Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 (2023)

Public Law 108-282, Title II

See Additional Resources.

This document is also available in PDF (42KB).

SEC. 201. SHORT TITLE.

This title may be cited as the ``Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004''.

Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004. 21 USC 301 note.

(Video) Food Allergens: Symptoms, Labeling, Recalls - FALCPA

SEC. 202. FINDINGS.

21 USC 343 note.

Congress finds that--

  1. (1) it is estimated that--
    1. (A) approximately 2 percent of adults and about 5 percent of infants and young children in the United States suffer from food allergies; and
    2. (B) each year, roughly 30,000 individuals require emergency room treatment and 150 individuals die because of allergic reactions to food;
  2. (2)
    1. (A) eight major foods or food groups--milk, eggs, fish, Crustacean shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts, wheat, and soybeans-- account for 90 percent of food allergies;
    2. (B) at present, there is no cure for food allergies; and
    3. (C) a food allergic consumer must avoid the food to which the consumer is allergic;
  3. (3)
    1. (A) in a review of the foods of randomly selected manufacturers of baked goods, ice cream, and candy in Minnesota and Wisconsin in 1999, the Food and Drug Administration found that 25 percent of sampled foods failed to list peanuts or eggs as ingredients on the food labels; and
    2. (B) nationally, the number of recalls because of unlabeled allergens rose to 121 in 2000 from about 35 a decade earlier;
  4. (4) a recent study shows that many parents of children with a food allergy were unable to correctly identify in each of several food labels the ingredients derived from major food allergens;
  5. (5)
    1. (A) ingredients in foods must be listed by their ``common or usual name'';
    2. (B) in some cases, the common or usual name of an ingredient may be unfamiliar to consumers, and many consumers may not realize the ingredient is derived from, or contains, a major food allergen; and
    3. (C) in other cases, the ingredients may be declared as a class, including spices, flavorings, and certain colorings, or are exempt from the ingredient labeling requirements, such as incidental additives; and
  6. (6)
    1. (A) celiac disease is an immune-mediated disease that causes damage to the gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system, and other organs;
    2. (B) the current recommended treatment is avoidance of glutens in foods that are associated with celiac disease; and
    3. (C) a multicenter, multiyear study estimated that the prevalence of celiac disease in the United States is 0.5 to 1 percent of the general population.

SEC. 203. FOOD LABELING; REQUIREMENT OF INFORMATION REGARDING ALLERGENIC SUBSTANCES.

  1. (a) In General.--Section 403 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 343) is amended by adding at the end the following: (w)
    1. (1) If it is not a raw agricultural commodity and it is, or it contains an ingredient that bears or contains, a major food allergen, unless either--
      1. ``(A) the word `Contains', followed by the name of the food source from which the major food allergen is derived, is printed immediately after or is adjacent to the list of ingredients (in a type size no smaller than the type size used in the list of ingredients) required under subsections (g) and (i); or
      2. ``(B) the common or usual name of the major food allergen in the list of ingredients required under subsections (g) and (i) is followed in parentheses by the name of the food source from which the major food allergen is derived, except that the name of the food source is not required when--
        1. ``(i) the common or usual name of the ingredient uses the name of the food source from which the major food allergen is derived; or
        2. ``(ii) the name of the food source from which the major food allergen is derived appears elsewhere in the ingredient list, unless the name of the food source that appears elsewhere in the ingredient list appears as part of the name of a food ingredient that is not a major food allergen under section 201(qq)(2)(A) or (B).
    2. ``(2) As used in this subsection, the term `name of the food source from which the major food allergen is derived' means the name described in section 201(qq)(1); provided that in the case of a tree nut, fish, or Crustacean shellfish, the term `name of the food source from which the major food allergen is derived' means the name of the specific type of nut or species of fish or Crustacean shellfish.
    3. ``(3) The information required under this subsection may appear in labeling in lieu of appearing on the label only if the Secretary finds that such other labeling is sufficient to protect the public health. A finding by the Secretary under this paragraph (including any change in an earlier finding under this paragraph) is effective upon publication in the Federal Register as a notice.

      Federal Register, publication.

    4. ``(4) Notwithstanding subsection (g), (i), or (k), or any other law, a flavoring, coloring, or incidental additive that is, or that bears or contains, a major food allergen shall be subject to the labeling requirements of this subsection.
    5. ``(5) The Secretary may by regulation modify the requirements of subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1), or eliminate either the requirement of subparagraph (A) or the requirements of subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1), if the Secretary determines that the modification or elimination of the requirement of subparagraph (A) or the requirements of subparagraph (B) is necessary to protect the public health.
    6. ``(6)
      1. (A) Any person may petition the Secretary to exempt a food ingredient described in section 201(qq)(2) from the allergen labeling requirements of this subsection.
      2. ``(B) The Secretary shall approve or deny such petition within 180 days of receipt of the petition or the petition shall be deemed denied, unless an extension of time is mutually agreed upon by the Secretary and the petitioner.
      3. ``(C) The burden shall be on the petitioner to provide scientific evidence (including the analytical method used to produce the evidence) that demonstrates that such food ingredient, as derived by the method specified in the petition, does not cause an allergic response that poses a risk to human health.
      4. ``(D) A determination regarding a petition under this paragraph shall constitute final agency action.
      5. ``(E) The Secretary shall promptly post to a public site all petitions received under this paragraph within 14 days of receipt and the Secretary shall promptly post the Secretary's response to each.

        Public information. Deadline.

        (Video) Allergen labelling of prepacked foods

    7. ``(7)
      1. (A) A person need not file a petition under paragraph (6) to exempt a food ingredient described in section 201(qq)(2) from the allergen labeling requirements of this subsection, if the person files with the Secretary a notification containing--
        1. ``(i) scientific evidence (including the analytical method used) that demonstrates that the food ingredient (as derived by the method specified in the notification, where applicable) does not contain allergenic protein; or
        2. ``(ii) a determination by the Secretary that the ingredient does not cause an allergic response that poses a risk to human health under a premarket approval or notification program under section 409.
      2. ``(B) The food ingredient may be introduced or delivered for introduction into interstate commerce as a food ingredient that is not a major food allergen 90 days after the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary, unless the Secretary determines within the 90-day period that the notification does not meet the requirements of this paragraph, or there is insufficient scientific evidence to determine that the food ingredient does not contain allergenic protein or does not cause an allergenic response that poses a risk to human health. Deadlines.
      3. ``(C) The Secretary shall promptly post to a public site all notifications received under this subparagraph within 14 days of receipt and promptly post any objections thereto by the Secretary. Public information. Deadline.
    ``(x) Notwithstanding subsection (g), (i), or (k), or any other law, a spice, flavoring, coloring, or incidental additive that is, or that bears or contains, a food allergen (other than a major food allergen), as determined by the Secretary by regulation, shall be disclosed in a manner specified by the Secretary by regulation.
  2. (b) Effect on Other Authority.--The amendments made by this section that require a label or labeling for major food allergens do not alter the authority of the Secretary of Health and Human Services under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.) to require a label or labeling for other food allergens. 21 USC 343 note.
  3. (c) Conforming Amendments.--
    1. (1) Section 201 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 321) (as amended by section 102(b)) is amended by adding at the end the following:

      ``(qq) The term `major food allergen' means any of the following:

      1. ``(1) Milk, egg, fish (e.g., bass, flounder, or cod), Crustacean shellfish (e.g., crab, lobster, or shrimp), tree nuts (e.g., almonds, pecans, or walnuts), wheat, peanuts, and soybeans.
      2. ``(2) A food ingredient that contains protein derived from a food specified in paragraph (1), except the following:
        1. ``(A) Any highly refined oil derived from a food specified in paragraph (1) and any ingredient derived from such highly refined oil.
        2. ``(B) A food ingredient that is exempt under paragraph (6) or (7) of section 403(w).''.
    2. (2) Section 403A(a)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 343-1(a)(2)) is amended by striking ``or 403(i)(2)'' and inserting ``403(i)(2), 403(w), or 403(x)''.
  4. (d) Effective Date.--The amendments made by this section shall apply to any food that is labeled on or after January 1, 2006. Applicability. 21 USC 321 note.

SEC. 204. REPORT ON FOOD ALLERGENS.

Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Health and Human Services (in this section referred to as the ``Secretary'') shall submit to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives a report that--

  1. (1)
    1. (A) analyzes--
      1. (i) the ways in which foods, during manufacturing and processing, are unintentionally contaminated with major food allergens, including contamination caused by the use by manufacturers of the same production line to produce both products for which major food allergens are intentional ingredients and products for which major food allergens are not intentional ingredients; and
      2. (ii) the ways in which foods produced on dedicated production lines are unintentionally contaminated with major food allergens; and
    2. (B) estimates how common the practices described in subparagraph (A) are in the food industry, with breakdowns by food type as appropriate;
  2. (2) advises whether good manufacturing practices or other methods can be used to reduce or eliminate cross-contact of foods with the major food allergens;
  3. (3) describes--
    1. (A) the various types of advisory labeling (such as labeling that uses the words ``may contain'') used by food producers;
    2. (B) the conditions of manufacture of food that are associated with the various types of advisory labeling; and
    3. (C) the extent to which advisory labels are being used on food products;
  4. (4) describes how consumers with food allergies or the caretakers of consumers would prefer that information about the risk of cross-contact be communicated on food labels as determined by using appropriate survey mechanisms;
  5. (5) states the number of inspections of food manufacturing and processing facilities conducted in the previous 2 years and describes--
    1. (A) the number of facilities and food labels that were found to be in compliance or out of compliance with respect to cross-contact of foods with residues of major food allergens and the proper labeling of major food allergens;
    2. (B) the nature of the violations found; and
    3. (C) the number of voluntary recalls, and their classifications, of foods containing undeclared major food allergens; and
  6. (6) assesses the extent to which the Secretary and the food industry have effectively addressed cross-contact issues.

SEC. 205. INSPECTIONS RELATING TO FOOD ALLERGENS. 21 USC 374a.

The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall conduct inspections consistent with the authority under section 704 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 374) of facilities in which foods are manufactured, processed, packed, or held--

  1. (1) to ensure that the entities operating the facilities comply with practices to reduce or eliminate cross-contact of a food with residues of major food allergens that are not intentional ingredients of the food; and
  2. (2) to ensure that major food allergens are properly labeled on foods.

SEC. 206. GLUTEN LABELING. Deadlines. Regulations. 21 USC 343 note.

Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, in consultation with appropriate experts and stakeholders, shall issue a proposed rule to define, and permit use of, the term ``gluten-free'' on the labeling of foods. Not later than 4 years after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall issue a final rule to define, and permit use of, the term ``gluten-free'' on the labeling of foods.

(Video) Food Allergens

SEC. 207. IMPROVEMENT AND PUBLICATION OF DATA ON FOOD-RELATED ALLERGIC RESPONSES. 42 USC 242r.

  1. (a) In General.--The Secretary of Health and Human Services, acting through the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and in consultation with the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, shall improve (including by educating physicians and other health care providers) the collection of, and publish as it becomes available, national data on--
    1. (1) the prevalence of food allergies;
    2. (2) the incidence of clinically significant or serious adverse events related to food allergies; and
    3. (3) the use of different modes of treatment for and prevention of allergic responses to foods.
  2. (b) Authorization of Appropriations.--For the purpose of carrying out this section, there are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary.

SEC. 208. FOOD ALLERGIES RESEARCH. 42 USC 243 note.

  1. (a) In General.--The Secretary of Health and Human Services, acting through the Director of the National Institutes of Health, shall convene an ad hoc panel of nationally recognized experts in allergy and immunology to review current basic and clinical research efforts related to food allergies. Government organization.
  2. (b) Recommendations.--Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, the panel shall make recommendations to the Secretary for enhancing and coordinating research activities concerning food allergies, which the Secretary shall make public. Deadline. Public information.

SEC. 209. FOOD ALLERGENS IN THE FOOD CODE.

The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall, in the Conference for Food Protection, as part of its efforts to encourage cooperative activities between the States under section 311 of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 243), pursue revision of the Food Code to provide guidelines for preparing allergen-free foods in food establishments, including in restaurants, grocery store delicatessens and bakeries, and elementary and secondary school cafeterias. The Secretary shall consider guidelines and recommendations developed by public and private entities for public and private food establishments for preparing allergen-free foods in pursuing this revision.

SEC. 210. RECOMMENDATIONS REGARDING RESPONDING TO FOOD-RELATED ALLERGIC RESPONSES.

42 USC 300d-2 note.

The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall, in providing technical assistance relating to trauma care and emergency medical services to State and local agencies under section 1202(b)(3) of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 300d-2(b)(3)), include technical assistance relating to the use of different modes of treatment for and prevention of allergic responses to foods.Approved August 2, 2004.

Additional Resources

Report to The Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions United States Senate And The Committee on Energy and Commerce United States House of Representatives, July 2006 (available in PDF, 1.8 Mb)

(Video) AllergyVideo

Inventory of Petitions Received under 21 U.S.C. 343(w)(6) for Exemptions from Food Allergen Labeling June 13, 2006

Inventory of Notifications Received under 21 U.S.C. 343(w)(7) for Exemptions from Food Allergen Labeling July 18, 2006

Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Food Allergens, including the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 (Edition 4) October 2006

Guidance for Industry: Guidance on the Labeling of Certain Uses of Lecithin Derived from Soy Under Section 403(w) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act April 2006

(Video) Food Allergies

Approaches to Establish Thresholds for Major Food Allergens and for Gluten in Food March 2006

  • FDA's Responses to Public Comments on the Draft Report "Approaches to Establish Thresholds for Major Food Allergens and for Gluten in Food" March 2006
  • Draft Report: Approaches to Establish Thresholds for Major Food Allergens and for Gluten in Food June 15, 2005 (pdf, 15MB)

See also Food Allergen Labeling And Consumer Protection Act of 2004 Questions and Answers.

FAQs

What legislation covers allergen Labelling on food products? ›

This legislation, known as Natasha's Law, means that most on-the-go foods must now display full ingredients and allergen listing to protect consumers with a food allergy or intolerance.

What are the 14 allergens that must be declared? ›

The 14 allergens are: celery, cereals containing gluten (such as barley and oats), crustaceans (such as prawns, crabs and lobsters), eggs, fish, lupin, milk, molluscs (such as mussels and oysters), mustard, peanuts, sesame, soybeans, sulphur dioxide and sulphites (if the sulphur dioxide and sulphites are at a ...

What allergens have to be listed on a food label? ›

The law requires that food labels identify the food source of all major food allergens used to make the food. This requirement is met if the common or usual name of an ingredient already identifies that allergen's food source name (for example, buttermilk).

Is allergen labeling a CCP? ›

If the finished product is known to contain an allergenic ingredient or a food intolerance substance you should identify the product labeling step as a CCP.

What is the new allergen Law called? ›

The changes, also known as Natasha's Law, require businesses to label all food that is prepacked for direct sale with a full list of ingredients, with the 14 major allergens emphasised in the list.

What are the mandatory Labelling requirements? ›

These include the Product Name/ Name of the Food, Use of Brand Name and/or Trademark, Complete List of Ingredients, Net Contents and Drained Weight, Name and Address of Manufacturer, Repacker, Packer, Importer, Trader and Distributor, Lot Identification, Storage Condition, Expiry or Expiration Date), Food Allergen ...

What food is not an allergen? ›

The low allergy menu will need to be based on foods such as fresh fruit and vegetables, lean meat and alternatives, calcium fortified rice milk and rice and corn products.

What are the top 10 most common food allergies? ›

  • Milk. Cow's milk allergy is the most common food allergy among children. ...
  • Eggs. Egg allergies affect about 2% of children, although 70% of those children will likely outgrow their allergy by the time they are 16. ...
  • Peanuts. ...
  • Tree Nuts. ...
  • Fish. ...
  • Crustaceans (Shellfish) ...
  • Wheat. ...
  • Soy.

How should the 14 allergenic ingredients be presented on prepacked food? ›

Pre-packed food must have an ingredients list. Allergenic ingredients must be emphasised in some way every time they appear in the ingredients list. For example, you can list them in bold, contrasting colours or by underlining them.

What are the 5 required food label components? ›

5 Basic Elements that MUST be on Your Food Label
  • Ingredients.
  • Sugar, fat, and sodium content.
  • Calorie counts and serving size.
  • Freshness.
  • Organic.
  • GMOs.
14 Jan 2021

Which foods are exempt from the food labeling law? ›

Food that is served in bulk containers at a retail establishment. The retail establishment must include the ingredients listing on a card or sign, if not on the bulk container itself. Ingredients that are added to a food for an effect in processing but are present in the finished product at insignificant levels.

How many food allergens must be declared legally? ›

You have a legal obligation to provide information to consumers on the allergens that are in the food that you supply. These are the 14 allergens that you need to find out whether they are in the food that you make.

What is the main purpose of Allergy regulations? ›

Congress passed this law to make it easier for consumers who are allergic to foods and their caregivers to identify and avoid foods that contain major food allergens. The FDA enforces the provisions of this law in most packaged food products.

Which food contain a major allergen recognized by the FDA? ›

What Are Major Food Allergens?
  • Milk.
  • Eggs.
  • Fish (e.g., bass, flounder, cod)
  • Crustacean shellfish (e.g., crab, lobster, shrimp)
  • Tree nuts (e.g., almonds, walnuts, pecans)
  • Peanuts.
  • Wheat.
  • Soybeans.
17 Feb 2022

How should ingredients be ordered in a list of ingredients? ›

On a product label, the ingredients are listed in order of predominance, with the ingredients used in the greatest amount first, followed in descending order by those in smaller amounts. The label must list the names of any FDA-certified color additives (e.g., FD&C Blue No. 1 or the abbreviated name, Blue 1).

Why is food Labelling important? ›

Food labels are a legal requirement and they are important for many reasons. They help consumers make informed choices about the food they buy, help them to store and use it safely and allows people to plan when they will consume it – all of which help to reduce food wastage.

On what date did the law on allergens change? ›

The law, which comes into effect from October 2021, will require businesses to provide full ingredient and allergen labelling on foods which are pre-packed for direct sale.

Do restaurants have to provide allergen information? ›

The law does not require retail or food service companies that make food to order to give ingredient lists or allergy warnings to customers. That means any restaurant, cafe or food cart that makes food to order does not need to give you the ingredients list or tell you the food contains allergens.

What are the 3 mandatory statements that must be seen on label? ›

Mandatory Labeling Elements

nutrition facts; ingredient statement (including allergen declaration); and. name and address of responsible firm.

What is mandatory in food Labelling? ›

MANDATORY LABELLING REQUIREMENTS

All food additives must be declared on label, class titles shall be used together with specific names and/or recognized numerical identification, e.g Flavour Enhancers (E621, E635); Preservative (Sodium Benzoate) or Preservative ( E211).

How does legislation affect food labelling? ›

Natasha's Law is a new piece of legislation coming into force from the 1st October 2021. The new piece of legislation will require producers of prepacked for direct sale food to label it with the name of the food, the full list of ingredients and the allergens emphasized within the list.

What does Natasha's law cover? ›

Under 'Natasha's Law', any food business selling food that is pre-packed for direct sale (PPDS) such as sandwiches, salads and cakes, must provide full ingredients labelling on the packaging.

How many allergens are listed in the 2014 regulations? ›

The fourteen allergens (Annex II allergens)

The 14 allergens listed in Annex II (as amended by Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) No. 78/2014) are recognised as the most common ingredients or processing aids causing food allergies and intolerances.

Who does Natasha's law apply to? ›

The UK Food Information Amendment, also known as Natasha's Law, came into effect on the 1st of October 2021 and requires food businesses to provide full ingredient lists and allergen labelling on foods prepackaged for direct sale on the premises.

What legislation focuses on food labels? ›

The Food Information to Consumers (FIC) Regulation 1169/2011 on the provision of food information to consumers brings together EU rules on general food labelling and nutrition labelling into one piece of legislation.

How does food Labelling inform and protect consumers? ›

Food labels are a legal requirement and they are important for many reasons. They help consumers make informed choices about the food they buy, help them to store and use it safely and allows people to plan when they will consume it – all of which help to reduce food wastage.

Who is responsible for food safety aspects of food Labelling? ›

The Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA) are responsible for the policy on food labelling and food compositional standards which are non-safety related only. The Department of Health and Social Care are responsible for nutrition policy and labelling.

What happens if you don't follow Natasha's Law? ›

Once Natasha's Law becomes a legal requirement, businesses that do not comply will also face fines and other legal punishments alongside potential reputational damage. If a health inspector sees any issues with the solution you've put in place, you may face fines of up to £5,000 per instance of non-compliance.

Is Natasha's Law mandatory? ›

From October 2021, you must label all foods produced and packed for sale at the same premises with a full list of ingredients. This has come into force under Natasha's Law, a new food labelling legislation created after Natasha Ednan-Laperouse had a fatal allergic reaction.

Does Natashas Law apply to free food? ›

Even samples of food given away for free, provided they have been packed on-site, must comply with the new law.

What are the 14 allergens which food providers are legally required to provide warnings for? ›

What are the 14 allergens?
  • Celery. This includes celery stalks, leaves, seeds and the root called celeriac. ...
  • Crustaceans. Crabs, lobster, prawns and scampi are crustaceans. ...
  • Eggs. ...
  • Fish. ...
  • Lupin. ...
  • Milk. ...
  • Molluscs. ...
  • Mustard.

How many food allergens are we legally required to inform the customer about? ›

You have a legal obligation to provide information to consumers on the allergens that are in the food that you supply. These are the 14 allergens that you need to find out whether they are in the food that you make.

Is it a legal requirement to list allergens? ›

There is no specific legal requirement to label food with 'may contain'. However, food must be safe to eat and information to help people with allergies make safe choices, and manage their condition effectively, must be provided. Manufacturers may also choose to mark products as 'Not suitable for'.

Who is Natasha Natasha's Law? ›

Natasha's Law is named after Natasha Ednan-Laperouse who, at the age of 15, passed away due to a severe allergic reaction. Natasha had a sesame allergy and was not made aware that sesame seeds had been baked into the bread of a sandwich she had purchased.

How do you comply with Natasha's Law? ›

For full compliance with Natasha's law, ensure that the packaging of all PPDS food clearly states: The name of the food product. A full list of the ingredients with allergens emphasised in bold, italics, or a different colour.

Does Natashas Law apply to cake sales? ›

Natasha's Law affects all businesses – big and small – that make and sell PPDS products. Examples include cakes, biscuits and desserts and: Foods packaged and then sold elsewhere by the producer, eg at a stall. Free samples given to consumers that are pre-packed.

Videos

1. Food Allergy Labels! What you didn't know.
(Noah Linschoten)
2. Ep 11 Dave Bloom of Snack Safely on Label Reading and Legislation
(Food Allergy P.I.)
3. Protecting Your Customers and Brand [Prevent Undeclared Allergens Recall]
(Safe Quality Food Institute)
4. History Consitution Project
(Marianne Denison)
5. Avoid Misbranding Due to Undeclared Allergens
(Food Safety Guides)
6. Food Allergens What You Need to Know
(Rachel Bauer)
Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Francesca Jacobs Ret

Last Updated: 01/23/2023

Views: 5924

Rating: 4.8 / 5 (48 voted)

Reviews: 95% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Francesca Jacobs Ret

Birthday: 1996-12-09

Address: Apt. 141 1406 Mitch Summit, New Teganshire, UT 82655-0699

Phone: +2296092334654

Job: Technology Architect

Hobby: Snowboarding, Scouting, Foreign language learning, Dowsing, Baton twirling, Sculpting, Cabaret

Introduction: My name is Francesca Jacobs Ret, I am a innocent, super, beautiful, charming, lucky, gentle, clever person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.