of assisted service is found in carvery-type operations. The customer is
served part of the meal at a table and is required to obtain part through self-service from
some form of display or buffet. Customers are able to help themselves to joints and other
dishes but usually with the assistance of a carver or server at the buffet.
This form of service is also used for breakfast service (see Section 8.1, p.256) and for
events (see Section 11.4, p.339).
Single point service

The main forms of single point service are found in:
◗◗ Takeaways: Where the customer orders and is served from a single point, at a counter,
hatch or snack stand; the customer consumes off the premises; some takeaway
establishments provide dining areas. This also includes drive-thrus where the customer
drives their vehicle past the order, payment and collection points.
◗◗ Food courts: Series of autonomous counters where customers may either order and eat or
buy from a number of counters and eat in a separate eating area, or takeaway.
◗◗ Kiosk: Outstation used to provide service for peak demand or in a specific location; may
be open for customers to order and be served, or used for dispensing to staff only.
◗◗ Vending: Provision of food service and beverage service by means of automatic retailing.
◗◗ Bar: Order, service and payment point and consumption area in licensed premises.

●●7.2 Preparation for service
The success of all types of service is determined by the detailed preparation that goes
into setting up the service areas prior to the service commencing. It is the success of the
preparation duties that helps staff to provide efficient service and to create the ambience
and atmosphere required that is attractive and pleasant for the customers.

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Cafeteria/counter service
Layout

Within the seating area an allowance of about 0.5–1m² (3–10 sq ft) per person is sufficient
to take account of table space, gangways and access to counters.
A tray stand is placed at the beginning of the service counter or at the entrance to the
service area, so that each customer can collect a tray before proceeding along the counter.
The layout of the dishes on the counter generally follows the order in which they appear
on the menu. This could be as follows: starters, cold meats and salads, bread items, soups,
hot fish dishes, hot meat dishes, hot vegetables, hot sweets, cold sweets, ice-cream, assorted
sandwiches, cakes and pastries, beverages and cold drinks.
The length of the counter will generally be determined by the size of the menu offered,
but should not be too long as this will restrict the speed of service. Payment points are
sited at the end of the counter or at the exit to the service area so that customers may pay
for their meal before they pass to the seating area.
Cutlery stands should be placed after the cashiers, together with any ancillary items
that may be required, such as napkins and accompaniments. This helps to ensure that the
throughput of customers along the service counter remains continuous. Cutlery stands are
also placed here to allow customers to choose the items they need after making their food
and beverage choices. Another advantage of placing the cutlery and ancillary items here
is that the customer can return to collect these items, should they initially forget to do so,
without interrupting the main queue of customers.
Service considerations

With this form of service, portion control equipment is used to ensure standardisation of
the portion size served. Such equipment includes scoops, ladles, bowls, milk dispensers and
cold beverage dispensers. Pre-portioned foods such as butter, sugars, jams, cream, cheeses
and biscuits may also be used.
The meal may either be completely pre-plated or the main meat/fish dish may be plated
with the potatoes, vegetables, sauces and other accompaniments added according to the
customer’s choice. Pre-plating can ensure a quicker service and customer turnover through
the service points and requires less service counter top space. Serving onto plates to order
reduces service speed and the turnover of customers is slower. More counter top space is
also required for the vegetable and potato dishes, sauces and accompaniments to be kept
hot in readiness for service. This also increases the staffing level required.

Carvery-type operations
On the carvery point itself the servers and carvers must ensure there is sufficient crockery
(main course plates) for the service and as back up stock kept in the hot cupboard or plate
lowerators. Small paper napkins should be at hand for the customers to be able to hold hot
main course plates.
To avoid delays and congestion around the carvery point, it is important to ensure
there is sufficient back up of both equipment and food. The carvers should have available
suitable carving equipment for the joints to be carved together with service equipment
such as slices, ladles, scoops, and draining spoons, all in readiness for the food items to be
served.
After cooking, the joints and other main dishes are normally put into a hot cupboard
(or closet) where they can be held until required for presentation on the counter. On the

Preparation for service

carvery counter itself the hot meats, fish and other food dishes are maintained at a constant
temperature, often by the use of overhead infrared heat lamps. These lamps are generally
mounted on telescopic stands so various sized joints may be accommodated and carving
may be carried out safely. Cold meats, fish and other food dishes are held on chilled
counters. For holding temperatures see Section 7.3, p.248.

Buffet preparation
There are various types of buffet, namely knife and fork, fork and finger buffets. The
requirements of a particular occasion and the host’s wishes will determine the exact
format in setting up the room. Whatever the nature of the occasion there are certain basic
principles to follow:
◗◗ The buffet should be set up in a prominent position in the room – the buffet may be
one complete display or split into several separate displays around a room, for example,
starters and main courses, desserts, hot beverages and bar service.
◗◗ There should be ample space on the buffet for display and presentation.
◗◗ The buffet should be within easy access of the stillroom and wash-up so that
replenishment of the buffet and the clearing of dirties may be carried out without
disturbing the customers.
◗◗ There must be ample space for customer circulation – buffets can be positioned and set
up so that customers can access one or both sides of the buffet at once.
◗◗ Provision should be made for sufficient occasional tables and chairs within the room.
◗◗ The total presentation of the room should be attractive and promote a good atmosphere
that is appropriate for the occasion.
Setting up the buffet

The exact equipment required when setting up the room will be determined by the
occasion (see Section 11.4, p.339).
The buffet is covered with suitable cloths, making sure that the drop of the cloth is
within 1.25 cm (approx ½ in) from the ground all the way around the front and sides
of the buffet. If more than one cloth is used, the creases should be lined up, and where
the cloths overlap one another the overlap should be facing away from the entrance to
the room. The ends of the buffet should be box pleated, thereby giving a better overall
presentation of the buffet.
To achieve a neat, crisp finish, the above procedure needs to be carried out with as little
handling as possible. This may be achieved by taking the following steps:
1 With assistance, open the screen folded buffet cloth along the length of the buffet table
(see Figure 7.1(a)).
2 With a person at either end unfold the cloth, following the procedure shown in Section
6.2 (Laying the tablecloth), so that the front and sides of the buffet table are covered and
the cloth is no more than 1.25 cm from the ground.
3 Stand in front of the table and from the edge place your thumb on the front corner and
take the far side of the cloth, lift and bring it back towards you in a semi circle motion
(see Figure 7.1(b)). This will bring the side of the cloth horizontal with the ground.
4 The fold on top of the table will now resemble a triangle (see Figure 7.1(c)). This
should be folded back towards the side of the table, ensuring that the folded edge is in
line with the side of the table (see Figure 7.1(d)).

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5 Use the back of your hand to flatten the fold.
6 Repeat the procedure at the other end of the table.
Should more than one buffet cloth be used to cloth up the length of the buffet the
clothing up procedure should be repeated. All creases should be in line and slip cloths
(white or coloured) may be used to enhance and finish the top of the buffet table.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Figure 7.1 Boxing a buffet table

Buffet displays may be further enhanced by the introduction of a box that has been
box-clothed. This can be placed on the buffet table to give extra height and to provide
display space for special features.
Table skirting

Alternative methods of dressing a buffet table may include the use of table skirting (see
Figure 7.2(a). Although the initial outlay for such skirting may be high, the ease and
simplicity of use makes it very popular for buffet and table decoration. One other feature
of skirting is that it is made up of separate panels so that it is comfortable when customers
are seated at a table.
A tablecloth is laid on top of the table and then the skirting is attached to the edge of
the table by a plastic clip (see Figure 7.2(b)), which is fitted to the top of the skirting. The
skirting is attached to the table by sliding the clip into place over the lip of the table. The
plastic clips are removable to allow the fabric to be cleaned.

Preparation for service

Figure 7.2(b) Attaching table skirting to a
table edge

Figure 7.2(a) A buffet table with table skirting
attached (images courtesy of Snap-Drape
Europe Limited)

Buffet napkin fold

For buffets, a commonly used napkin fold is the buffet napkin fold (see Figure 7.3(a)). This
can be made with paper or linen napkins (see Figure 7.3(b)). It is especially useful as it can
be used to hold cutlery so that customers can either help themselves to this at the buffet or
it can be given out by staff as customers collect their food from the buffet.
1 Open out the napkin and fold into four, ensuring the four loose edges are at A.
2 Fold down top flap as indicated.
3 Fold the top flap again along dotted line.
4 Fold down second flap.
5 Fold second flap again along dotted line.
6 Tuck second fold under first fold.
7 Fold napkin along dotted line putting the folded part underneath.
8 Fold napkin along dotted line.
9 Finished fold.

Figure 7.3(a) Buffet napkin fold

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i

ii

iii

iv

v

vi

vii

viii

Figure 7.3(b) Making the buffet napkin fold

Checklists
Typical checklists for the preparation of a hot food counter, salad bar, dining area, takeaway
service and buffet display may be as follows:
Hot food (counter preparation)

1 Turn on hot counter, allowing enough time for it to heat up to the correct temperature.
2 Ensure that an adequate number of plates for the day’s service are available on the hot
food service counter or in plate lowerators and in an accessible place near the hot food
counter as back-up stock.
3 Transfer regenerated hot food from the oven to the hot food counter. Important:
◗◗ use oven cloths when handling hot food to avoid accidents and spillages
◗◗ always use a tray when transferring hot food to avoid accidents and spillages.
4 Check hot food menu items for the day and ensure that before service begins there is
one dish of each menu item on the hot food counter.
5 Ensure that all hot food is properly covered to prevent any heat loss and deterioration in
quality.
6 Have cleaning materials available to wipe any spills.
7 Ensure that for each dish on the hot food counter there is an appropriate service
implement. The implements will depend on the dish but are likely to include:
◗◗ large spoons for dishes such as vegetarian lasagne

Preparation for service

◗◗ perforated large spoons for dishes such as boiled vegetables (to drain off excess water)
◗◗ ladles for dishes such as seafood mornay and aloo brinjal bhajee
◗◗ food tongs for dishes such as fried plantain and Caribbean chicken
◗◗ fish slices for dishes such as vegetarian pizza.
8 When service implements are not in use, remember to return each one to its designated
position on the hot food service counter. This prevents any confusion during a busy
service period, which may otherwise arise if service implements have been misplaced.
Salad bar (counter preparation)

1 Turn on the salad bar, allowing enough time for it to chill to the correct temperature.
2 Ensure an adequate number of required salad bowls and plates are available for the day’s
service of salads, pâtés, cold meats, cold quiches and flans, cold pies, cheeses and items
such as taramasalata, humous and tsatsiki. Remember:
◗◗ bowls are for salads only
◗◗ plates should be used for the other cold items detailed above.
At any one time there should be enough salad bowls and plates on the cold counter for
customer service, plus a back-up stock beneath the salad bar.
3 Ensure that service utensils are ready and situated in their designated places for service,
including:
◗◗ salad tongs for dry salads such as freshly prepared green salad
◗◗ large spoons for wet salads such as champignons à la grecque
◗◗ fish slices for pâté, cold meats, cold quiches or flans and cold pies
◗◗ large spoons for taramasalata, humous and tsatsiki
◗◗ tongs for sliced French sticks and granary rolls.
4 Transfer prepared salad items from the kitchen to the chilled salad bar.
5 Cover all food prior to service.
6 Have cleaning materials ready to maintain appearance and cleanliness.
Dining area for cafeteria/counter service (preparation)

1 Arrange tables and chairs, making sure they are all clean.
2 Wipe each table.
3 Ensure cutlery provisions for the day’s service are in place, adequate and clean.
4 Ensure trays are clean and there is an adequate supply in the tray stack, ready for the
customers’ use.
5 Ensure all salt and pepper cruets are filled and that there is one pair on each table. If
using sachets of salt and pepper ensure that there are two bowls, containing salt and
pepper respectively, at the counter near the payment point. Other sauces should be
immediately available, for example, sachets of tomato sauce, brown sauce, mayonnaise
and tartare sauce. Sachets of white and brown sugars and alternatives must also be on
hand to accompany hot beverages.
6 Fill drinking water jugs and place them in their designated place or make sure the water
dispenser is in working order.
7 Ensure the napkin dispenser is filled up.
8 Ensure the clearing up trolley and lined bins for different kinds of waste are in
position.
9 Have cleaning materials ready to wipe clean tables and used trays during service.

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Takeaway service (preparation)

Below is an example checklist for the setting up of a takeaway area prior to service.
  1 Ensure all equipment is functioning correctly and switched on.
  2 Check all temperature-controlled equipment is at the correct temperature.
  3 Make sure adequate supplies of packaging, napkins and plates are available.
  4 Ensure that the takeaway menu and prices are clearly displayed.
  5 Ensure that sufficient supplies of ready-prepared food items and beverages are to hand
to ensure minimum delay on receipt of orders.
  6 Prepare foods to ensure the quality of the product at all times.
  7 Ensure that the necessary uniforms, such as hats, overalls and aprons, are worn in all
preparation areas.
  8 For safety reasons, have available such items as oven cloths, tea towels and trays.
  9 Have available and on show sales literature to assist in projecting the image of the
establishment.
10 Make sure all serving utensils are available and to hand.
11 Ensure that everything is in its place and therefore easily found as required. This will
assist in an efficient work method.
12 Check that waste bins for the different types of waste are available with clean plastic
sacks in them.
13 Ensure that all working/serving surfaces are clean and have been wiped down prior to
service with the appropriate cleaning materials.
14 Have cleaning materials available for wiping down and in case of spillages.
Note: In a takeaway service, care must be taken to ensure the quality of the product, hygiene, packaging, labelling and temperature control.
Buffet (preparation)

Duties may include:
◗◗ The preparation of the buffet table to the supervisor’s instructions.
◗◗ The display of:
– accompaniments
– food items
– underplates for large dishes

Figure 7.4 Chafing dishes used for buffets
(image courtesy of Steelite International)

The order of service

– service spoons and forks and other serving utensils, including carving knifes if
required
– water jugs and joint knives for pâtés or mousses
– crockery, glassware and cutlery.

Bar preparation

For information on bar preparation please refer to bar equipment in Section 3.6 (p.63) and
bar preparation in Section 6.2 (p.183).

●●7.3 The order of service
Members of staff must be on duty in sufficient time before the service is due to
commence, to allow them to:
◗◗ check that all work areas have the required equipment in readiness for the service to
commence
◗◗ check that the dining area is set up correctly
◗◗ ensure that they have a complete knowledge of all beverages and food dishes being
offered, including ingredients, accompaniments, vegetarian dishes and those dishes not
suitable for allergy sufferers
◗◗ determine the availability of back-up food and in what quantities
◗◗ determine the amount of back-up crockery on hand, should it be required
◗◗ check all temperature-controlled equipment is functioning at the required temperatures
◗◗ ensure that they themselves are presented correctly, with the recognised uniforms and
service cloths for use with the hot equipment and crockery.
Cafeteria/counter service

The following list indicates a customer’s progress from their entry into the eating area
(counter service) until the conclusion of the meal.
  1 Enters the eating area.
  2 Views the menus and dishes available.
  3 Collects a tray from the tray stack, which may be sited at the entrance to the service
area or at the beginning of the service counter, or at each separate service point.
  4 Proceeds to the service counter (straight line), or single service point (echelon), or
island service point (shopping mall) to view the display of food and drink available and
to make their choices and place them on the tray.
  5 At the end of the counter complete the payment required.
  6 Proceed to the cutlery stand and select their requirements.
  7 Also select napkins, seasonings and sauces.
  8 Choose table and consume meal.
  9 At the conclusion of the meal take the tray of dirties to the nearest tray stand and
deposit. Disposable items placed in the correct waste bins provided (according to type
of waste for recycling).
10 Table cleaners/clearers clear anything remaining and wipe down tabletops in readiness
for the next customers.

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Figure 7.5 Free-flow cafeteria
area (image courtesy of FCSI
UK)

Carvery service

This assisted service involves the customer in two methods of food service, namely table
service and self-service. Here the server is usually responsible for the service of both food
(starters, desserts and hot beverages) and alcoholic beverages on their allocated tables and
they will be assisted by chefs/carvers at the carvery for the service of the main course.
The order of service for a meal in a carvery-type operation will proceed in almost
exactly the same way as for table service (see Section 6.3, p.201). The main difference
here is that the main course is not served at the table; instead the customer approaches the
carvery point to receive this course. This is now the self-service part of the carvery service.
Customers may also, should they wish, return to the carvery point to replenish their plates.
Service of food at the carvery display

All food items served onto plates should be attractively presented and arranged. If food
has not already been pre-plated, it should be served onto plates using a service spoon in
one hand and a service fork in the other, and should be placed neatly on to the customer’s
plate. Alternative service equipment might be used and this will be determined by the
nature of the dishes displayed on the buffet, for example, scoops, sauce ladles, soup ladles,
slices, serving spoons and knives. Care must be taken to ensure stocks of crockery and food
on the buffet have adequate back-up stock and food items should be re-ordered before
they run out.
Note: For food safety reasons prepared foods must be held at specific temperatures. Chilled
foods must be kept at or below 8ºC (26.4ºF). Foods being kept hot should remain at or above
63ºC (145.4ºF). Food may be left at room temperature for limited periods during service or
when on display. However, these flexibilities can be used only once for each batch of food.
The temperature of chilled foods can only exceed 8ºC for a maximum of four hours. The
temperature of hot foods can only fall below 63ºC for a maximum of two hours. Checklists

Checklists
Typical checklists for staff to adhere to in performance of service standards related to a hot
buffet or counter, salad bar and dining areas are given below.

The order of service
Hot food

◗◗ Do not leave the hot food service counter unattended once service begins, as this will
cause congestion in the flow of service.
◗◗ Arrange for someone to take your place if you have to leave the service area for any
reason.
◗◗ Wipe up any spillages immediately. Spillages left on a hot counter for too long will
harden and create problems later with cleaning.
◗◗ When serving, it is important to adhere to portion control specifications.
◗◗ When a dish of hot food is only one-third full inform the kitchen that more will be
needed. Do not allow food items to run out during service. If the end of service time is
approaching, check with the supervisor before requesting more.
◗◗ Ensure plates are kept well stocked. If running low on plates on the service counter,
replenish immediately from back-up stock.
◗◗ Hot food items left too long in the hot food service counter, prior to service, may
deteriorate. The time factor here is important. Allow minimum time between placing
in/on the hot food service counter and serving. This will help to ensure that the food
item is served, when requested, in prime condition.
◗◗ Ensure the correct holding temperature is set for the hot counter and cold temperatures
for cold counters. This will mean hot foods are served at the correct temperature and
will retain their quality as a menu item.
Salad bar

◗◗ Keep a constant eye on food levels in the salad bar.
◗◗ Never re-fill bowls or replenish plates at the counter. Take a bowl or plate to the kitchen
and fill or replenish it there.
◗◗ Replace service spoons, slices, etc., to their respective bowls, dishes and plates, if
misplaced by customers.
◗◗ Wipe up any spillages immediately.
◗◗ Keep the salad bar tidy, well arranged and well presented at all times.
◗◗ Keep a constant eye on the supply of bowls and plates for the salad counter service.
◗◗ Remember: do not wait for a supply of salad bowls and plates to run out before
replenishing from the back-up supply (beneath the cold counter). During a busy service
period this will inevitably hinder the flow of service.
Dining areas

◗◗ Ensure the clearing station is ready and in place and that the following items are
available:
– bins and bin liners
– clearing trolley
– wiping cloth
– recommended cleaning materials.
◗◗ Keep a constant eye on tables and make sure they are clean and tidy at all times. Change
table covers regularly, as and when required. An untidy and messy table is not pleasant
for the customer.
◗◗ The dining area service should be self-clearing, i.e. customers are requested to return
their trays containing used plates and cutlery to the clearing station. Failing this,
promptly clear tables of any trays.

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◗◗ At the clearing station:
– empty the tray of used plates and cutlery etc., and stack ready for the dishwasher
– empty disposable contents of a tray into a lined standing bin
– wipe the tray clean with recommended cleaning materials.
◗◗ Return the stack of ready-cleaned trays to the tray stack, lining each tray with a paper
liner (if used) before putting into place.
◗◗ Ensure there is always enough water in the drinking water jugs.
◗◗ Ensure there are enough napkins in the napkin dispenser.
◗◗ Check cutlery containers are adequately stocked.
Note: During service always ensure that at any one time there is an adequate supply of trays in
the tray rack, ready for the customers’ use.

Bar service
The service of food and beverages in bars may be to customers at the bar or alternatively
to customers seated at tables. If customers are to be served at tables then the procedures for
this are based on table service as described in Chapter 6. Customers at the bar will have
their order taken and served at the bar, with payment usually taken at the same time.

Figure 7.6 Bar and seating area
(image courtesy of Gleneagles
Hotel, Scotland)

For information on bar preparation refer to bar equipment in Section 3.6 (p.63) and bar
preparation in Section 6.2 (p.183). For information on the service of alcoholic drinks, refer
to Section 6.6 (p.215) and for non-alcoholic drinks see Section 6.7 (p.224).

Clearing during service

●●7.4 Clearing during service
The main methods for clearing in foodservice operations are summarised in Table 7.1.
Table 7.1 Clearing methods
System

Description

Manual

The collection and sorting to trolleys by operators for transportation to the
dish wash area

Semi-selfclear

The placing of soiled ware by customers on strategically placed trolleys
within the dining area for removal by operators

Self-clear

The placing of soiled ware by customers on a conveyor or conveyor belt
tray collecting system for mechanical transportation to the dish wash area

Self-clear and
strip

The placing of soiled ware into conveyor belt dish wash baskets by
customers for direct entry of the baskets through the dishwashing machines

(Source: Croner’s Catering)

In all cases food waste and disposable items are usually put directly into the waste bins
provided, which are often separated into different recyclable types such as food, paper,
plastics and cans.

Clearing tables in the dining areas
As tables are vacated and with customers in the room the procedures described below
should be followed.
Clearing plates and glassware

The basic clearing techniques described in Section 2.4 (p.38) and Section 6.8 (p.228) may
be employed as appropriate.
Debris (food wastage) would be scraped from plates into a plastic bowl. These bowls of
food wastage would be cleared on a regular basis from the workstations for hygiene reasons
and to avoid smells affecting the dining area.
Used cutlery is often initially placed into a plastic bowl containing hot water and a
soap liquid detergent. This loosens grease and oil from the cutlery prior to it being placed
into the dishwasher for washing, rinsing and sterilisation. Alternatively, dirty cutlery may
be placed into cutlery stands at the workstation or on the clearing trolley in readiness for
transportation to the wash-up area, where they would be placed into the dishwasher.
The same sized plates should be stacked together on a tray and sizes never mixed as this
can cause a safety hazard resulting in accidents to staff or customers. The weight load on
a tray should be evenly spread to make it easier to carry the tray. Further information on
carrying trays may be found in Section 2.4, Figure 2.6 (p.40).
Glassware is usually cleared onto separate trays from crockery and cutlery. In this way it
is less likely that accidents will occur. The dirty glassware on the tray will be taken to the
workstation and often put into glass racks for transportation to the wash-up area.
Immediately customers vacate their tables the dining area staff should clear any
remaining equipment from the table onto trays and return it to the workstation. The tables
should be wiped down with anti bacterial cleaning agents and any table accompaniments
normally set on the table as part of the lay-up should be replenished.

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●●7.5 Clearing following service
At the end of service a range of duties need to be completed. These duties are carried
out with or without customers in the service/dining areas. Depending on the type of
establishment these duties may be carried out at the conclusion of a meal period or
towards the end of the working day or be ongoing throughout the working day.

Regular clearing tasks
◗◗ Clear the cold buffet to the larder. Collect and wash all carving knives and assist
generally in clearing the food service area.
◗◗ Collect all linen, both clean and dirty, and check that the correct quantities of each item
of linen are returned. Used napkins should be tied in bundles of ten. All linen should
be placed in the linen basket and returned with the linen list to the linen room or
according to the establishment policy.
◗◗ Switch off the hotplate. Clear away any service equipment or other service dishes
remaining and restock the hotplate with clean crockery.
◗◗ Return all tableware and trolleys to their storage areas.
◗◗ Collect all cruets and accompaniments and return them to their correct storage place.
Where appropriate, return sauces, etc., to their original containers.
◗◗ Check all the sideboards/workstations are completely empty. Hotplates should be
switched off and the dirty linen compartment emptied.
◗◗ Clear down the bar top, put all the equipment away and wash and polish used glasses.
These should be put away in their correct storage place. Remove all empty bottles.
Complete consumption and stock sheets. Restock the bar from the cellar. Bar shutters
and doors should be properly locked.
◗◗ Empty all beverage service equipment and wash and put away. All perishable materials
should be put away in their correct storage places. Still sets and milk urns should be
emptied, washed out and then left standing with cold water in them. Other beverage
making equipment to be cleaned according to the maker’s instructions.
◗◗ Empty and clean all trolleys and return them to their storage places. Any unused food
items from the trolleys should be returned to the appropriate department. Any service
equipment used on the trolleys should be cleaned and returned to storage areas.
◗◗ Reset duties should be completed in readiness for the next service period. This might
include both table lay-ups and sideboard/workstation lay-ups. In many contemporary/
modern establishments this process is ongoing.
◗◗ At all times consideration should be given to environmental issues, for example, the
recycling of used items, the management of waste and the control of energy.
◗◗ All dining area tables and chairs should be wiped down with anti bacterial cleaning
agent. Floors should be swept and mopped.
◗◗ Where appropriate, replenish napkin holders, sugar sachets, sauce sachets, cutlery trays
and tray stacks.

Specific after service clearing tasks
At the completion of a meal service period certain after service tasks will need to be
carried out by different members of the dining area staff. The allocation of specific
responsibilities helps to ensure that all areas are left safe, clean and replenished in readiness

Clearing following service

for the next service. Examples of what might be involved for specific members of staff are
shown in the checklists below.
Supervisor

1 Ensure gas and electrical appliances are switched off and plugs removed from sockets.
2 Return any special equipment to the appropriate work area.
3 Secure all windows and check fire exits.
4 Check that all tasks are completed in a satisfactory manner prior to staff completing
their shift.
The server/dining area attendant

  1 Replace all equipment in the workstations according to the workstation checklist.
  2 Wipe down the workstation and trolleys, clearing all dirty equipment to the wash-up
area.
  3 Clear down tables. Wipe table tops and re-cloth as appropriate.
  4 Reset tables and sideboards as/if required.
  5 Switch off and clean workstation hotplates.
  6 Return special equipment to work areas.
  7 Return to store cupboards any surplus crockery and cutlery.
  8 Remove plugs having switched off all electrical sockets.
  9 Return food/drink check pads and menus to the hostess / supervisor
10 Sweep and mop floors.
11 Check area of responsibility with the supervisor.
Bar person

  1 All working surfaces to be wiped down.
  2 Ensure that all equipment is washed, dried and put away in its correct place for future
use.
  3 Make sure all glassware is washed, rinsed, dried and then stored correctly.
  4 Empty the bottle trolley and waste bin. Replace the bin liner in the waste bin.
  5 Place surplus orange/lemon slices on to plates and cover with cling film. Store in the
chilling unit or fridge.
  6 Sweep and mop the floor.
  7 Drain the glass-washing machine.
  8 Turn off the chiller lights.
  9 Complete the control system.
10 Replenish bar stock.
11 Make the bar secure.
12 Check area of responsibility with supervisor.
Stillroom staff

  1 Ensure the correct storage of such food items as bread, butter, milk, teabags and
ground coffee.
  2 Wipe down all working surfaces.
  3 Clean and tidy the stillroom fridge and check its working temperature.
  4 Check that all equipment is left clean and stored in its correct place.
  5 Left over foods to be placed into clean containers and stored correctly.
  6 All surplus accompaniments to be stored correctly in proprietary jars and their lids to
be wiped down.

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  7 Switch off applicable electrical appliances
  8 Make sure all carrying trays are wiped down and stacked correctly.
  9 All surplus teapots/coffee pots etc. to be stored in the appropriate storage area.
10 All beverage making equipment is cleaned according to the makers instruction.
11 Check area of responsibility with the supervisor, or the person taking over the area,
prior to leaving.
Buffet or counter staff

1 Turn off the electricity supply to the hot-food and cold-food counter.
2 Clear the hot-food counter and cold-food counters and return all leftover food to the
kitchen.
3 Turn off the power supply to the oven at the wall.
4 Clear the oven of any remaining food.
5 Important: write down on the day sheet the number of portions of each type of
regenerated meal that is left over as waste. This exercise is essential for portion control
monitoring and gives an indication of the popularity or otherwise of any one particular
dish. Hand in the daily sheet to the supervisor who will then prepare a consumption
sheet (see Section 12.6 p.391) to show what was taken out and what is now left. This
will then be entered into the sales analysis book.
6 Clean all service utensils such as serving spoons, ladles, fish slices, knives and trays that
have been used during the course of the day in hot food preparation and service. Wipe
them dry.
7 Return all cleaned and dried service utensils to the appropriate storage places ready for
the next day’s use.
8 Check the stock of plates needed for the next day’s service of food.
9 Check area of responsibility with supervisor.

Chapter 8

The service of breakfast and afternoon tea

8.1 Breakfast service

256

8.2 Afternoon tea service

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●●8.1 Breakfast service
The current trend is for breakfasts to be offered in a variety of establishments. Many hotels
now offer room-only rates or only serve a continental breakfast inclusive in the room rate,
with a full breakfast available at an extra charge.
Breakfast in hotels may be served in the hotel restaurant or dining room, in a breakfast
room set aside for this meal, or in the hotel guest’s bedroom or suite. The service of
breakfast in rooms or suites is dealt with in Section 9.2 (p.267).

Types of breakfast
Café complet

The term ‘café complet’ is widely used in continental Europe and means a continental
breakfast with coffee as the beverage. The term ‘thé complet’ is also used, with tea
provided as the beverage.
Café simple or thé simple

Café simple or thé simple is just a beverage (coffee or tea) with nothing to eat.
Table 8.1 Examples of breakfast menu items
Menu

Examples of food items

Juices

Orange, pineapple, grapefruit, tomato, prune, carrot, apple

Fresh and
stewed fruit

Melon, strawberries, grapefruit (half or segments), pineapple, apricots,
peaches, mango, paw paw, lychees, figs, prunes (fresh and stewed)

Cereals

Cornflakes, Weetabix, Special K, muesli, bran flakes, Rice Krispies, porridge

Yoghurt

Natural and fruit, regular and low fat

Fish

Fried or grilled kippers, poached smoked haddock (sometimes with
poached eggs), grilled herring, fried or grilled plaice, fried or grilled sole,
kedgeree, smoked fish (sometimes including dishes like smoked salmon with
scrambled eggs), marinated fish such as gravadlax

Eggs

Fried, poached, scrambled, boiled, plain or savoury filled omelette, eggs
Benedict

Meats

Bacon in various styles, various sausages, kidney, steak, gammon

Potatoes and
vegetables

Hash browns, sauté potatoes, home fries, mushrooms, baked beans, fresh
or grilled tomato

Pancakes and
waffles

Regular pancakes or waffles, with maple syrup or other toppings, blueberry
pancakes, wholemeal pancakes, griddle cakes

Cold buffet

Hams, tongue, chicken, smoked cold meats, salamis, cheeses (often
accompanied by fresh salad items)

Bread items

Toast, rolls, croissants, brioches, crisp breads, plain sliced white or brown
bread, rye and gluten-free bread, Danish pastries, American muffins, English
muffins, spiced scones, tea cakes, doughnuts

Preserves

Jams, marmalade, honey

Beverages

Tea, coffee (including decaffeinated), chocolate, tisanes, proprietary
beverages, milk, soy/rice milk, mineral waters

Breakfast service
Continental breakfast

The traditional continental breakfast consisted of hot croissant, brioche or toast, butter and
preserves and coffee as the beverage. The current trend in the continental breakfast menu
is to offer a wider variety of choice, including cereals, fruits, juices, yoghurts, ham, cheese,
assorted bread items and a wider selection of beverages.
Full breakfast

A full breakfast menu may consist of from two to eight courses and usually includes a
cooked main course. Traditionally this was a very substantial meal and included such items
as chops, liver, game, steak, kippers and porridge as the main part of the meal. This type
of breakfast was traditionally known as an English Breakfast, but is now also known as
Scottish, Irish, Welsh or more simply British Breakfast. The term ‘full breakfast’ is also
becoming more common.
Modern full breakfast menus have changed to include a much more varied choice of
items. Today customers expect to see such items as fresh fruit juices, fresh fruit, yoghurt,
muesli, continental pastries, homemade preserves, margarines, decaffeinated coffee and
mineral waters on the full breakfast menu. Examples of breakfast menu items are given in
Table 8.1.

Breakfast covers
The breakfast cover may be divided into two types:
◗◗ continental breakfast cover
◗◗ full breakfast cover.
Cover for a continental breakfast

For a continental breakfast consisting of hot croissant/brioches or hot toast, butter,
preserves and coffee or tea, the cover would be as follows:
◗◗ napkin

◗◗ side plate with side knife
◗◗ sugar basin and tongs or

individual sugar packets (and
alternatives) in a bowl

tea or breakfast cup and saucer
and a teaspoon
stands or underplates for
coffee/tea pot and hot milk/hot
water jug
table number.

Figure 8.1 Example of a continental breakfast (image courtesy of Six Continents Hotels)

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If the beverage is tea and loose leaves are used then the following additional items will be
needed:
◗◗ slop basin
◗◗ tea strainer.
Cover for a full breakfast

The full breakfast consists of a number of courses, usually three or four, with a choice
of dishes within each course, such as those listed in Table 8.1. The cover will therefore
include some or all of the following:
◗◗ napkin

◗◗ side plate and side knife

◗◗ fish knife and fork

◗◗ joint knife and fork
◗◗ sweet spoon and fork
◗◗ tea or breakfast cup, saucer and

teaspoon

◗◗ sugar basin and tongs or

individual sugar packets (and
alternatives) in a bowl

slop basin
tea strainer
stands or underplates for
teapot/coffee pot and hot water
jug/hot milk jug
salt and pepper
caster sugar in shaker
table number.

The majority of the items listed above for the two types of breakfast are often placed on
the table as part of the mise-en-place, before the customer is seated. A number of items are
then placed on the table when the customer is seated. These include:
◗◗ butter dish, butter knife and butter and

alternatives
◗◗ preserve dish with preserve spoon

◗◗ jug of cold milk
◗◗ toast rack with toast and/or bread
basket with hot rolls

Figure 8.2 Example of a full
breakfast cover

other items according to the
customer’s choice
tea pot/coffee pot/hot or cold
milk/hot water jug.

Breakfast service

Breakfast served in the restaurant (table service)
The basic mise-en-place for the service of breakfast is normally carried out the evening
before, after the service of dinners has finished. To ensure protection against dust until
the breakfast staff arrive for duty, the corners of the cloths may be lifted up and over the
basic mise-en-place. It will be completed the following morning before the actual service
of breakfast commences. This will include turning breakfast cups the right way up and
laying the breakfast buffet with items usually served for the first course, such as chilled
fruit juices, cereals and fruit compôte, together with all the necessary glasses, plates and
tableware required for the service. The breakfast buffet should also contain preserves
and butter and alternatives. Jugs of iced water and glasses should be ready on the buffet
throughout the meal, especially if the establishment is catering for American visitors.
Preserves are usually now served in individual pots.
Summary of the order of service for breakfasts (table service)

◗◗ Greet and seat the customer. The customer should be escorted to a particular table and
seated. The breakfast menu should then be presented and the customer given time to
make his or her choice.
◗◗ Take the customer’s order. The food order is written on one check and sent to the
kitchen and the beverage on another check, which is sent to the stillroom.
◗◗ Ensure the correct cover as per the customer’s order. While the orders are being
attended to in the various departments, the waiter must remember to remove any
unwanted cutlery from the cover and, where appropriate, to lay fresh cutlery together
with any accompaniments that may be required, for example, Worcestershire sauce if the
first course is to be tomato juice.
◗◗ Serve the first course plus accompaniments.
◗◗ After the first course is cleared serve the following:
– Beverage: The teapot and hot water jug or the coffee pot and hot milk jug should
be placed on the stands or underplates to the right of the lady (or the elder if more
than one) in the party or, in the case of an all-male party, by the senior gentleman
present. The handles of the pots should be placed in the most convenient position
for pouring.
– Croissant, brioche, rolls, and toast: Hot fresh toast and/or hot rolls should then be
placed on the table together with preserves and butter before serving the main
course.
◗◗ Serve the main course (plated) plus accompaniments. (The main course at full breakfast
is usually plated and all necessary accompaniments should be on the table before it is
served.)
◗◗ Check any other requirements.
◗◗ On clearing the main course the waiter should move the side plate and knife in front of
the customer and then enquire if more toast, butter, preserves or beverage is required.

Buffet or American breakfast
Many hotels have in recent years introduced a self-service breakfast buffet, which has
successfully provided a fast breakfast service. The change towards buffet style of service for
breakfast has also increased the range of foods on offer. The buffet can be used for any type
of breakfast, with the most extensive often called American buffet breakfast. Examples of
the full range of menu items that may be found are given in Table 8.1 on p.256.

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Figure 8.3 Breakfast buffet system (image courtesy of Dunk Ink UK)

Buffet breakfast menus are often priced and offered at three levels:
◗◗ Continental: Including juices, bread items and beverages.
◗◗ Cold buffet: Including those items of continental breakfast plus a selection of cold items
from the buffet.
◗◗ Full breakfast: Full selection from the buffet including hot cooked items.
With the buffet breakfast all items are self-served from the buffet, with perhaps the
exception of any egg dishes or other cooked-to-order items and the beverages required.

●●8.2 Afternoon tea service
The old English tradition of taking afternoon tea at 4 o’clock is slowly dying out and in
its place is the trend towards tea and pastries only, with the venue also changing from the
hotel lounge to coffee shops, cafés and food courts. With the advent of all-day dining
menus, the traditional division of mealtimes is also changing.

Types of afternoon teas
Afternoon tea is served in many establishments and in a variety of forms. Afternoon tea
may be classified into two main types:
1 Full afternoon tea as served in a first-class hotel or restaurant.
2 High tea as served in a popular price restaurant, department store or café.
Full afternoon tea

The menu for a full afternoon tea usually consists of some or all of the items listed in
Figure 8.4. These are generally served in the order in which they are listed. Note that
beverages are served first.

Afternoon tea service

Full Afternoon Tea Menu
Variety of teas, tisanes and coffees

Assorted Afternoon Tea Sandwiches:
Smoked Salmon, Cucumber, Tomato, Sardine,
Egg, Gentleman’s Relish

Brown and White Bread and Butter
Fruit Bread and Butter

Hot Buttered Toast or Toasted Teacake or Crumpets
Warmed Scones (with butter or whipped or clotted cream)
Raspberry or Strawberry Jams

Gâteaux and Pastries

Figure 8.4 Full afternoon tea menu

Cover for full afternoon tea

The following cover will normally be laid for a full afternoon tea:
◗◗ napkin

◗◗ side plate with side or tea knife

◗◗ pastry fork
◗◗ teacup and saucer and a teaspoon

◗◗ jug of cold milk and/or side plate
with lemon slices (depending on
the tea taken)
◗◗ teapot and hot water jug stands or

underplates
◗◗ sugar basin and tongs or
individual packets of sugar (and
alternatives)

slop basin and tea strainer
butter dish and butter knife with butter
and alternatives
preserve dish on an underplate
with a preserve spoon, or side
plate with small individual
preserve pots
table number.

Note: The beverage, jug of cold milk, preserve dish and butter dish are only brought to the
table when the customers are seated, and are not part of the mise-en-place.

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Figure 8.5 Example of cover for full afternoon tea after the order has been taken

Figure 8.6 Example of an afternoon tea stand

High tea
A high tea may be available in addition to the full afternoon tea. It is usually in a modified
à la carte form and the menu will offer, in addition to the normal full afternoon tea menu,
such items as grills, toasted snacks, fish and meat dishes, salads, cold sweets and ices. The
meat dishes normally consist in the main of pies and pastries, whereas the fish dishes are
usually fried or grilled.
The following accompaniments (proprietary sauces) may be offered with high tea:
◗◗ tomato ketchup
◗◗ brown sauce (e.g. ‘HP’)
◗◗ Worcestershire sauce

◗ vinegar
◗ mustards.

Afternoon tea service
Cover for high tea

The cover for high tea may include:
◗◗ napkin

◗◗ joint knife and fork

◗◗ side plate and side knife
◗◗ cruet: salt, pepper, mustard

◗◗ teacup, saucer and teaspoon and
mustard spoon

◗◗ jug of cold milk and/or side plate
with lemon slices (depending on
the tea taken)
◗◗ teapot and hot water jug stands or

underplates

slop basin and tea strainer
sugar basin and tongs or
individual packets of sugar
butter dish and butter knife
with butter and alternatives
preserve dish on an underplate
with a preserve spoon or side
plate with small individual
preserve pots
table number.

Note: As for the full afternoon tea cover, the jug of cold milk, butter dish and the preserve
dish are not part of the mise-en-place and should only be brought to the table when the
customers are seated. Any other items of tableware that may be required are brought to the
table as for the à la carte service.

Figure 8.7 Example of cover for high tea

Order of service for afternoon tea (table service)
The general order of service for afternoon tea is:
1 beverages
2 hot snacks – bread and butter (sometimes salads)*
3 sandwiches
4 assorted bread items with butter and alternatives and preserves
5 hot toasted items
6 scones, with butter or cream and preserves
7 cakes and pastries.
*High tea only

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For the service of a high tea

1 The beverage should again be served first, followed by the hot snack ordered, which is
often accompanied by bread and butter. When this has been consumed and cleared, the
service then follows that of a full afternoon tea.
2 Order taking is usually carried out using the duplicate checking method.
3 The sandwiches may be dressed on silver flats and are set out on the buffet prior to
service. Alternatively, sandwiches are pre-plated with a predetermined selection and
then served to the customer at the table as required.
4 Toast, teacakes and crumpets are often served in a soup plate or welled dish with a silver
cover on an underplate. An alternative to this is the use of a muffin dish, which is a
covered silver dish with an inner lining and hot water in the lower part of the container.
When serving hot buttered toast for afternoon tea, the crusts from three sides only are
removed and the toast is then cut into fingers with part of the crust remaining attached
to each finger – this makes it easier for the customer to hold the toast when eating it.
5 The scones and assorted buttered breads are often dressed on dish papers on flats and are
also set out on the buffet or brought from the still room as required.
6 Preserves are served either in individual pots or in preserve dishes, both of which are
often served on a doily on an underplate with a preserve spoon.
7 Gâteaux and pastries can be presented on cake boards, which are placed on plates or on
round silver flats or salvers. An alternative to this is the use of a pastry trolley.
8 Ice creams and other sweet dishes are becoming more popular now and are usually
served last.
Note: Afternoon tea may also be served in the lounge (see Section 9.3, p.273).

Reception or buffet tea
A reception or buffet tea is offered for special functions and private parties only, and, as the
name implies, the food and beverage are served from a buffet table and not at individual
tables. The foods that will be available might be a selection from either the full afternoon
tea or the high tea menus.
The buffet should be set up in a prominent position in the room, making sure that there
is ample space for display and presentation and for the customers to make their choice.
The buffet should have easy access to the stillroom and wash-up so that replenishment of
the buffet and the clearing of used tableware may be carried out without disturbing the
customers.
When setting up the buffet it is necessary to ensure there is ample space for customer
circulation and that a number of occasional tables and chairs are placed round the room.
These occasional tables may be covered with clean, well-starched linen cloths, and have
a small vase of flowers and an ashtray on them (depending on the smoking policy of the
establishment).
Setting up the buffet

The afternoon tea tableware, crockery and napkins should be laid along the front of the
buffet in groups with the teacups, saucers and teaspoons concentrated in one or more tea
service points as required. Sugar bowls may be placed on the buffet or on the occasional
tables that are spread round the room. The tea may be served from urns, which should
be kept hot, or pump-dispense insulated jugs, at the separate tea service points along the
buffet. Fresh milk should be available in milk jugs. Non-dairy creamers and a range of

Afternoon tea service

sugars (sometimes in packets) may also be offered. Tisanes in packets together with hot
water and slices of lemon might also be available.
A raised floral centrepiece can be the focal point around which the dishes of food are
placed. Cake stands may also be used for presentation and display purposes.
Service

During the reception some of the staff must be positioned behind the buffet for the service
and replenishment of the dishes of food and beverages. Other members of staff should
circulate the room with the food and to clear away the dirty cups and plates. As the dishes
on the buffet become depleted, they should be quickly replenished or cleared away so that
the buffet looks neat and tidy at all times.

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9.1 Service in situ

267

9.2 Floor/room service

267

9.3 Lounge service

273

9.4 Hospital tray service

276

9.5 Home delivery

277

9.6 Airline tray service

279

9.7 Rail service

281

Floor/room service

●●9.1 Service in situ
Specialised forms of service are those where the food and beverages are taken to where
the customer is. In other words the customer is served in situ and the service takes place
in areas not conventionally designed for food and beverage service. It includes tray service
methods found in hospitals and aircraft, as well as lounge service, room service, service on
trains and home delivery. It also includes off-premises catering, which is covered in Section
11.6 (p.358).
The customer processes for this service method group are summarised, together with
the other four groups of service methods, in Section 1.5, Table 1.9 (p.18). For the full
identification of the five groups of service methods, see Section 1.5 (p.15).

●●9.2 Floor/room service
Floor or room service varies from basic tea and
coffee making facilities in the room and possibly
a mini-bar, to vending machines on floors, or the
service of a variety of meals in rooms. The extent
of service in hotel guest rooms will depend on
the nature of the establishment. In five star hotels
24-hour room service is expected, whereas in
two and three star hotels service may be limited
to tea and coffee making facilities in the room
and only continental breakfast available to be
served in the room.

Full and partial room service
An example of a room service menu is shown in
Figure 9.2. In this establishment full room service
is offered and the room service staff are employed
to provide 24-hour service.
Service may be operated from a floor
pantry – there may be one on each floor of an
establishment or one sited to service two or three
floors. An alternative system is where all food and Figure 9.1 Room service (image courtesy
of Six Continents Hotels)
beverages come from a central kitchen and are
sent to the different floors by lift, before being
taken to the rooms, possibly in a heated trolley.
Floor service staff must have considerable experience as they have to deal with the
service of all types of meals and beverages. The floor service staff tend to work on a shift
system, in order to provide 24-hour service.
The hotel guest may call direct to the floor pantry or telephone their request to
reception or the restaurant or dining room. Orders are taken and recorded. When the
order is delivered to the room it is important that a signature is obtained in case of any
query when the bill is presented to a hotel guest on leaving the establishment. All orders,

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Wake Up And Smell The Bacon

From Our Pasta Range

If you would like breakfast served in your room please

Linguini, penne or gnocchi

fill in the breakfast menu door hanger and place on the
outside doorknob of your room before 3am. Alternatively

£13.95

Add your own sauce
Pesto, pine nut and mushroom

Arabiatta

call room service direct on extension 4.

Bolognese

Carbonara

Served from 11am till 10.45pm

Light Bites
Soups of the day
£5.95
Freshly prepared, always 2 choices available, served with crusty bread rolls

Hilton Classics
Caesar salad with parmesan shavings

£6.95 / £10.95

With chicken breast or Atlantic prawns

£9.95 / £14.95

Club sandwich with back bacon, chicken breast,
vine tomato and egg

£12.95

100% beef Hilton burger with back bacon or
mature Scottish cheddar or both

£13.95

Club sandwich and Hilton burger are both served with fries

Sandwiches and Paninis
Sandwiches come on your choice of traditional white or wholemeal bread. All sandwiches
and paninis are served with vegetable crisps, dill pickle and marinated olives.

£5.95

Stornoway black pudding, Ayrshire bacon and crushed hash

£7.95

Shetland mussels, marinière or with lemon grass and coconut milk

£7.95

Greek salad; feta cheese with vine tomato, basil
and marinated olives

£6.95

Nachos with mozzarella, jalapenos, salsa and sour cream

£7.95

Gravadlax with new potato salad, young spinach, keta caviar and dill

£7.95

Prawn and Uig smoked salmon cocktail

£7.95

Antipasti plate – Prosciutto ham, chorizo, galia melon, mozzarella,
sun blushed tomatoes, marinated olives, roasted vegetables,
anchovies feta cheese and wild leaves

£8.95

Main Meals
Add all dishes from the “Old Favourites” section in the new bar menu.
Baked field mushrooms, goats cheese, herb crust

£11.95

£8.95

Highland game venison sausage, creamed potato,
caramelised onion jus

£11.95

£8.95

Tempura haddock, hand cut chips, tartare sauce and lemon

£15.95

£8.95

Lime and ginger stir fried chicken strips, egg noodles,
pak choi and prawn crackers

£15.95

Crumbed scampi tails, hand cut chips, tossed salad

£15.95
£20.00

Oak smoked salmon, lemon mayonnaise

£8.95

Honey roast ham, apple relish
Tuna mayonnaise, spring onion and rocket
Spinach, ricotta and vine tomato wrap wit
balsamic reduction

Bards Bree – Full bodied soup of haggis, neeps and tatties
(vegetarian alternative available)

Hot Turkish flat breadwith smoked turkey breast,
Howgate brie and cranberry

£8.95

Warm sun blushed vine tomato, mozzarella and basil panini

£8.95

Dry aged Scottish ribeye (280g), Cherry vine tomatoes,
field mushrooms and hand cut chips

Warm chicken breast, caramelised onion and grain mustard panini

£8.95

Roasted North Sea halibut, tender greens, white wine sauce

£19.00

Beef madras with basmati rice, naan bread and poppadoms

£16.95

Your choice of today’s soup with any of the above sandwich or panini

£10.95

From Minsky’s Buffet –
Selection of cold appetisers

Mature Mull cheddar and ham toastie

£8.95
£8.95

Mild cheddar and pickle toastie
Fillet steak sandwich with fried onions, cos lettuce and fries

£11.95

From Our Pizza Oven
Margherita

£12.00

Smoked chicken, rocket, fresh pineapple

£12.00

£6.95

Roast joint, entrée or fish of the day with vegetables and potatoes £16.95

Side Orders

£3.50 each

Panache of seasonal vegetables

Parsley new potatoes

Hand cut chips

Onion rings

Fries

Rocket, endive and watercress salad

Garlic bread

Pepperoni

£12.00

Woodland mushrooms, char grilled vegetables,
pesto and mozzarella

Desserts And Cheese

£12.00

White and dark chocolate indulgence

£6.95

Warm apple tart tartin, calvados anglâise

£6.95

Warm Eccles cake, vanilla pod ice cream

£6.95

Movenpick ice cream (please ask for our daily selection)

£5.95

Sticky toffee pudding

£6.95

Exotic fruit salad h

£5.95

Healthy Option

Vegetarian Option

Served 24 hours

All weights are uncooked. Please note an order charge of £3.50 will be added to your bill,
all prices include VAT at the current rate. For those with special dietary requirements or allergies who may wish to know about ingredients used, please ask the Manager.

Figure 9.2 Example of a room service menu (image courtesy of the Glasgow Hilton Hotel,
Scotland)

Floor/room service

once processed and signed for by the hotel guest, should be passed immediately to
reception or control so that the services rendered may be charged to his or her account.
The pantry from which the floor service staff operates may be likened to a mini
stillroom and holds the equipment required for the preparation and service of any meal.
This equipment can include:
◗◗ gas or electric rings

◗◗ salamander

◗◗ hotplate

◗◗ hot cupboard

◗◗ small still set or other coffee

making machine
◗◗ sink unit

◗◗ refrigerator

◗◗ ice making machine

◗◗ lift to central kitchen

◗◗ cutting boards
◗◗ knives

storage shelves and cupboards
crockery
cutlery and hollowware
glassware
sugars, cruets, proprietary sauces
and other accompaniments
linen
guéridon/service trolley
chafing lamps and Suzette pans
wine service equipment, wine
buckets, stands, baskets, etc.
trays.

Sufficient equipment must be available to maintain a high standard and to enable efficient
service to be given.
The service staff carry out all their own pre-service preparation (mise-en-place)
before the service of meals. This includes the checking and refilling of cruets and other
accompaniments, laying up of breakfast trays, changing of linen, laying up of tables,
washing and polishing of glasses, cleaning of trays and so on. Some establishments provide
a different style and design of crockery, etc., for the service of meals on the floors.
Floor service staff must also cooperate with other staff within the establishment. The
floor service staff should ensure that all trays and debris are cleared as soon as meals are
finished so that the meals are not in the way when rooms are being cleaned, or left in
bedroom corridors outside guest doors, as this constitutes a trip hazard and looks unsightly.

Breakfast only service
In some hotels only breakfast service is available, which is often provided by the
housekeeping staff. An example of a breakfast menu is shown in Figure 9.3. This menu
also acts as an order which, when completed, is hung on the outside of the hotel guest’s
bedroom door. The bottom portion of the card is detached and sent to the billing office
for charging to the guest’s account. The remaining portion goes to the floor service pantry
or to the central kitchen. Trays are then made up and delivered to the room within the
appropriate time range.
The laying up of a breakfast tray involves the same procedure, with a few exceptions,
as laying up a table for a full or continental breakfast in the restaurant. As most orders for
the service of breakfast in the room are known in advance the tray may be laid according
to the order. The main differences between laying a tray and a table for the service of
breakfast are as follows:
◗◗ A tray cloth replaces the tablecloth.
◗◗ Underplates are usually left out because of lack of space and to reduce the weight of the
tray.

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Room service breakfast

NOTES

Please hang outside room before 2.00am
Desired service time
4:30 – 5:00am
6:30 – 7:00am
5:00 – 5:30am
7:00 – 7:30am
5:30 – 6:00am
7:30 – 8:00am
6:00 – 6:30am
8:00 – 8:30am
Only available in airport hotels

8:30 – 9:00am
9:00 – 9:30am
9:30 – 10:00am

Cooked Breakfast available from 7.00am
Includes your choice from the Continental Breakfast
and any of the following items
Fried eggs
Tomato
Hash browns
Bacon

Scrambled eggs
Mushrooms
Pork sausage
Black pudding

3. The menu on this template is for layout
illustration purposes
only. Please replace
with relevant menu for
your hotel.

£18.75

Poached eggs
Baked beans
Vegetarian sausage

Continental Breakfast
Juices
Orange juice

£14.75
Apple Juice

Grapefruit Juice

From our bakery
White toast
Brown toast

Morning roll
Croissant

Danish pastry
Muffin

Special K
Shredded Wheat
With skimmed milk

Rice Crispies
Muesli

Yogurt and fruits
Plain yogurt low fat
Fruit yogurt low fat

Fresh fruit salad
Cut melon

Grapefruit segments
Stewed fruits

Beverages
Coffee

Decaf coffee

Breakfast tea

Cereals
Corn flakes
All Bran
With full fat milk

Fancy something else? Just ask
Number of breakfasts ordered:
Please charge my account
Room no:

Guest name:

A £3.50 charge will be applicable to all orders. For guests who
have paid for a room package including breakfast, there will be
a charge of £6.00 per room, for room service. For those with
special dietary requirements or allergies who may wish to know
about food ingredients used, please ask the manager. All prices
include VAT at 17.5%.

hilton.co.uk
UK Price Band 2

Figure 9.3 Room service breakfast
menu and order card (image
courtesy of the Belfast Hilton Hotel,
Northern Ireland)

Floor/room service

With standard orders for breakfast in the rooms, the trays are often laid up the night before,
placed in the pantry and covered with a clean cloth. The beverage, toast, rolls etc., cereals
and juices, together with the preserves and other accompaniments that may be required
according to the order given, will normally be prepared by the floor service staff in the
service or floor pantry. The main course is sent up already plated from the kitchen in the
service lift. Before taking the tray to the room it is important to check that nothing is
missing and that the hot food is hot.
The positioning of the items on the tray is important:
◗◗ Items should be placed so that everything is to hand for the guest. For example, the
beverage and breakfast cup, saucer and teaspoon should be placed to the top centre-right
of the tray, as this is in the correct position for pouring and helps balance the tray.
◗◗ Any bottled proprietary sauce required should be laid flat to avoid accidents when
carrying the tray.
◗◗ When carrying a tray, the spouts of hot beverage pots or jugs should face inwards, to
avoid spillages, which may cause scalding to the server or slippages on wet floors.

Figure 9.4 Example of breakfast tray laid for a continental breakfast

On arriving at the door of the room, the member of staff should knock loudly, wait for a
reply, and then enter, placing the tray on a table and then adjusting the items on the tray
as appropriate. If there are two or more people taking breakfast in the apartment, it may

Figure 9.5 Room service tables – (a) Opened; (b) Laid and folded for transportation; (c) Laid
and opened for service, with hot cupboard fitted (images courtesy of Burgess Furniture Ltd,
London, UK)

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Private Bar
PLEASE NOTE:
All items moved from your bar will automatically be
charged to your room account.
A charge is incurred whenever an item is lifted.
If you wish your bar to be locked during your stay,
please contact Room Service.
Please contact our Room Service Operator,
should you require ice cubes.

Spirits
Gordon’s Gin
Smirnoff Vodka
Bacardi Rum
Glenfiddich
Bells Whisky
Martell V.S. Cognac

50ml
50ml
50ml
50ml
50ml
50ml

£5.80
£5.80
£5.80
£5.80
£5.80
£5.80

Soft Drinks
Sun Raysia Orange Juice
Coka Cola Can
Diet Coke Can
Tonic Can
Sprite Can
Perrier
Evian Water
Red Bull Can

250ml
330ml
330ml
150ml
330ml
330ml
500ml
250ml

£3.15
£2.75
£2.75
£2.60
£2.75
£2.60
£2.60
£3.85

Wine
Nottage Hill Cabernet-Shiraz
Nottage Hill Chardonnay
Anna de Codorniu Brut

250ml
250ml
200ml

£10.95
£10.95
£10.45

Snacks
Toblerone
Alpen Muesli Bar
Hilton Mixed Nuts
Hilton Chocolate Raisins

£3.85
£3.05
£4.35
£4.35

Figure 9.6 Example of a mini bar menu (image courtesy of the Glasgow Hilton Hotel, Scotland)

be necessary to lay up a table or trolley and to serve the breakfast in the same way as in
the restaurant. After approximately 45 minutes the floor service staff should return to the
room, knock and wait for a reply, enter and ask if it is convenient to clear the breakfast tray
away.
When breakfast service is finished all equipment must be washed up in the floor service
pantry and foodstuffs such as milk, cream, butter, rolls and preserves should be returned
to the refrigerator or store cupboard. The pantry is then cleaned and the mise-en-place
carried out for the day.

In-room facilities
Mini bar

An example of a mini bar menu is shown in Figure 9.6. Some mini bar menus also act as
a hotel guest self-completion bill. Many modern mini bars now have automatic sensors,
which charge to the guest’s room bill when items are lifted from the fridge. This reduces
theft and increases control. Mini bars are usually audited and restocked each day and the
consumption recorded and the billing office advised.

Lounge service
Tea and coffee making facilities

The standard stock for these (usually complimentary) facilities includes a teacup and saucer,
a teaspoon (one per person), tea/coffee pot (or both), kettle (self-switching) and a selection
of tea, coffee, sugar, chocolate, creamer, non-sugar sweetener and, possibly, biscuits. The
stock should be a standard stock, replaced and checked for freshness each day by the room
attendants.

●●9.3 Lounge service
Lounge service may include the service of continental breakfast, morning coffee, luncheon
snacks, afternoon tea, dinner or late evening snacks as well as alcoholic beverages.
Although mainly associated with hotels, it is also found in public houses, wine bars and on
ships. Examples of lounge service menus are given in Figure 9.7(a) and Figure 9.7(b).

Organisation of lounge service
The lounge is very often the front window of the establishment, so the standards of service
should be high to reflect overall standards. This responsibility rests with the lounge staff
and they must therefore be of smart appearance, efficient and attentive to the hotel guests
or other customers. They should have a good knowledge of food and beverage service,
especially the licensing laws. Throughout the day the lounge staff must ensure that the
areas are presentable at all times. Before luncheon and dinner, cocktail snacks may be
placed on the coffee tables and, after lunch, the tables must be prepared for the service of
afternoon tea.
In a first class establishment lounge service staff may possibly operate from their own
service pantry. However, in many instances the lounge staff work and liaise with the
stillroom, or one of the dispense bars, for the service of all types of beverages required,
both alcoholic and non-alcoholic. The lounge staff may have access to a dedicated storage
area that holds a basic stock of items they may need in case of emergency. These items may
be as follows:
◗◗ small stock of linen

◗◗ salvers
◗◗ ashtrays (depending on smoking
policy)
◗◗ assorted glasses
◗◗ cups, saucers and teaspoons for
the service of hot beverages

◗◗ dry goods: coffees, teas and
sugars
◗◗ check pads, bill pads and stock

sheets for alcoholic drinks

basic alcoholic drink stock (for
use when hotel guests must be
served in the lounge because the
bars are closed) to include spirits,
brandies, mineral waters, apéritifs,
liqueurs, soft drinks and wines
cocktail snacks – cocktail onions,
salted peanuts, gherkins, cocktail
cherries, olives, cheese sticks, etc.
Other beverages – Horlicks,
Bovril, cocoa, Ovaltine, tisanes
and chocolate.

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Figure 9.7(a) Example of a lounge and bar menu (image courtesy of the Westbury Hotel,
London)

Lounge service

Figure 9.7(b) Example of a lounge and bar menu (image courtesy of the Westbury Hotel,
London)

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The lounge staff must be prepared for the following types of service in the lounge:
◗◗ various breakfast foods

◗◗ morning coffee
◗◗ apéritifs and cocktails before

luncheon and dinner services
◗◗ coffee, liqueurs and brandy after
luncheon and dinner services
◗◗ afternoon tea

service of late night beverages,
both alcoholic and non-alcoholic
other snacks throughout the day,
depending on the type of
establishment.

The triplicate checking method is normally used for lounge service (or the electronic
equivalent), with the top copy going to the supplying department – the stillroom or
dispense bar. The second copy should either stay with the lounge staff if they have to make
out a bill for a chance customer, or go to reception or control so the resident’s account can
be charged accordingly. The flimsy or third copy remains with the lounge staff as a means
of reference.
Chance customers usually pay for the service at the time. Resident hotel guests may not
wish to pay in the lounge and staff must then ensure that the hotel guest signs the check
to confirm the services received. The check must show the correct room number. The
amount should then be charged to the guest’s hotel account.
Stocktaking should be held at regular intervals with the occasional spot check on
certain items. Stock sheets should be completed daily and are often in the form of a daily
consumption sheet (see Section 12.8, p.397) showing the daily sales and the cash received,
which may be compared with the checks showing the orders taken.

Buffets and trolleys
For some types of lounge service such as afternoon tea, a buffet may be set up to display
the range of foods on offer. Alternatively, a guéridon (trolley) may be used to offer a
selection of foods to customers seated within the lounge areas.

●●9.4 Hospital tray service
Hospital catering services have major foodservice goals, as all meals should reach the
patient quickly, look attractive and be of specific nutritional value. Patients in hospital often
have special dietary needs (for examples of these see Section 4.4, p.97).
Meal times in hospitals

The timing of patients’ meals generally follows a similar pattern, for example::
Breakfast
Lunch
Tea
Supper
Later hot drink

7.30–8.00 a.m.
12 noon
3.00–3.30 p.m.
6.00–6.30 p.m.
Anytime between 8.00 and 10.00 p.m.

Order taking
Menu order forms are used to take orders from patients in the main wards of hospitals. The
menu contains a choice for lunch, dinner and breakfast and is given to each patient the day

Home delivery

before. The patient marks off their requirements for lunch, dinner and breakfast for the
following day. They may also indicate on the card whether they require a large or small
portion. The menus are then collected and sent to the foodservice department.
When the order cards have been collected, menu reader terminals are often used to
scan the hand marked menu cards. The menu reader terminals are used to transmit food
and beverage requirements to production areas, print records and control the individual
meal assembly for the hospital conveyor systems. The menu reader terminals can also be
interfaced with computer systems for dietary and recipe analysis.

Tray systems
There are a number of commercially available tray service methods used in hospital
foodservice. Individual patient trays are made up on a conveyor system according to the
patients’ pre-ordered requirements. Various methods are used to keep the food hot or cold,
ranging from the heated or chilled pellet method to specially insulated trays. Trays, once
completed, are transported to the wards in ambient cabinets. At service time, depending
on the type of dish, extra portions are available in case they are required. Beverages may be
added at ward sites before presentation to the patient.
The advantages of this system are:
◗◗ the patient is able to select the meal items required from a menu
◗◗ over the period of a week or a fortnight, the patient has a wide and varied selection of
dishes from which to choose
◗◗ patients receive their meal presented appetisingly on the plate and at the correct
temperature
◗◗ labour and administration costs can be reduced
◗◗ time originally spent in the ward plating up meals may now be used for other duties.
Microwave ovens are also used in hospitals to provide quick re-heating facilities for food
at certain periods of the day and night. All forms of dishes required can be prepared the
day before during off peak hours in a central kitchen and blast-frozen or chilled. When
required the following day, the dishes can quickly be ready for service.
Note: Private patients’ choice of food and beverages is usually larger and more varied than in
the main wards, and here the service is similar to hotel room service.

●●9.5 Home delivery
Home delivery services range from Indian and Chinese takeaway deliveries, to restaurants
providing full meals (hot, or cold for customers to re-heat). One chain of pizza restaurants
was specifically designed to be primarily a home delivery operation and was based upon an
American concept. There are also examples of social foodservice deliveries for the infirm
or elderly.
Methods of delivery vary, but all endeavour to preserve the product in heat retention
presentation packages. The most simple, but nevertheless effective, is the pizza home
delivery system, which utilises thick cardboard with internal corrugations to provide a
form of insulation to keep the pizza hot. The time required for heat retention is limited

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by the extent of the delivery area. Indeed, the companies who operate these services
endeavour to deliver the pizza within 30 minutes.

●●9.6 Airline tray service
Most airlines now operate using a catering commissary. A commissary is a term used
to cover the catering, cabin requirements, bonded stores, cleaning and other passenger
requirements. It is now accepted that on many short-haul routes, only snack-type meals
or sandwiches and beverages are offered. For some operators the provision of food and
beverages is provided for an additional charge to the customer. On long-haul flights,
airlines provide a more extensive service of food and beverages. The airline will provide
dishes to meet its passengers’ particular needs, for example, meals that meet a range of
dietary requirements.
Service on airlines is often a combination of the type of trolley service, used for the
service of beverages, and a service involving trays being distributed from the trolley in
which they are stacked. Great use is also made of pre-portioned foods, such as salt, pepper,
mustards, sugars, cream, cheeses, dry biscuits and preserves.
For economy and tourist flights all meals tend to be of the same size, with identical
portions. The meals are arranged in individual portion containers, sealed, chilled and then
stored until required. The economy or tourist class meal is often served on a plastic or
melamine tray and uses disposable place mats, cutlery, tableware and napkins, together with
disposable glasses for any drinks required.
Business and first class passengers will often receive a food and beverage service
equivalent to that of a first class hotel or restaurant (see Figure 9.8). The first class service
may offer joints of meat that are carved from a carving trolley as it moves up the central
aisle, served with the appropriate garnish and vegetables. This, combined with the use
of fine bone china, glassware and silver plated tableware, creates an atmosphere of quality
while the meal is being served.
The foodservice organisation includes foods being held in hot cupboards and kept hot
until transported to the plane, or chilled and stored in the foodservice unit until being
re-heated on board the aircraft. High-speed ovens can heat meals in 20 minutes. The tray
containing the meal is then taken to the passenger. In between meals on long flights, tea,
coffee, biscuits, cakes and other snacks are often served, together with cold drinks. All
alcoholic beverages and cigarettes are drawn from the bonded stores on the foodservice
premises under the supervision of a representative of HM Revenue & Customs.
Each airline will supply its own equipment such as tableware, crockery and glassware. In
order to achieve greater fuel economy some airlines have stopped providing metal cutlery,
depending on the food supplied, as the combined weight of unnecessary cutlery uses extra
fuel.
When the aircraft is in the air cabin crew provide the food and beverage service to the
passengers. Their job can be very difficult, especially if the flight is of a short duration, as
this can leave little time for a meal to be served. Many budget flights under two hours now
only serve hot and cold beverages.

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Airline tray service

London – Bangkok

Welcome on board
British Airways is proud and delighted
to work alongside some of the world’s
finest chefs and to feature their dishes
290C001.BAM_CW_Menu_Master_r1.qxd
3:35 PM Page 4
on board. These have been 11/17/09
created for
your pleasure and to complement our
selection of fine wines.
This is the chef whose dish is featured
on your menu today.
Liam Tomlin’s international career has seen
him cooking to great acclaim in Switzerland,
Australia and South Africa. From Cape Town
he acts as a consultant to various restaurants,
game lodges and hotels.

Drinks
Complimentary bar service, including
alcoholic beverages and soft drinks,
is available throughout the flight. See
inserted wine list for today’s selection.
Ground coffee, decaffeinated coffee
or tea
Selection of herbal teas
includes green tea with jasmine,
peppermint, blackcurrant
and camomile with honey

Club Kitchen
Between meals, please help yourself
to a drink or a tasty snack. Please visit
the Club Kitchen and choose from
the selection on display.
All paper
used for
menu production is made
Snack
salads,
sandwiches,
from an
environmentally
filled
rolls
and wraps friendly source
from sustainable forests.

Fresh fruit salads
and fruit smoothies or juices
Choice of luxury cakes
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Many of our best dishes are greatly
loved and have become firm
favourites with you. We are delighted
to offer some of these for your
enjoyment today. Our ingredients
are locally sourced wherever possible.

Dinner

London – Bangkok

Starters
K Liam Tomlin’s salmon brandade

Breakfast

and green beans with shallot
and walnut oil dressing
or
* Baby leeks with vinaigrette (V)

Salad

* Fresh seasonal salad
served with vinaigrette

Main

Winter beef casserole
with horseradish dumplings

Starters
Chilled fruit juice
* An energising fruit smoothie
of raspberry and oatmeal
* Fresh fruit
or

Roast turkey with cranberry
and Stilton

Greek yoghurt with apricot
and blueberry compote

Prawns with oyster mushrooms,
stir-fried vegetables and rice

Bakery

Roast vegetable and goat’s cheese
pie with walnuts and sage (V)

Selection of warm breads
and breakfast pastries

* Chilled main course salad
with winter-spiced breast of chicken

Dessert

Orange délice
Cropwell Bishop Stilton
and triple crème French Brie
served with savoury biscuits
A selection of fruit
Chocolates

Main
English breakfast of scrambled eggs,
grilled bacon, Cumberland sausage,
sautéed mushrooms and tomato
Spanish-style potato omelette (V)
Chicken congee

Drinks

Crisps and chocolate
If seated in the upper deck, you can
visit the Club Kitchen downstairs.

279

009 CW
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1

Ground coffee, decaffeinated coffee

* “Well Being in the Air” selection–please refer to or
High
teaLife for details.
We apologise if your first choice is not available.
Selection
of herbal
For allergen information, please ask your crew for more details.

teas
includes green tea with jasmine,
2 9 0 C 0 0 1 - ROT 3
peppermint, blackcurrant
and camomile with honey

Figure 9.8 Example of in-flight Business Class menu (part of a Club World menu, courtesy of British
Airways, Plc)

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280
Specialised forms of service

Chapter 9

Figure 9.9 Example of the on-train first class Travelling Chef, at seat service menu (courtesy of Great Western Trains Company, Limited)

Rail service

●●9.7 Rail service
Foodservice on trains is provided on the move and away from the home base and suppliers.
The logistics of providing on-train foodservice are therefore similar in organisation to
off-premises catering.
Food and beverage operations on trains generally fall into one of four categories:
1 conventional restaurant (including having kitchen facilities on board)
2 kiosk (takeaway)
3 trolley service operations
4 limited type of room service for sleeper trains.
Rail foodservice has also seen the introduction of tray service systems, similar to airlines.
The food and drink is served on trays to passengers at their seat (see Figure 9.9), rather
than in a restaurant car where tables are laid as in a restaurant.

281

Chapter 10

Enhanced service techniques

10.1 Guéridon service

283

10.2 Introduction to carving,
jointing and filleting

286

10.3 Flambé lamps, Suzette
pans and hotplates

290

10.4 Hors d’oeuvre and other
starters

295

10.5 Salads and dressings

300

10.6 Soups

304

10.7 Hot fish dishes

305

10.8 Steaks and meat dishes

309

10.9 Meat joints

315

10.10 Poultry and game

318

10.11 Sweet dishes

323

10.12 Fresh fruit

328

Guéridon service

●●10.1 Guéridon service
Guéridon service is an enhanced form of table service. It is normally found in
establishments with an à la carte menu and higher levels of service. It is more costly as it
requires a higher level of service skills, the use of more expensive and elaborate equipment,
and larger service areas to allow for the movement of trolleys.
The definition of the term guéridon is a movable service table, or trolley, from which
food may be served. In effect the guéridon is a movable sideboard or service station
carrying sufficient equipment for the service requirements, together with any spare
equipment that may be necessary.
Guéridon service usually indicates serving foods onto the customers’ plates at the
guéridon. Guéridon service may also refer to other enhanced service techniques such as
service using a drinks trolley, carving trolley, cheese trolley or a sweet trolley. In addition,
the drinks trolley, carving trolley, sweet trolley and cheese trolley may also be used as selling
aids as they display the items on offer to the customer.
Further enhancements to guéridon service include:
◗◗ preparing and serving foods in the service area such as salads and dressings
◗◗ carving, jointing or filleting foods in a service area, and
◗◗ flambage (the preparation and finishing, or cooking, of foods in the restaurant, which
are also flambéed).

Approaches to guéridon service
For guéridon service the taking of food orders is similar to that detailed in Section 6.4
(p.204). When guéridon service is being undertaken all dishes must be presented to the
customers at the table before the actual service of the food and especially before any
portioning, filleting, jointing or carving of any dish. This is so that the customers can see
Customer
table

Vegetables
on hot plate
Clean joint plates
Sauces and
accompaniments
Plate with
clean cutlery

Main course on silver

Waiter
Figure 10.1 Example of a basic guéridon lay-up

283

284

Chapter 10
Enhanced service techniques

the dishes as the kitchen has presented them before the dishes are to be served. Customers
can also confirm that the orders are correct.

Mise-en-place for guéridon service
In many establishments where guéridon service is carried out, the basic layout is
standardised. This is to ensure that the required standards of service are met and that
safety is a prime consideration of all the service staff. There are many designs of guéridon
available on the market today, but the basic format for the lay-up of the top of the
guéridon may be as shown in Figure 10.1.
Where necessary, the top and undershelf of the guéridon will be covered with a folded
slip cloth, although this will of course depend on the nature of the guéridon and its
general appearance. For convenience of working, the cutlery layout should be similar to
that of a sideboard as this saves time and speeds up the service. This may include:
◗◗ service spoons and forks (joint)

◗◗ sweet spoons and forks

◗◗ soup, tea and coffee spoons

fish knives and forks
special equipment including a
soup and sauce ladle
joint and side knives.

If hotplates or food warmers are used then these are placed on the left hand side on the top
of the guéridon. These heaters may be gas, electric or methylated spirit.
Underneath may be placed a service plate and service salver, side plates and some joint
plates on which to place dirty cutlery and service gear as the service is being carried out.
There should also be some underflats of assorted sizes for the service of vegetables and
sauces. A selection of doilies or dish papers may be useful for the presentation of sauces
and other accompaniments. Any other mise-en-place required, such as coffee saucers,
accompaniments and check pads will normally be on the waiter’s sideboard or workstation,
together with a surplus of all the guéridon equipment in case of emergency.

Procedure for guéridon service
◗◗ Guéridon service is essentially a chef and commis service. There must therefore be
complete liaison and teamwork between them and the other members of the team.
◗◗ Always push the guéridon, never pull it. This helps to control and steer the guéridon in
the right direction and avoid accidents.
◗◗ The guéridon should be kept in one position for the service of a complete course and
not moved from customer to customer.
◗◗ Unlike silver service, where the spoon and fork are used together in one hand, guéridon
service requires that the spoon and fork are used one in each hand. This gives more
control and makes the service quicker.
◗◗ The dish is first presented to the customer and the name of the dish is stated for
example, ‘Your Dover sole, madam’. The dish is then returned to the guéridon.
◗◗ Hot serving plates are placed on the side of the trolley, with the dish for the food to be
served placed onto the hotplate.
◗◗ The food dishes are then served onto the customers’ plates. This may also include
portioning, carving, jointing or filleting if necessary.
◗◗ When transferring foods and liquids from the service flats and dishes to the plate, always
run the fork along the underside of the spoon to avoid drips marking the plate.
◗◗ The waiter may then serve the potatoes and vegetables onto the plate while the plates

Guéridon service

are still on the guéridon. The waiter also serves the sauces onto the plates. The plates are
then placed in front of the customers.
◗◗ Alternatively where more than two covers are being served from the guéridon, only
the main dish of each customer would be served from the guéridon, with potatoes and
vegetables, sauces and accompaniments being served to the customer once the main
food items have been served onto the customers’ plates and put in front of the customer.
◗◗ The commis must always keep the guéridon clear of dirties.
◗◗ When the service is finished at one table wipe down the guéridon and move on to the
next table immediately. It will then be ready for the commis coming from the kitchen
with a loaded tray.
Note: Never carve on silver or stainless steel flats or dishes as a knife can ruin them. Use either a
carving board or a hot joint plate.

Service considerations for different foods
Hors d’oeuvre
or other
appetisers

These are served in the usual way except for various speciality dishes (see
also Section 4.6, p.100).

Soups

Always served from the guéridon, whether in individual soup tureens or in
larger soup tureens requiring a ladle.

Egg dishes

Unless there is any special treatment required these are served straight to
the table.

Pasta and rice
dishes

Served onto the customers’ plates at the guéridon. The pasta is served by
lifting the pasta high from the serving dish using a service spoon and fork,
and then moving this over to the customer’s plate and lowering the pasta
onto the plate. Accompaniments are offered at the table.

Fish dishes

Served from the presentation dishes or flats onto the customers’ plates.
Some fish dishes may be presented for filleting or car